Tài liệu Advanced practice on word formation

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Useful practice
ADVANCED PRACTICE on WORD FORMATION BOOKLET 1 Suitable for  teachers of English  gifted students of grades 9–12  entrance exam to high school for the gifted  exams for the gifted, Olympic contests, etc. mrtrungup@gmail.com | blogchuyenanh.wordpress.com 2013 | Page 1 People 1 1 Some adjectives which describe character use the prefixes self- and well-. Choose the suitable word given in the box below and supply its correct form to fill in each blank. Use the prefixes self- or well- and other affixes if necessary. Each word is used ONCE. absorb just sure behave breed bring centre confide congratulate conscious deprecate dress educate importance form like manner rely round 1. (This word fits both blanks.) a. A television announcer with a _______________ voice was reading the news. b. She is a _______________ woman, who comes from a family of high social position. 2. (This word fits both blanks.) a. It’s a _______________ article which is fair to both sides of the dispute. b. She describes herself as a “_______________ person” who works hard but has a varied social life. 3. A colleague described him as _______________ and respected by all. 4. He gave a _______________ shrug. He is always making his own achievements seem unimportant. 5. He grew more _______________ as he got older, that is to say the older he got, the more confidence he had in himself and his abilities. (2 possibilities) 6. He watched the joggers with their _______________ faces. 7. Make sure you are _______________ about the laws at your local before setting up a business. 8. On the whole, the visitors were too _______________ to complain. (2 possibilities) 9. Parents should teach their children to be independent or _______________. 10. She was not at all the _______________ celebrity I’d read about. She never thought that she was more important than other people. 11. She’s completely _______________. She only thinks about herself and doesn’t think about the needs or feelings of other people. 12. Some children were _______________ despite family breakdown. (2 possibilities) 13. Taken aback by her frankness, he gave a little _______________ laugh. 14. The school aims to produce _______________ members of society, who are able to deal with people, problems and life in general in a normal, sensible way. 15. The winners gave themselves a _______________ round of applause. 16. This hat is what today’s _______________ man is wearing. 2 Choose the suitable word given in the box below and supply its correct form to fill in each blank. personify 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. characterise She’s always the life and soul of the party because she has such a bubbly _______________. Dedication, commitment and knowledge are all _______________ of a good teacher. I don’t believe he said that; it would be really out of _______________. I didn’t get along with my business partner because our _______________ clashed. Children may display _______________ of either of their parents. In the past, people were seen as either intelligent or unintelligent, and this was measured with an IQ test. However, psychologists now recognise that there are many different types of intelligence and these are reflected in your (a) _______________. The multiple intelligence theory first came to light in 1983 in Howard Gardner’s book Frames of Mind. In it, Gardner listed seven types of intelligence. The first if these is termed ‘linguistic’, and this describes people who are more interested in the written word and reading. The next kind of intelligence is ‘logical’, and this is used to describe people whose strengths are in subjects such as maths and science. Then there is ‘musical’ intelligence, followed by ‘kinaesthetic’, which relates to the body and movement. After that there is ‘visual’ intelligence, which describes people who are attracted by or drawn to images. And then the final two intelligences are ‘(b) _______________’ – describing someone who is aware of the feelings of others – and ‘(c) _______________’, which mrtrungup@gmail.com | blogchuyenanh.wordpress.com 2013 | Page 2 concerns self-awareness. Over the years, researchers have put forward other types of intelligence to add to this list, but these are usually ignored as they tend to be rather complex and less easily defined. 7. Many people agree that wearing school uniform _______________ children. 8. She played a (a) _______________ who was the (b) _______________ of evil. 9. The sales assistant was a very _______________ young man. 10. The children had been _______________ quiet. 