Tài liệu Activate cognition activity of student in physics teaching via using experiment with the aid of computer (demonstrated via chaptercurrent in different environment 11th grade advanced pro

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Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) http://www.simpopdf.com MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING VINH UNIVERSITY NGUYEN NGOC LE NAM ACTIVATE COGNITION ACTIVITY OF STUDENT IN PHYSICS TEACHING VIA USING EXPERIMENT WITH THE AID OF COMPUTER (DEMONSTRATED VIA CHAPTER "CURRENT IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENT" 11TH GRADE ADVANCED PROGRAM) Major: Reasoning and physics teaching method Code number: 62. 14. 10. 02 SUMMARY OF DOCTOR OF PEDAGOGY’S THESIS VINH - 2012 1 Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) http://www.simpopdf.com THE THESIS IS COMPLETED IN VINH UNIVERSITY Instructor: 1. Assc Prof. Doc. Mai Van Trinh 2. Assc Prof. Doc. Nguyen Quang Lac Counter - argument 1: Assc Prof. Doc. Ta Tri Phuong Counter - argument 2: Assc Prof. Doc. Le Van Giao Counter - argument 3: Assc Prof. Doc. Do Huong Tra The thesis will be put before the council to protect school-level thesis Vinh University, at ......... o’clock........ date.......month ........year 2012 2 Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) http://www.simpopdf.com LISTS OF PUBLISHED WORKS RELATED TO THE THESIS 1. Nguyen Ngoc Le Nam- Mai Van Trinh (2008), Designing virtual physics experiment for Electrics with software Crocodile Physics. Education magazine, number 183 (pg.47-pg.48). 2. Nguyen Ngoc Le Nam- Mai Van Trinh (2008), Simulation and virtual experiment in Physics teaching in high school. Education magazine, edition 189 (pg.56-pg.58). 3. Nguyen Ngoc Le Nam (2008), Activate cognitive activities of students in Electrics teaching (Physics 11) with the aid of IT. Education Magazine, edition 9-2008 (pg.39-pg.41). 4. Nguyen Ngoc Le Nam- Mai Van Trinh (2009), Using physics experiment to activate students’ thinking. Education Magazine, edition 10-2009 (pg.41- pg.42,pg.53). 5. Nguyen Ngoc Le Nam (2010), Using computer to support physics experiment to enhance positive cognition of students. Education Magazine, edition 9-2010 (pg.64-pg.66). 6. Nguyen Ngoc Le Nam (2010), Using computer in physics teaching to enhance teaching quality in high school. Education Magazine, edition 9-2010 (pg.66-pg.68). 7. Nguyen Ngoc Le Nam (2011), establish teaching process of “electric current in metal” via simulation experiment to activate cognitive activities of students. Education Magazine, edition 10-2011. 8. Nguyen Ngoc Le Nam (2011), Simulation of experiment on computer to cooperate with real one in teaching of chapter “Current in different media” Physics 11 HS. Education Magazine, edition 10-2011. 9. Nguyen Ngoc Le Nam - Mai Van Trinh (2010), Effectively use experiment results in teaching process to solve the issue to contribute to enhancing physics teaching in high school. Vinh Science Conference, 12/2010. 10. Nguyen Ngoc Le Nam - Nguyen Quang Lac (2011), Design, install and use experiment coupled with computers to establish ohm’s law for current in electrolyte. 11. Nguyen Ngoc Le Nam - Mai Van Trinh, Establish and usage of simulation experiment software to teach “Current in different media” (physics 11). National conference in physics teaching, 10/2011. 12. Nguyen Ngoc Le Nam (2010), Head of Science & Technology thesis "Use experiment and virtual experiment to activate cognitive activities of student in physics class ", Code NCS 2010 – 45. 13. M.A. Nguyen Ngoc Le Nam – Dr. Assc.Prof. Mai Van Trinh (2011), Designed and applied experiments on the computer connection basis with GQY connecting assembly for teaching purpose of the physics targeted at the 11th grade students of secondary school, chapter “currents in various environments”. ДОСТОЯНИЕ НАЦИИ, No 4/2011. 3 Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) http://www.simpopdf.com INTRODUCTION 1. Reason to select the topic Direction no 40/CT/TW made by Secretariat of the Central Party has addressed the task of: "Actively and basically renovating education method to get rid of one one direction, theoretical teaching which does not facilitate creative thinking, enhancing self-learning, self-studying, selfproblem solving, creative practicing capacity of students…Actively employing advanced, modern method and information technology in teaching and learning ". Recently, Political report made by the XI Party Congress has clearly stated: Basically renovate the complete education by standardization, modernization, socialization; renovate curricula, teaching contents and method. Focus on education quality, concentrate on moral, way of life, creation and practicing skills training. Activate awareness of students (St) is an urgent requirement in teaching method renovation in all level, especially High School (HS). Renovation must be implemented to develop creation ability, scientific thinking, problem solving skill for students. So as to do that, Education – Training sector must implement many activities, one of which is completely renovate teaching to be best suitable with scientific studying process enabling participation of students in problem solving process (PS). Simultaneously try teaching modules to address specific problem in each lesson, teaching means play important roles in cognitive skill activities organization during teaching. However, in real practice they are still limited and does not meet requirements, modern means shall be used. Today, the development of information technology (IT) in general, Computer (Com) and teaching software (TS) in particular has bring great chances for teaching renovation. In physics, experimenting with the aid of Com enable trainer (Tr) to activate cognitive activities (CA) of students, enhancing teaching quality. However in HS the usage of Com during experiment has not brought desired results. In physics for 11th grade (advanced), there is basic electrics. However the theory is abstract and hard to understand for students, especially in chapter “Currents in different environment”. Therefore, Tr has coped with many difficulties to enable student understand the nature of electric current, correlation between current and voltage. Therefore, experiments with the aid of Com shall enable better better understanding of student for the lesson in particular and 11th grade physics in general. Therefore I conduct the study of “Activate cognitive activities of students in physics via experimenting with the aid of computer (demonstrated with chapter “Currents in different environment " advanced 11th grade program)”. 2. Purpose of the study - Study experiments with the aid of Com to teach chapter “Currents in different environment " (advanced 11th grade program) to activate CA of students, and consequently improve physics teaching quality in HS. 3. Objects and scope of the study - Objects: + Physics teaching process in HS. + Experimenting with the aid of Com and Cognitive activities activation of students. - Scope of the study: experiments with the aid of Com to teach chapter “Currents in different environment " in 11th grade (advanced) to activate CA of students. 4 Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) http://www.simpopdf.com 4. Scientific hypothesis Via Experimenting with the aid of Com students will be inspired, activate CA of students, and consequently improve physics teaching quality of chapter “Currents in different environment" in particular and the advanced curriculum in general. 5. Study objective - Teaching methodology in general, physics teaching in particular and activation method for CA of student. - Investigate current status of experimenting with the aid of Com in HS. - Study the usage of experimenting with the aid of Com in 11th grade “Electrics” advanced program. - Establish and utilize simulation experiment to facilitate teaching of “Currents in different environment " chapter to activate CA of students. - Establish and utilize usage of Experimenting with the aid of Com to teach “Currents in different environment " chapter to activate CA of students. - Propose the usage of Experimenting with the aid of Com in teaching process of some specific lesson of chapter “Currents in different environment " in 11th grade (advanced). - Conduct teaching test to evaluate performance of the new method. 6. Study method - In theory: + Study teaching methodology of activating CA of students, psychological characteristics of HS students. + Study documents of applying IT into teaching in general, Com in Physics in particular. + Study chapter “Currents in different environment " of 11th grade (advanced). - In practice: + Investigate, observe, collect information to study current status of Com usage and experimenting software in Physics class to activate CA of students. + Understand the current status of Com usage in chapter “Currents in different environment " of 11th grade (advanced) in HS. + Organize teaching experiment in a HS to know the feasibility and performance of the study in teaching process. + Evaluation method: The thesis uses the qualitative and quantitative analysis method to draw conclusion relating to the considered content. The results shall be assessed via statistics method 7. Contribution of the thesis * In terms of reasoning: - The thesis systemize opinions of some author regarding TM renovation to activate CA of students. - Proposing 3 measures to activate CA of students in teaching of chapter “Currents in different environment " in 11th grade advanced program. - Study, use experimenting with the aid of Com to teach PS some lessons of chapter “Currents in different environment " in 11th grade advanced program, to activate CA of students. * In terms of practical activity: - Study 5 experiments with the aid of Com via GQY connection system and propose usage procedure to use these experiments to facilitate training of “Currents in different environment " chapter in 11th grade advanced program to activate CA of students. 5 Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) http://www.simpopdf.com - Establish 5 SE relating to currents in different environment and propose usage in teaching of chapter “Currents in different environment " in 11th grade advanced program to activate CA of students. - Design teaching procedure for 5 lesson of chapter “Currents in different environment " in problem solving orientation with experiments with the aid of Com to facilitate participation of students in physics class. * The thesis contribute to renovating physics TM, proving the feasibility of activating CA of students via experimenting with the aid of Com, enhancing quality and performance of physics teaching in HS. 8. Structure of the thesis Introduction (5 pages), overview (8 pages), chapter 1 (34 pages), chapter 2 (64 pages), chapter 3 (21 pages), conclusion (4 pages), table of contents (1 pages), references (8 pages), appendix (23 pages, 10 appendices). OVERVIEW OF THE ISSUE * Teaching under the orientation of activating CA of students. The issue of renovating teaching method under the orientation of facilitating participation, self-working of students has been existing for a while. However, so far the renovation has been going slowly, traditional methods are still mostly employed. Since the XX centuries many education researchers has proposed the method of “problems proposing”, including A.V.Muraviep, V.