3 Many nouns can be formed by adding a suffix to another noun, or a verb or adjective. Nine suffixes which are frequently used to create abstract nouns (nouns which are not people, places or objects) are listed in the chart below, with some examples. Which would you guess is the most commonly used suffix? Work with a partner. Together think of one more abstract noun to add to each category. Then share your ideas with the rest of the class, and add their words to your list. Suffixes -ance / -ence -cy -dom -hood -ity -ment -ness -tion -ure Nouns tolerance, independence, ..................................................................................................... infancy, ............................................................................................................................... wisdom, .............................................................................................................................. motherhood, ........................................................................................................................ sanity, ................................................................................................................................. encouragement, ................................................................................................................... thoughtfulness, .................................................................................................................... concentration, ..................................................................................................................... exposure, ............................................................................................................................ 4 Choose the suitable word given in the margin and supply its correct form to complete the gaps. Important social changes are taking place in the areas of marriage and the family. There is a global (1) _______________ going on in how we think of ourselves and how we form ties and (2) _______________ with others. What most people call the traditional family was in fact a transitional phase in family (3) _______________ in the 1950s. By then the idea that romantic love was the best (4) COMMIT _______________ for marriage had replaced the concept of marriage as an economic CONNECT contract. The family has since changed further. DEVELOP EXIST In the traditional family the married couple was only one part of the family system. Ties FIND with children and other relatives were equally important in day-to-day (5) HAPPY _______________. Today the couple is at the core of what the family is. While statistically INTIMATE marriage is still the norm, for most people its (6) _______________ has completely changed. REVOLVE Although marriage promotes the (7) _______________ of a relationship by making a public SIGN declaration of (8) _______________, it is now the quality of the couple’s relationship which STABLE is considered the most important element. A couple has its own exclusive history. It is a unit based upon emotional communication or (9) _______________. Communication is both the means of establishing the tie in the first place and the basis for ensuring continuing (10) _______________ in the relationship. Change 2 1 The prefix retro- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) means “back or backwards”. Choose the suitable word given in the box and supply its correct form to fill in the banks. Use the prefix retro- and other affixes if necessary. In some cases, you will need to form a word from a base. (A table of meaning of some bases is given below. Further details about ‘root’, ‘stem’, ‘base’, etc. will be discussed at university level.) mrtrungup@gmail.com | blogchuyenanh.wordpress.com 2013 | Page 3 act Base -gress-nym- / -nom-spect- fit grade -gress- -nym- -spect- Meaning Example go regression, progressive, etc. name nomenclature, synonymous, anonymous, etc. look inspectorate, spectacle, prospective, perspective, etc. 1. In _______________, and with the benefit of hindsight, it is clear that this was a bad decision. 2. She feels a pang of _______________ sympathy for John. He reminds her of her younger brother who passed away in a civil war. 3. The closure of the factory is _______________ step. 4. The government has imposed _______________ and disastrous policies on tax, which provokes a furious backlash from voters. 5. The legislation was supposed to have been applied _______________. (2 possibilities) 6. The list of _______________ includes acoustic guitar, manual typewriter, silent movie and landline phone. 7. Voice recorders were _______________ into planes already in service. 2 Choose the suitable word given in the box and supply its correct form to fill in the banks. In some cases you will need to form a word from a base. temp finite Base -ced- / -cess-cur(r)- / -curs- go stand -cedcolour -curpoint Meaning move; go; give way concede, procession run; go occurrence, cursory fact balm topic deter Example The exhibition contains faded photographs reminding us of a _______________ era. He mixes _______________ ideas with those of the old times. (3 possibilities) I prefer this newspaper because it covers the most _______________ news stories. (2 possibilities) On New Year’s Day, people often stop and reflect on all that happened in the _______________ year. In previous years, the library was always very busy, but our _______________ students seem to prefer to study in privacy of their own room. 6. The trouble with a back injury is that there is a great risk of _______________. 7. He was imprisoned for two _______________ terms of 30 months and 18 months. 8. The museum’s collection includes _______________ dating back to prehistoric times. 