Ôkôn, I.Lêcne, I.F.Kharlamoop, N.M.Zvereva, Nguyen Ngoc Quang, Pham Huu Tong… There is one common thing in the above mentioned studies which is the importance of establishing the issue to be the centre of the method, and students are encouraged to find the solutions and knowledge themselves. The second approach which has been discussed widely is positive teaching method which considered the students the centre. The authors are Tran BA Hoanh, Nguyan Ky, Thai Duy Tuyen…. The idea of this method is the teacher organize, aid student to creatively cooperate to solve the problem on their own to develop their minds. * Experimenting with the aid of Com with a view to activating CA of students. The use of Com in particular and IT in general in teaching has become a special characteristics of modern schools. In Vietnam, since the mid 80s of the 20th century, Science and Education Institute has experimented IT training in high school. In recent years, on magazine of education and higher learning facilities there are articles relating to the uses of Com in teaching and designing of TS. Those articles are written by Le Cong Triem, Nguyen Quang Lac, Ha Van Hung, Pham Xuan Que, Nguyen Xuan Thanh, Mai Van Trinh… However so far there is no study mentioning in detail how to activate CA for students in physics teaching with the aid of Com and TS for the chapter “Currents in different environment". Therefore, we conduct this study, experimenting with the aid of Com and establish SE software in process of teaching PS to activate CA for students in teaching chapter “Currents in different environment " in 11th grade advanced program. 6 Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) http://www.simpopdf.com Chapter 1. REASONING AND PRACTICAL BASES OF ACTIVATION OF COGNITIVE ACTIVITIES IN PHYSICS TEACHING VIA EXPERIMENTING WITH THE AID OF COM 1.1. Activate cognitive activities for students in teaching In the development process of mankind, we continuously learn and improve the environment. Cognition is an activity, a basic aspect of people’s psychological lives to reflect the essence of objects, phenomena into their mind. Cognitive activities include many different processes with different reflection levels. According to opinion of Marxist, any cognitive activities follow a common mechanism: “From vision to abstract mind and from abstract mind to practice – that is the dialectic path of cognition of universal and objective truth”. The essence of learning and cognition process is selective and creative reflection of positive ideas. * Positiveness: Reflection of individual attempt (via attitude, emotion, will...) in the process of having impact on the object to obtain good result in cognitive activities and improving it. * Negativeness of cognition: definition demonstrating the attempt of the subject during the process of learning, demonstrated by the psychological function to address cognitive objectives, contribute to development of the subject personality. According to Thai Duy Tuyen, cognitive positiveness is demonstrated under the following will aspects: + Students have high attention to issues of the lesson. + Students have determination, patience to complete learning objective. + Students have no giving up when facing difficulties. + Students have emotional reactions. - Cognition positiveness according to M.N. Scatkin consists of: internal and external positiveness. External positiveness: + Students are dynamic: Active and complete assigned tasks (high learning frequency and intensity). + Students are concentrating: Students focus on cognitive objects (especially external indication: face appearance, behavior...). However it is noted that there are cases of pretending. External positiveness does not mean real (internal) positiveness. Demonstration of internal positiveness: + High mental working frequency, mobilization of actions and thinking (analyzing, synthesizing, comparing, generalizing...). + Demonstration of stable demand towards recognition objectives (this object triggers learning task). Indication of mind readiness, demand, desire, inspiration... + Independently making decision for cases proposed, choosing of paths and methods to reach the target, exclusiveness in problem solving. In reality, cognitive positives comes from not only cognition demand but also biological, moral – aesthetic, culture interaction demand... Fundamental core of cognitive positiveness is personal thinking activities, created by the learning mechanism, even though they are closely related. In some cases learning positiveness only illustrate external but not internal positiveness. * Activate CA for students: Activate CA for students is a collection of Tr’s activities to make student active, from 7 Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) http://www.simpopdf.com knowledge transferring object to knowledge receiving subject to enhance learning performance. Signs of positiveness are various and activation of cognitive activities is very complicated. Activation must bring visible results in an increase in intensity, speed, frequency of the activity as well as sustainability of cognition process. This explain the opinion that positiveness is high degree of cognition. It brings educational efficiency and improve cognition objects. According to Thai Duy Tuyen: " Activate CA for students is a collection of Tr’s activities to make student active, from knowledge transferring object to knowledge receiving subject to enhance learning performance". It is a great challenge to turn students from laziness to activeness and hardworking. But this is an important task, because if the students are not involved, and attempt to learn it will not work no matter how talented the Tr is. Therefore activation of cognition must be the main target of attention from researcher and practical activists. Some issues to be addressed in the activation process: - Cognition objects are different: From child to grownups. - Schooling types are different: From nursery to higher learning. - Subjects are different: Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry ... - Regions are different: Mountainous, lowland, urban... - Activation must be made for each separate stages, factors of teaching process like contents, methods, means, mode of organization... All those issues can be regarded internal issues of cognitive activities. Positiveness itself has relationship with other properties of personality and other social factor and there are many