9. The amounts of radioactivity present were _______________ small. 10. The government is hoping that this is only a _______________ shift in public opinion. 11. The pipes were beginning to rust, _______________ the water. 12. The materials used have to be able to _______________ high temperature. 13. We’ve seen a _______________ in relations between countries. 14. This work is in austere _______________ to that of Gaudi. We can see that there is a pleasing and interesting contrast between the two works of art. 15. These _______________ substances, including fairly exotic materials, were as complex as those used for human mummification. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 3 Put the words below in the correct part of the chart, adding the prefix that would be used to give the word a negative meaning. appear balance balanced behave capable colonial comfort comfortable conduct desirable do eligible experience formation government grateful inform interest obedience mature mobile polite plausible practice satisfied septic tolerant trustworthy mrtrungup@gmail.com | blogchuyenanh.wordpress.com 2013 | Page 4 anti/antidisiminmalmisunWork with a partner. Choose two words from the chart above. Write two sentences, each including one of the words you have chosen. The sentences should not be definitions, but should illustrate the meaning of the word. When all pairs are ready, take turns to read your sentences aloud, saying ‘beep’ instead of the word. The rest of the class must guess what the missing word is. Example: I thought it was very *beep* of him to leave the party without thanking the hostess. Answer: impolite 4 The prefix im- does not always have a negative meaning. What meaning does it convey when put in front of these words? Use a dictionary, check the exact meaning of the five words created by adding the prefix im-. migrate plant peril port prison 5 Complete the gaps in the text with a word formed from the word given in the margin. Complaining can be used constructively, for example to draw attention to (1) EFFICIENT _______________ but all too often in western society it consists of (2) SOCIAL _______________ moaning and groaning which leads to (3) _______________ and TRUST unnecessary arguments within relationships. So it is refreshing to live in a society where people do not complain. Kiribati consists of thirty-three small islands located in the Central Pacific. By western standards, the islanders, diet is plain and (4) _______________, but, thanks to plentiful fish, none of the islanders suffer from (5) _______________. Feasts are popular social occasions, but if the fish is (6) _______________ or the rice proves to be (7) _______________, nobody complains. Similarly, in restaurants, if the waiter brings the wrong dish or the bill is (8) _______________, the error is pointed out with a calm smile, not a surly frown. Ships frequently leave hours later than scheduled, yet the passengers wait with none of the signs of (9) _______________ which would be loudly evident elsewhere. Other traits of the Kiribati people complement this (10) _______________ to complain. Teachers find it difficult to get their pupils to answer questions in class because it is culturally (11) _______________ to show yourselves to be better than those around you. Competition is not exactly frowned upon in this society, but it is refreshingly (12) _______________.Western tennis stars, well-known for their (13) _______________ behaviour on court, could learn a lot from one young (14) _______________ here who, despite being the better player, (15) _______________ lost the match as his opponent was an older and more respected member of the village. TONE NUTRIENT DO EDIBLE CALCULATE PATIENT CLINE ACCEPT CHARACTER MODEST FINAL LIBERAL Community 3 1 Supply the correct form of the words given in brackets. 1. Everyone should try to maintain their _______________. (DIVIDE) 2. My friends started going out late to nightclubs so I decided to _______________ myself from the group. (SOCIAL) mrtrungup@gmail.com | blogchuyenanh.wordpress.com 2013 | Page 5 3. New immigrants have been successfully _______________ into the community. (SIMILAR) 4. He doesn’t conform to the _______________ image of the businessman with a dark suit and briefcase. (TYPE) 5. He wanted Jill to give up her life of alcohol and _______________. (DESTROY) 6. Some people create a(n) _______________ (an alternative social group) and rebel against the traditional way of life. (CULTURE) 7. The six long years in prison had _______________ him. (COARSE) 8. College _______________ have increased for the past years in. (DROP) 9. While all the desserts are pretty good, the clear _______________ is the lemon pie. (STAND) 10. The sports association accepted the inevitability of a(n) _______________ by the elite clubs. (BREAK) 11. Since the _______________, the hospital has been responsible for its own budgeting. (OPT) 12. She looked absolutely _______________ when I told her what had happened. She could hardly say a word. (DUMB) 13. The police described it as one of the most _______________ crimes of recent years. (PULSE) 14. It was not wickedness that led him into crime but a cheerfully _______________ nature and a complete lack of reasoning power. (PULSE) 15. He does a little training, but first and _______________ he’s a writer. (MANY) 2 Many adjectives can be formed by adding the suffixes –ful or –ic to a noun or verb stem. Put the words below in the correct part of the chart, adding the suffix that would be used to change the word into an adjective, and making any necessary spelling changes. apathy art artist bliss chaos cheer delight disgrace drama ecstasy forget idyll -ful ................................................................................ ................................................................................ ................................................................................ ................................................................................ ................................................................................ ................................................................................ materialism play rest sarcasm therapy waste -ic ............................................................................... ............................................................................... ............................................................................... ............................................................................... ............................................................................... ............................................................................... 3 In most cases, the meaning of adjectives ending in -ful is ‘full of ’ or ‘displaying the qualities of ’ the stem noun or verb. In some cases, however, the meaning has changed, for example: awe (noun) = respect and wonder awful (adj) = bad or unpleasant Can you think of another adjective ending in -ful which has a similar meaning to awful? What is the meaning of the stem of this other adjective? 4 The adjective artful can sometimes mean ‘displaying the qualities of art’ but is more often used with a very different meaning. What is it? 5 There are several words with the ending -ic which exist only as adjectives. Some examples are given below. Work with a partner and try to think of at least two more adjectives like this, then share your ideas with the rest of the class. domestic exotic hectic 6 Not all words ending in -ic are adjectives! Tick (√) the words in the list below which are not adjectives. What is the adjective form of the words you ticked? altruistic critic logic polemic shambolic statistic topic mrtrungup@gmail.com | blogchuyenanh.wordpress.com 2013 | Page 6 7 Work with a partner. Choose three adjectives ending in -ful or -ic that you have already studied. Write one or two sentences which illustrate the meaning of each adjective. When all pairs are ready, take turns to read your sentences aloud. The rest of the class must respond with a short phrase including the appropriate adjective. Example: They spent their honeymoon in an isolated beach cabin on a tropical island, surrounded by palm trees and the sound of the surf. Answer: That sounds idyllic. 8 Choose the suitable word given in the margin and supply its correct form to complete the gaps. In an effort to escape from their hectic and (1) _______________ city lives, more and more Northern Europeans are buying houses in rural areas of France, Spain, Italy and Greece. Some relocate permanently in search of a more (2) _______________ existence. Those who cannot afford to give up their jobs seek a (3) _______________ respite from their (4) _______________ lifestyle by relaxing for a few weeks each year SPHERE in their second home in the sun. CONVENE CRITIC However, many of those who relocate permanently find that life in the country is not ENTHUSE as quiet and (5) _______________ as they had anticipated. Aspects of village life which EVENT seemed delightfully (6) _______________ in the context of a two-week holiday can MATERIAL grate on the nerves when you live with them on a daily basis. Recently a group of MEANING British residents in an Italian village took local farmers to court because they found the REAL smell of the villagers’ pigs (7) _______________. In other cases, foreigners have SEND complained to neighbours about the (8) _______________ early-morning crowing of STRESS their cockerels, or to village priests about the regular tolling of church bells. TASTE THERAPY (9) _______________, the local inhabitants are somewhat (10) _______________ of UNDERSTAND these attitudes. They argue that the foreigners have an (11) _______________ view of what country life is like and that, since no-one forced them to come and live in a village, they are being (12) _______________ by now complaining about the (13) _______________ of rural life. Science 4 1 Supply the correct form of the words given in brackets. 