proposed issues. According to Nguyen Huu Chau and on the bases of generalization of study from other authors, with approach from methodological aspect, we see that the main method to activate cognitive activities is: - Teaching must be done at high level; attention must be made to instruct students understand theory well; materials study during teaching, obtained knowledge will be reinforced when there are new study; actively look after the development of all students, including poor ones; students must be aware of his own level during learning process. - Knowledge of each section, chapter must be arranged in local order. The contents are new to students but not too far from natural development, closely related to old knowledge and shall be used and developed in the future. The knowledge shall be practical, close related to normal lives and thinking. Practical as well as theoretical meaning shall be proposed, so as importance of studied matters. Practice, using the knowledge in real practice and new possibilities. - Using TM in various ways: Mentioning the issue, create..., use comparison, organize discussion, seminar and use them together. The knowledge shall be presented in dynamic method, and contradicting to each other, focusing on key issues, maybe in a sudden way. Different mode of teaching shall be used: individually, group, visit. - Using different teaching means from traditional to modern ones. Using more IT in general, Com and TS in particular. Develop living skills in learning via public media and social activities. - Encourage students via attitude, behavior between trainers and students. Regular check, assess, reward, punish promptly and reasonably. Create competitiveness in the class, school, value learning and praise students having good performance. There must be encouragement from 8 Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) http://www.simpopdf.com family and the society. 1.2. Renovation of TM under the orientation of activating CA of students * Teaching method (TM) renovation requirements: Teaching method renovation is vital to the development of the Education of our country in recent years. Resolution of the 2nd Central Government Session VIII has stated: “Education and training method must be renovated, one direction teaching must be got rid of, creative thinking to be encouraged. Step by step employ modern teaching process to ensure learning time and conditions for each students...”. In Article 5, Education Law (2010): “Teaching method must facilitate creative and self thinking of learner; practicing, inspiration and determination to develop must be enhanced”. Rapid development of the country during renovation period is requiring education to continuously reform and enhance its quality. The aims of education in the modern time is not only transfer knowledge but also build up creation and problem solving skill. There must be changes in both contents, objectives and teaching methods. Traditional TM when trainer only gives student available knowledge without urging them to discover the knowledge themselves should be limited. TM must be reformed to to educate creative workforce for the cause of industrialization and modernization of the country. * Reformation orientation for TM: Orientation for education method reform has been determined in Resolution of 4th Central Government Session VIII, stipulated in Education Law, and in direction from Ministry of Education and Training. Education specialist such as Pham Huu Tong, Thai Duy Tuyen, Nguyen Huu Chau, Tran Kieu, Tran Ba Hoanh, Nguyen Ba Kim,...has identified reform direction of the current time: "Teaching method should aims towards self-learning, creative and active participation of the students ". The orientation holds the following meaning: Determining student subject, ensure selflearning, creative and active participation of students; Teaching process is establishing incidents for students to learn from action; Making and exploiting all means facilitating teaching process; Creating learning encouragement on working result of the students; Determining new role of trainer as designer, authorizing, managing. According to Pham Huu Tong, orientation to facilitate independent, creative learning as well as nurturing scientific consciousness of students must be based on fundamental opinion, which is: Teaching of certain subject does not mean just providing students certain knowledge, what counts is they must be equipped with capacity to continue the study, as well as problem solving skill to meet diversified requirement of continuously developing practical activities. * Active teaching method (for TM reform now): active TM is a terms to indicate methods to value self-working, active, independent cognition of learner with orientation and organization of trainer. Signs of active TM are: - Teaching via organizing activities for students. - Teaching facilitate self-studying. - Improve independent learning, together with team work. - Assessment from trainer is used along with self-assessment from learner. 1.3. Orientation and method to facilitate active cognition in HS teaching * Orientation to facilitate active cognition from students must be established based on 9 Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) http://www.simpopdf.com teaching contents, maintenance of positive emotion during learning of students and impacts of modern teaching means. * Classification of textbook knowledge: Educators think teaching process consists of different factors: Teaching purpose – content - method. Teaching purposes determine method and content; Teaching content is also influenced by subject content logic and CA logic of students. Therefore, to classify teaching contents of physics, we can base on internal logical structure of the subject or cognition path (study method) of physics itself, and at the same time on suitable cognition ability of student age. In teaching of physics, the teacher can restructure knowledge on the text book to have suitable subject logic and the TM selected to activate CA for students. * Creating, maintaining method of positive learning emotion during studying PS in physics: To create and maintain positive learning attitude for students during class, trainer can use modern TM under the spirit of students as the centre like: proposing and PS method, project teaching... However, within scope of the thesis, after studying contents, experiment equipment, facilities...of HS, we see that TM PS is suitable method and there are more advantage, as it always brings problems, issues for students to solve. When students cope with an interesting problems they will be attracted and put into learning to discover new things. - PS teaching stage in the coorelationship with establishment process, according to author Pham Huu Tong, Nguyen Xuan Thanh is illustrated as un diagram 1.1 First stage: task assignment, problematic knowledge 2nd stage: students work independently, actively for solution Problematic incident Statement of problem Problem-solving: guessing, method implementation Checking, cerifying result: consider conformity of kmowledge and practice Present, notify, discuss, protect results Stage 3: Discuss, instutionalize, Use newly obtained kowledge for the next problem using newly obtained Figure 1.1.knowledge Diagram of DH PS stages according to knowledge construction and protection process in SR * Using experiment during problem solving teaching: In physics, experimenting is creating conditions that can be controlled to investigate relationship, properties of an object. Experiment brings information of visible things and phenomena in specific conditions. Metal process like analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization shall be done to address relationship between those phenomena and things. Each 10 Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) http://www.simpopdf.com experiment only indicate phenomena of a specific condition. Induction method must be used if generalization is to be employed. Therefore, if we want to draw natural properties, objective relation, two activities are to be implemented simultaneously: experiment to see external phenomena and induction to figure out abstract notion inside. Reform is being implemented for both content and method of teaching nowadays. For scientific subjects in general and physics in particular the reform must be done along with using experiments. How to make the most use of them will bring important effect. So as to do that, we must be well aware of the role of experiment in organizing cognitive activities for students. Experiment is a teaching means. Therefore, it has function to facilitate the purpose of the experiment. * Modernizing teaching means via using Com to establish SE and aid experiment to activate CA for student in physics learning. - There are teaching methods to enhance positive cognitive activities of student in physics. However, in those methods, there are just some method where com can be used to facilitate activeness, independence, creativity of student is presented clearly in the thesis 1.4. Usage status of Com and TS in HS of Ha Tinh Ha Tinh is a poor province, with 12 districts, town and city, 4 of which is mountainous. There are 45 public and private HS in the province. Recently, all HS are equipped with internet – connected Coms. Some schools have specialized classroom with modern equipment like Com and TS. The observation and investigation has shown that, when students learns on Com, works with TS they are inspired, attracted and eager to learn. However, learning equipment in HS of the province is insufficient and asynchronous. On the other hand, inappropriate use of computers and TS has bring limited results, which has not meet reform requirement of TM. Chapter 2. EXPERIMENTS WITH THE AID OF COM IN DESIGNING TEACHING PROCESS FOR SOME KNOWLEDGE IN CHAPTER “CURRENT IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENT” – PHYSICS TEXTBOOK OF 11TH GRADE ADVANCED PROGRAM 2.1. Contents, aims and structure of chapter “Current in different environment” 11th grade advanced program Chapter "Current in different environments” presented macro phenomena related to electric currents in environment like heating wire, superconductivity, electrolysis, electronic discharge in air environment...so that students can tells different phenomena, conditions to trigger the phenomena, application and negative impacts of those phenomena in technical fields and nature. * The thesis has analyze objectives, contents of chapter "Current in different environments”, then go into the structure of that contents. * Main contents of chapter "Current in different environments” in the textbook is illustrated via the following diagram: 11 Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) http://www.simpopdf.com Lesson 1: Current in metal Lesson 2: Current in vacuum Lesson 3: Current in electric environment Lesson 4: Current in air Lesson 5: Current in conductive materials Diagram 2.1. "Current in different environments” chapter structure *Using methods to activate positiveness of students in teaching chapter "Current in different environments”: In teaching chapter "Current in different environments” 11th grade physics (advanced program) we use three method in chapter 1 to facilitate positiveness, independence and creativity of students. After having analyzed contents, objectives and getting to know teaching means in chapter "Current in different environments” we go into renovate, construct experiment with the aid of Com and GQY connection system. Moreover, we also analyze and build SE software to aid the teaching. Therefore teaching means will be modernized and used in PS teaching (as in the above mentioned method to activate CA of student during teaching process. Based on contents and purpose of chapter "Current in different environments”, we establish teaching method in interpretation method, an important cognition