1. The _______________ company sent millions of dollars marketing their new wonder drug. (PHARMACY) 2. Although the drug is very effective, it does have some unpleasant _______________. (EFFECT) 3. This margarine is full of food _______________ – just look the label! (ADD) 4. Patients with diseases that are highly _______________ are isolated in a special area. (CONTAGION) 5. Very soon, ‘Third World’ came to _______________ poverty. (NOTE) 6. The government has _______________ plans for new energy legislation. (VEIL) 7. The complexity of these ‘simplest’ forms of life is _______________. (WILD) 8. Early man made use of the medical properties of insects and reptiles to treat common _______________. (AIL) 9. Scientists are convinced that, because crocodiles have such a long _______________, they must have a natural ability to combat infection. (LIFE) 10. University professors both teach and _______________ research. (TAKE) 11. There is a strong smell of _______________ in the hospital. (INFECT) 12. Steroids often help reduce the _______________ and itching in the skin. (FLAME) 13. These materials are highly _______________. (FLAME) mrtrungup@gmail.com | blogchuyenanh.wordpress.com 2013 | Page 7 14. They are producing _______________ drugs for arthritis. (FLAME) 15. The organization works in many _______________ (WAR) and _______________ (POOR) countries. 16. An NGO is helping to make ozone-friendly natural _______________ designed to replace R-22 in existing air conditioning and _______________ systems. (FRIDGE) 17. They were asked to _______________ the factors that had influenced their choice. (NUMBER) 18. The project has been delayed by _______________ problems. (NUMBER) 19. Students mustn’t be _______________ and illiterate when they leave school. (NUMBER) 20. Treat them with this kind of spray to make them _______________. (WATER) 2 Choose the suitable word given in the margin and supply its correct form to complete the gaps. Many chemists caution that health risk assessment of chemical mixtures can be complex and it is often very expensive to get sufficient (1) _______________ data for proper (2) _______________. They assert that a single (3) _______________ to a chemical mixture automatically places a person into a higher risk category is an urban myth that has no (4) _______________. They state that: “The facts about toxicity remain the same for either a single chemical or a mixture of chemicals: it is the (5) _______________ that makes them poisonous.” When assessing the toxicity of a substance, it is important to have a good understanding of how the different (6) _______________ in the mix may interact both with one another and inside any creature which absorbs them. Sometimes these reactions can make a substance more, or less, toxic. They said the cost of (7) _______________ all the possible interactions and effects of any compound mixture would be immense. ANALYSE CONTAMINATE DOSE EVIDENT FIND POSE VALUE 3 Put the words below in the correct part of the chart, adding the prefix that would be used to alter the word’s meaning. able arrange bitter close compress contaminate de.................................................... .................................................... .................................................... .................................................... courage frost fuel large louse motivate em- / en..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... place state try re..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... Most of the words you have formed can be further transformed into nouns. Write the corresponding noun forms in the chart below. de.................................................... .................................................... .................................................... .................................................... em- / en..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... re..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... Work with a partner. Choose one word from each column of the chart above and write a mock dictionary entry for the word, then share your ideas with the rest of the class. An example is given to help you. Example: enable (verb) make someone or something able to do something His university degree enabled him to get a better job. 4 A number of words can have both de- and re- added to them. These include: form generate value vitalize What would the resulting eight words mean? If necessary, use a dictionary to help you. mrtrungup@gmail.com | blogchuyenanh.wordpress.com 2013 | Page 8 5 Complete the gaps in the text with a word formed from the word given in the margin. In January 2001 the (1) _______________ Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) issued its latest report on climate change. Climate models worked out by giant supercomputers had become far more reliable since the previous report in 1995 and allowed them to (2) _______________ the earlier (3) _______________ for global warming. Their conclusions were that something very serious is happening and that it cannot be a natural process. The 1990s was the hottest decade for 1.000 years and the Earth is warming faster than at any time in the last 10.000 years. According to the report, human activities are (4) _______________ to blame for the temperature rise. The burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide and, due to (5) _______________, there are fewer trees to absorb this gas and (6) _______________ it back into oxygen. Methane (7) _______________ have also gone up dramatically because of increases in rice culture and (8) _______________, both