path of physics. To facilitate teaching of chapter "Current in different environments” according to the method to activate CA of student when useing experiment with the aid of Com, we has established chapter forming logic according to diagram (Figure 2.2) and add one more lesson the the chapter, which is: “Studying current in different environment”. At the same time we study requirements of method during teaching this chapter. Teaching method of chapter "Current in different environments” according to interpretation method is as follows: 12 Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) http://www.simpopdf.com Lesson 1: Study current in different environment Lesson 2: Current in solids (Metal) - Lesson 3: Current in liquids (Electrolysis) Lesson 4: Current in vacuum Lesson 5: Current in air Lesson 6: Current in semicondu ctive materials What is electric charges, how it travels under electric field? What is the essence of electric current? Understanding of V-A characteristics Is there application in real life. Figure 2.2. Knowledge structure in chapter "Current in different environments” 2.2. Using experiment in teaching of chapter "Current in different environments” in HS nowadays After investigating the current status of using experiment in HS, we see that the equipment has some following strong and negative points: * Advantages: They can be used to conduct some experiment regarding current in different environment. These experiment basically meet teaching demand of chapter "Current in different environments”. * Drawbacks: - When using experiment sets to investigate dependence of metal resistance according to temperature, current shall change when adjusting voltage of the bulb. Therefore, it is difficult to identify Volt-Amp characteristics just with voltmeter and ammeter, when the current in metal follow Ohm Law. - The experiment of "Current in electrolysis” has not enable student to understand the essence of current, and it is time-consuming. There is high tolerance when measuring voltage and current in the case positive electrode resolve or not, therefore it is hard to identify the VoltAhm characteristic and establish Ohm Law for the case of resolved positive terminal. - In the experiment of current in air environment the Teacher tries to prove that electricity is not conducted in reality, but when the air is excited (heated) it can be conductive. However, it is difficult that the experiment succeed and it cannot also enable student understand the essence of current in air. - The experiment to prove rectifying characteristics of semiconducting diode and amplifying characteristics of transistor cannot complete is first task, it cannot also explain the 13 Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) http://www.simpopdf.com formation of p-n transfer layer and the rectifying characteristics of p-n layer. On the other hand, we can hardly use these equipment to find the dependence of current and voltage in contact layer p-n and draw Volt – Ahm characteristic line, as the experiment result is not accurate and timeconsuming. 2.3. Establish and use SE to teach the chapter "Current in different environments” * Necessity to establish SE current in different environment; When teaching chapter "Current in different environments”, there is difficult and abstract contents. Experiment equipment in HS is insufficient and asynchronous. Therefore, knowledge absorption is unstable. To make up for the above drawbacks, we have studied, established SE software to aid real experiment in some stage of TP. * Introducing SE software current in different environment SE software of current in different environment is written by the thesis author with the help in IT of Tran Van Huy (Materials study and using centre – Hanoi University of Education). This software is written with an aim to explain the essence of electric current in different environment or to replace experiment used in HS and provide students with a reference to learn chapter "Current in different environments”. The simulation is designed via Macromedia Flash tools, with Vietnamese language interface, instruction in each SE, the SE can be used in devices similar to real experiment equipment. 5 SE software for electricity in different environment: - Experiment 1: SE current in metal with constant or changing temperature, - Experiment 2: SE current in electrolytes (resolved and not resolved positive terminal), - Experiment 3: SE current in vacuum, - Experiment 4: Simulated current in air, - Experiment 5: SE current in semi conductive materials. * In the thesis, we have used SE software current in environment taught in this chapter. Example 1: SE current in vacuum - With equipment which is not capable of conducting the experiment, the teacher normally has to teach without it. In this case, it is recommended that the teacher use SE to simulate the movement of electrons (separated from cathode when is is heated) under influence of external electric field. Then the teacher can enable easy and stable understanding of current in vacuum (figure 2.7 in the thesis). Figure 2.7. SE of current in vacuum * The software has some outstanding strong points: - Images of the simulated experiment equipment is made like real equipment. - Phenomena in the experiment is demonstrated as in real life, clear and easy to observe 14 Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) http://www.simpopdf.com - The user can interact with Com via mouse or keyboard to implement experimenting moves similar to implementation with real equipment like plugging, move devices, adjust parameters, read experimenting value... - The instruction of how to use the software is also integrated - There is statistics processed module: table establishing, diagram drawing, calculation... * SE has been uploaded at the site: http://www.bipbee.com/home/ 2.4. Build up and use Experiment with Computer integrated in teaching of chapter "Current in different environment " * Study sensor, connecting MVT – GQY: - Sensor usage principle is presented on the diagram 2.10 of the thesis: Experim ent devices Measuring objects (parameters) Sensors Compatible coupling devices Computer with statistics processing software Display unit Coupler Display and process measuring results Figure 2.10. MVT connected with experiment equipment - Sensor set: Measurement values must be obtained via sensors. Principle operation: interaction of measuring object on the sensor under different forms like mechanical, temperature, magnetic, optical,… is converted to electric signal. However, each sensor set only has one function of converting mechanical signal to electric signal or optical to electric … Therefore, for different measurement different sensors are to be used. For example, to measure electric current use current sensor; For voltage is potential voltage. Each sensor (for different physical parameter of different company) with specific operation principle in terms of technical factor to covert into electric signal. Currently, Materials Research and Construction Centre – Hanoi University of Education has cooperated with GQY Teaching equipment company in Shanghai (China) to bring coupling devices into usage equipped to experiment tools in high school – the devices replace most meter in high school and solve the above mentioned remains. GQY sensor set consists of many small sensors with similar function to measuring devices. The sensor can receive Physical, Chemical, Biological signal. They are PH, movement, optical, conductivity, atmospheric pressure, force, magnetic, current and voltage, temperature sensors... The sensor enable quick and precise statistics obtaining. However, in this document we focus on two sensor type. 15 Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) http://www.simpopdf.com Force sensor Optical sensor Magnetic sensor Air pressure sensor Movement sensor Conductivity sensor Room and high temperature sensor Current and voltage sensor Figure 2.11. GQY sensor set GQY sensor set (Figure 2.11) is multi-functional, easy to use, convenient for teaching. They have wide measurement range and precision and can be used independently or with experiment equipment. - Coupling devices: Signal in the sensor will be amplified and transferred to specialized transferring equipment to the coupler. The coupler has three parts: “Compatible coupling device”, “Data processing unit” and “Display unit”. - Coupling devices for Com (with all three parts): Normally, digitalized electric signal is fed into the Com to store, display and process. “Compatible coupling devices” can be mounted inside the Com or out of it (depend on the manufacturer). The Com needs specialized software to process data. These software allow storage, display, establish table and check mathematically of real line. The software can be provided with sensor and “Compatible coupling devices” (available software) or must be established (open software) to suit existing “compatible coupling devices”. The digital display coupler does not require computer (3 parts in one coupler) 16 Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) http://www.simpopdf.com - GQY manufacture 2 type of “compatible coupling devices”. DAS - 5104D version (require computer and the newer version DAS - 5104 (Figure 2.13) has digital display. Digital display coupler DAS - 5104, apart from features like DAS - 5104D, has the following strong points: + LCD screen, dimension (750 x 570) mm, functional keys with Vietnamese interface. + Connection prt, including: 4 sensor ports, 1 USB port, 1 electric charging port. + Automatic identification when connecting. + Direct display values of experiment from 4 simultaneous sensor in one screen and one continuously display. + Direct diagram display on the screen. + Compact and simple to use. Sensor port Compu ter port Display Battery charge Function key Figure 2.13. Digital display unit DAS – 5104 - GQY software: GQY software consists of two parts: ExPatternMaker and ExPlatform. ExPatternMaker allow easy establishing of template (experiment sample folder) according to usage intention of teacher and many support feature to process data quickly. Therefore, basing on teaching intention of the teacher, he can easily build template, formula to figure out value table, relation diagram between different parameters. The template can be used as a teaching material of the teacher, or selflearning material of students. Within scope of study of the thesis, we design experiment equipment according to existing devices and sensors, digital display coupler GQY to avoid disadvantages of existing equipment in HS. * To establish the experiment equipment set we use sensor and GQY coupler: from understanding requirement of the experiment to teach some knowledge of chapter "Current in different environments”, analyze strong and weak points of existing experiment equipment and features of GQY sensor and coupling set, we have used available devices to construct some experiment with the aid of Com to facilitate better teaching and learning. The coupler consist of the following 5 experiment: - Experiment 1: Study current in metal (changing temperature), - Experiment 2: Study current in metal (constant temperature), 17 Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) http://www.simpopdf.com - Experiment 3: Study current in electrolyte (positive terminal resolved), - Experiment 4: Study current in electrolyte (positive terminal not resolved), - Experiment 5: Study current in semiconductive materials. * We recommend these similar experimenting procedures for teaching chapter “Current in different environment”. Example 2: Experiment 3: Study current in electrolyte (positive terminal resolved) 1> Experiment purpose: - Understand the essence of current in electrolyte. Understand resolved and not resolved terminal, condition for the phenomenon to occur. - Establish ohm’s law for current in electrolysis when there is resolved positive terminal. 