of which generate methane from (9) _______________ vegetation. These greenhouses gases trap heat in the Earth’s atmosphere and cause the temperature to rise. GOVERN PRAISE PROJECT VOICE FOREST CYCLE CONCENTRATE CATTLE POSE The IPCC reported that, in the worst case, the average temperature could rise by 5.8 C this century, 2oC higher than their original predictions. The resulting melting of ice-caps and glaciers would cause sea levels to rise by up to 88cm, (10) DANGER _______________ the homes and (11) _______________ of tens of millions of people LIVE who live in low-lying regions. o Unfortunately, there is far greater (12) _______________ among the world's -ANIM-(base) spirit; life scientists over the issue than among politicians. As long ago as 1990, the IPCC as in animation recommended a 60% reduction in carbon dioxide (13) _______________, as the basic EMIT level required to return the planet’s climate to a healthy level. Governments globally failed to (14) _______________ these proposals. Now that ACT the dangers have been (15) _______________ by the latest report, it is high time that FIRM governments took an active interest in exploring alternative, (16) _______________ NEW energy sources. Achievement 5 1 Choose the suitable word given in the box and supply suitable form to complete each of the THREE sentences in each group below. Follow the example: deep    There were plans to deepen a stretch of the river. The custom of sending a greeting in a card had become a deep-rooted tradition. Tonight’s programme is a(n) in-depth look at the long-term effects of unemployment. assess concept consist context define establish little proof thesis valid 1. a. Such databases are being used in a wide range of _______________. b. As important as the photograph is a caption to _______________ the image. c. It’s important to understand the nuances of an isolated word without some _______________ clues. 2. a. She had that _______________ something that makes an actress a star. b. The money was lent for a(n) _______________ period of time. c. Scientists follow several _______________ steps in investigating unexpected outbreaks of disease. 3. a. World Music is now _______________ and popular with mass audiences. b. The upkeep of the church is so expensive that it is going to be _______________. mrtrungup@gmail.com | blogchuyenanh.wordpress.com 2013 | Page 9 c. The visa is for foreign nationals wishing to study at a university, college or similar educational _______________. 4. a. True education does not _______________ in simply being taught facts. b. It’s annoying that there is some _______________ between the witnesses’ evidence and their earlier statements. c. We must be _______________ in applying the rules. 5. a. We hope the documentary will dispel certain _______________ about the disease. b. She presents a(n) _______________ framework for the analysis of educational processes. c. Try to _______________ thought processes as a series of circles. 6. a. Students were allowed to hand in correct work again for _______________. b. A(n) _______________ can reveal your personal attributes, values, skills, and interests, all of which are critical in helping you make informed career choices. c. ‘_______________ income’ is your total income after deducting allowable expenses and approved donations. 7. a. Too much background detail tends to _______________ the impact of the central image. b. Children should be taught to lead a life of _______________ service to the community. c. She felt her husband constantly _______________ her achievements. 8. a. It would be pointless to engage in _______________ before we have the facts. b. These are particular problems that arise when _______________ about the origins of the universe. c. I wasn’t asking about anybody in particular – it was a purely _______________ question. 9. a. The firm claims that its software is _______________. b. This document needs _______________ before sending to the publishing house. c. Theories of the meaning of dreams remain _______________. 10. a. Misuse of the mattress will _______________ the guarantee. b. The period of _______________ of the argument has expired. c. The treaty was declared _______________ because it had not been ratified. 2 Choose the suitable word given in the margin and supply its correct form to complete the gaps. It is possible to predict your performance on a video game simply by measuring the volume of specific structures in your brain, a multi-institutional team of researchers announced this week. The study, headed by Kirk Erikson, a professor of psychology, adds to the evidence that specific parts of the brain (1) _______________ influence a person’s ability to (2) _______________ his or her motor skills, learn new procedures, develop useful (3) _______________ and adapt to a quickly changing environment. Participants in the study were taught to play Space Fortress, a video game developed at the University of Illinois. Half of the participants were asked to focus on maximizing their overall score in the game while also paying attention to the various components of the game. The other participants had to (4) _______________ shift priorities, improving