2> Preparation: As in figure 2.21, equipment incledus: 1 glass bottle, 1 copper electrode, 1 Inox electrode, distilled water, pure CuSO4 crystal (50g), 1 adjustable resistor 200Ω-2,5A, connecting wire, 1 DC supply 0-24V, current, voltage sensor, DAS-5104 coupling, Com with GQY solfware installed. Figure 2.21. Study the case of resolved positive terminal 3> Implementing and results: Mount equipment as in figure 2.21. Run GQY ExPlatform, click Connect for receiving the device (Sensor), select U-I diagram, press ON to implement the experiment. Next implement as normal experiment. There will be results and V-A characteristics line. 4> Assessment: In traditional experiment, no use of current higher than 0,4A (to avoid to quick increase of electrolyte temperature), long experiment time … which can cause current to not follow ohm’s law, confusing students. But with computer connected experiment the time will be very fast with high precision result. Then the teacher can explain that current in electrolyte follow ohm’s law when positive terminal resolves (Voltage current characteristic is linear). 5> Experiment usage option: When teaching “Current in different environment”, demonstrative experiment can be used to form knowledge for student in study type. 2.5. Designing teaching process for some lesson in chapter “Current in different environment” with experiment with the aid of Com under PS teaching Based on the diagram (figure 1.1), stages of teaching and preserving new knowledge of author Pham Huu Tong, making use of PS teaching, we have use the experiment with the aid of Com to establish teaching process of some lesson to active CA of students: * Period 1- Study current in different environment. * Period 2- Lesson 17: Current in metal. * Period 3,4 - Lesson 19: Current in electrolysis. Faraday’s law. 18 Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) http://www.simpopdf.com * Period 5 - Lesson 21: Current in vacuum. * Period 6,7 - Lesson 22: Current in air. These are some examples: Lesson 19 (2 periods): Current in electrolysis. Faraday’s law 1) Purposes: * Knowledge: - understand and present electrolysis, the essence of current in electrolysis, secondary reaction in electrolysis, resolution of positive terminal. - Be able to write the formula and apply Faraday’s law. Explain electric plating, molding, refining and metal producing. * Skill: - Assembling and conducting the experiment, observe, analyse the phenomenon. Computer skill. - Analyzing, generalizing obtained result. * Attitude: - desired to learn, having attitude to study, honest, careful when implementing the experiment, follow assignment and answer question of teacher. 2) Preparation. * Teacher: 5 experiment set for current in electrolysis. - 5 computer with GQY software installed SE, 1 projector. - 5 current, voltage sensor, and compatible coupling device DAS-5104 to establish ohm’s law when there is resolved positive terminal. * Student: Review knowledge of electrolyte. 3) Teaching process Establishing the problem (10 minutes)  Ask student: is water conductive? - students: water is conductive ¸ We implement experiment to see whether water is conductive. The teacher uses distilled water for the experiment. ¸ Teacher: So why it is easy to get electric shock when our hands are wet, broken - students: the experiment prove that water is transmission lines that touch water surface not conductive. during storm can cause danger to by-travellers... - students wonder why experiment results contradicting the reality?  Teacher: So when water is conductive? - Students discuss. 2. Problem solving activities (75 minutes) Activity 1 (20 minutes): Understanding electrolyte 19 Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) http://www.simpopdf.com Teacher’s activities ¸ Teacher: The experiment shows that distilled water is not conductive.  Why pure water is not conductive? ¸ Teacher: Show students SE to see there is no free electric charge in pure water. ¸ Teacher: In reality we see that water from see, lakes, rivers... is conductive. To understand why we conduct experiment. ¸ Teacher: Instruct and checking equipment installation of students.  Put some salt into pure water and stir well, re-conduct the experiment ¸ Let student do the experiment with acid and basic.  What comments do you have from the experiment result?  Why acid, salt, basic solution conductive? ¸ Teacher instruct student to apply electrolyte theory and use SE to help student understand clearly the essence of current in electrolyte . Student’s activities - Student: in pure water there is no free electricity carrying particles. -Student: in team connect as following and implement the experiment. - Salt solution is conductive. - Experimenting with salt, basic solution. - Salt, acid, basic solution is conductive. - The group study independently to answer the question. The answer may be wrong - Student: the group observe SE projected on the screen. After observation, student see that acid, salt and basic solution can be conductive as their molecules are separated into positive and negative ions when resolved in water. Activity 2 (15 minutes): Understand essence of current in electrolyte – positive terminal resolved. Teacher’s activities Student’s activities  After observing SE, state what is electric - From observing SE, students can tells carrying particles in acid, salt, basic solution? whether electricity carrying particles in salt,  How does the ion travel under influences of acid, basic solution is positive or negative ion. electric field? - Student: positive ion in the same direction  The essence of electric current in current? and negative one on the opposite direction with electric field.  Can you guess what will happen when we - Student: is directed flow of positive ion in electrolyze CuSO4 solution with anode made of Cu? the same direction and negative one on the opposite direction with electric field. 20
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