their skills in one area for a period of time while also maximizing their success at other tasks. The latter approach, called ‘variable priority training’, encourages the kind of (5) _______________ that is commonly required in daily life. The researchers found that players who had a larger nucleus accumbens (an area of the brain) did better than their (6) _______________ in the early stages of the training period. This makes sense, Erickson said, because the nucleus accumbens is part of the brain’s reward center, and a person’s motivation for (7) _______________ at a video game includes the pleasure that results from achieving a specific goal. This sense of achievement and the emotional reward that (8) _______________ it is likely to be higher in the earliest stages of learning, he said. ABLE CELL COMPANY CONCLUDE FIND FINE PART PERIOD STRATEGIC TASK Players with a larger caudate and putamen (two other areas of the brain), learned more quickly and learned more over the training period. ‘This study tells us a lot about how the brain works when it is trying to learn a complex task,’ Erikson said at the (9) _______________ of the research, which was conducted in Illinois. Such information might be useful in education or in treating (10) _______________ or dementia. mrtrungup@gmail.com | blogchuyenanh.wordpress.com 2013 | Page 10 3 The prefix out can be used to create new nouns, verbs and, less frequently, adjectives. Put the words below in the correct part of the chart. Be careful – one word can be both a noun and a verb. outbreak outgrow outpatient outbuilding outlast outperform outburst outlaw outset Noun .................................................... .................................................... .................................................... .................................................... outdated outlook outspoken outdistance outlive outstay Verb ..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... outdo outlying outdoor outnumber Adjective ..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... 4 The prefix out in some nouns and adjectives has the meaning of 'outside' or 'beyond'. Underline three nouns and three adjectives where the prefix has this meaning. 5 In other cases, the noun and adjective has been formed from a phrasal verb with out, for example: break out – Cholera has broken out in the area. outbreak – There has been an outbreak of cholera in the area. Applying this rule, what phrasal verbs have the remaining three nouns and one adjective been formed from and what do they mean? 6 In most cases, the prefix out in a verb has the meaning ‘more than’, ‘better than’ or ‘longer than’. Only one verb in the chart does not have one of these meanings. Which one is it? 7 Complete the gaps in the text with a word formed from the word given in the margin. Childhood self-esteem can overwhelm academic disadvantage or social (1) -PRIV-(base) lack; absence _______________ in determining future earnings power, according to major new research. There is now clear evidence that the earnings of people who had higher self-esteem at age ten (2) _______________ those of their peers whose academic performance was better at the same age. Bright children often have higher self-esteem, as do some from more affluent (3) _______________. But the study compared children from similar families and still found that those who were psychologically (4) _______________ at ten were now (5) _______________ their peers. The research also found, surprisingly, that it is not unusual for children to have high academic (6) _______________ and low self-esteem, leading to significant later (7) _______________ in the jobs market. A(n) (8) _______________ for the British Association for Counselling said: ‘(9) _______________ for children doesn't come only from crude parental (10) _______________ at home; it can just be (11) _______________ or the constant feeling that they’re making you tired. Children pick that up. Nor is it only (12) _______________ children who suffer. All too often you can ask affluent parents who the important people in their child's life are – teachers, friends and so on – and they haven’t a clue.’ STRIP GROUND BALANCE PERFORM ACHIEVE PERFORM SPEAK COURAGE HOSTILE SEND PRIVILEGE Bearing out the findings of this research, many (13) _______________ successful STAND entrepreneurs, such as Richard Branson, were (14) _______________ academically when SHINE they were at school but had the advantage of (15) _______________ families. SUPPORT mrtrungup@gmail.com | blogchuyenanh.wordpress.com 2013 | Page 11 Appendix 1 A1 Only university students are introduced to this knowledge. However, some gifted students may wonder about the terms used in this booklet. Thus, it is necessary for teachers to clarify the terminologies so that they are not confused, and can gain some insight into word formation. 1. Morphology is the study and description of word-structure. It also studies word-formation. In linguistics, morphology is the study of morphemes and their arrangements in forming words. 2. Morpheme “is the smallest meaningful unit in a language.” Example: a. The word unkind consists of two morphemes: the base or root kind the lexical meaning of which is ‘friendly and thoughtful to others’ and the prefix un- the lexical meaning of which is ‘not’. b. The word talks consists of two morphemes: the base or root talk the lexical meaning of which is ‘say something’ and the suffix -s, which has no lexical meaning and which is used to show that the verb talks is in the third person singular present-tense form.  We can recognize a morpheme by either its lexical / derivational or its grammatical / inflectional meaning. 3. Morphemes are of two kinds: free morpheme (one that can uttered alone with meaning) and bound morpheme (one that cannot be uttered alone with meaning. It is always annexed to one or more morphemes to form a word.) Example: readers: read – free morpheme; er and s – bound morpheme. 4. Root is the morpheme in a word that has the principal meaning. Most of roots are free morphemes, but some are bound morphemes. Example: receive, deceive, perceive [ceive – bound morphemes]; unbreakable, breakdown, breaker [break – free morphemes] 5. Affixes are bound morphemes that occur before or behind a root and somewhat modify the basic meaning of the root/base. Affixes include prefix, suffix, infix and suprafix. Example: ex-wife (ex- – prefix), player (-er – suffix), incubate (-cub- – infix (to lie on, on or upon)); Suprafixes are morphemes which consist of suprasegmental (relating to stress, intonation,…) morphemes and which are added to the root or stem. a. Inflectional Affixes  the noun plural morpheme: books, boxes, …  the noun possessive morpheme: man’s, …  the verb third person singular present tense morpheme: walks, mixes, …  the verb past simple morpheme: flowed, thought, drank,…  the verb past participle morpheme: flowed, thought, drunk,…  the adjective or adverb comparative morpheme: smaller, harder,…  the adjective or adverb superlative morpheme: smallest, hardest,… b. Derivational Affixes: Prefixes are always derivational.  Class-changing derivational affixes: nation (n)  national (adj)  Class-maintaining derivational affixes: mark (v)  remark (v) 6. Base is any unit whatsoever to which affixes of any kind can be added. The affixes added to base may be inflectional or derivational affixes. Base is also called root. Example: unbreakable (break – root / (free) base); suspender, pendant, … (pend – (bound) base – can never occurs alone but can only be joined to other bound morphemes) 7. Stem is that part of a word that is in existence before any inflectional affixes have been added. Base is called stem only in the context of inflectional morphology. Example: workers (work – root / (free) base; worker – stem; s – inflectional suffix) 8. The relative order of morphemes in the English word is as follows: derivational prefix – base – derivational suffix(es) – inflectional suffix stem mrtrungup@gmail.com | blogchuyenanh.wordpress.com 2013 | Page 12 Appendix 2 A2 This is the very short list of Derivational Prefixes and Suffixes, the classes of the bases to which they can be attached and the words that are thereby formed. Advanced lists will be updated in upcoming booklets in this series. These abbreviations are used in the list below: N for Noun, N (abs) for Abstract Noun; N (conc) for Concrete Noun; V for Verb; Adj for Adjective; Adv for Adverb. Prefix / Word class of Suffix Input Base 1. inAdj 2. unAdj 3. unV 4. disV 5. disN (abs) 6. disAdj 7. disV 8. reV 9. exN 10. enN 11. –hood N 12. –ship N 13. –ness Adj 14. –ity Adj 15. –ment V 16. –less 17. –ful 18. –ic 19. –al 20. –al 21. –er 22. –ly N N N N V V Adj Meaning not not reverse reverse not not not again former put in status state or condition quality, state or condition state or condition result or product of doing the action indicated by the verb without having pertaining to pertaining to, of the kind pertaining to or act of agent who does whatever the verb indicates manner Word class of Output Base Adj Adj V V N (abs) Adj V V N V N (abs) N (abs) N (abs) Adj Adj Adj Adj Adj Adj N (abs) N Adv Example inaccurate unkind untie, undo discontinue disorder dishonest disapprove rewrite, redo ex-major encage childhood kingship, lordship kindness sincerity government powerless powerful democratic medicinal refusal reader kindly Appendix 3 A3 Look up Greek and Latin roots, stems, and prefixes commonly used in English at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Greek_and_Latin_roots_in_English Preferences 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 8th Edition. Oxford University Press. Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press. Rochelle Lieber. 2009. Introducing Morphology. Cambridge University Press. R. Lieber and P. Stekauer. 2009. The Oxford Handbook of Compounding. Oxford University Press. Michael McCarthy and Felicity O’Dell. 2006. Vocabulary in Use (Advanced). Cambridge University Press. Ruth Gairns and Stuart Redman. 2009. Oxford Word Skills (Advanced). Oxford University Press. John Morgan and Mario Rinvolucri. 2004. Vocabulary (Resources Books for Teachers). Oxford University Press. Jeremy Harmer and Scott Thornbury. 2002. How to Teach Vocabulary. Longman Pearson Education. mrtrungup@gmail.com | blogchuyenanh.wordpress.com 2013 | Page 13
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