Tài liệu A study on syntactic, semantic and pragmatic features of exaggeration in english and vietnamese

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-1- -2- MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING UNIVERSITY OF DANANG ------------------------- The thesis has been completed at the College of Foreign Languages, TRAN THI HONG DUNG A STUDY ON SYNTACTIC, SEMANTIC AND PRAGMATIC FEATURES OF EXAGGERATION IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE University of Danang. Supervisor: TRAN MANH QUANG, M.A. Examiner 1: Nguyen Thi Quynh Hoa, Ph.D. Examiner 2: Ngo Dinh Phuong, Assoc. Prof.Dr Subject Area : THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE Code : 60.22.15 The thesis to be orally defended at Examining Committee. Time: 27th April, 2011 Venue: Danang University M.A THESIS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE (A SUMMARY) The origin of the thesis is accessible for the purpose of reference at: DANANG - 2011 - The College of Foreign Languages Library, University of Danang - Information Resources Centre, University of Danang -3- -4practice, the study aims to supply some implications to language CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1. RATIONALES Exaggeration which is commonly heard within conversation or seen in short stories, also goes beyond what is truthful and accurate. People talk about having “a million things to do”. What is said and teaching and learning. It is hoped that the practical information can provide teachers and Vietnamese learners of English with various ways of expressing exaggeration. At the same time, it also helps students, learners identify and use exaggeration so that they can communicate more successfully in real life language interaction. 1.3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES what is meant are very often two different things – by saying they 1.3.1 Aims have “a million things to do” they probably mean they have a considerable amount of work to do; additionally, they may be unhappy about being so busy, or that they are feeling the pressure of This study is aimed at finding the similarities and differences in English and Vietnamese in terms of syntactic, semantic and pragmatic features. the amount of work they have. Exaggeration appears frequently in conversation, in discourse as well as in short stories. Furthermore, exaggeration can be used in short stories to emphasize or dramatize a person’s opinion or emotion as in “ I can’t The findings of the research are expected to improve the ability to use exaggerated expressions effectively; particularly, in the teaching and learning of English and Vietnamese as a foreign language. live without him. I’d sooner kill myself” [43, p.35] 1.3.2 Objectives We can find that exaggeration appears in English and Vietnamese with a high frequency. It creates a satisfactory feeling - To identify, describe and present the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic features of exaggeration in English and Vietnamese. when exaggeration is understood. However, it is uneasy for readers or listeners especially for Vietnamese learners of English to identify, understand and use. Therefore, I choose the topic “A study on Syntactic, Semantic and Pragmatic Features of Exaggeration in English and Vietnamese” for my thesis. 1.2. JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY The thesis is designed to study the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic characteristics of English and Vietnamese exaggeration. . On this ground, the thesis analyzes the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic features of exaggeration in English and Vietnamese. In - To compare and contrast the features mentioned above to clarify the similarities and differences of the two languages in this field. - To suggest some implications for using exaggeration successfully 1.4. SCOPE OF THE PRESENT STUDY I will concentrate on the analysis of the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic features of exaggeration in daily conversations, short stories and novels in the hope of finding out the similarities and -5- -6- differences in English and Vietnamese, and then to provide some CHAPTER 2 practical suggestions for teaching and learning these two languages. LITERATURE REVIEW 1.5. RESEARCH QUESTIONS - What are the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic features of exaggeration in English and Vietnamese? - What are the similarities and differences of exaggeration used in English and Vietnamese? - What are some suggestions for the language teaching and AND THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 2.1 PREVIOUS STUDIES RELATED TO THE TOPIC H.P.Grice in his theory on the logic of conversation. suggested the Cooperative Principle(CP) which is a basis of conversational analysis . Austin (1962) in the book “How to do things with words” learning as well as language used in everyday speech? presented the speech act theory. Austin claims that an utterance 1.6 HYPOTHESIS consists of 3 types of acts: locutionary act, illocutionary act and - English and Vietnamese have a wide range of exaggerating expressions - There are some differences and similarities in using exaggerating expressions in English and Vietnamese. 1.7. THE ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY perlocutionary act. He also made distinctions between illocutionary and perlocutionary acts. However, the perlocutionary act is more suitable for exaggeration than illocutionary one. Therefore, speech act theory is very useful for studying and understanding exaggeration. In addition, Galperin [5, p.176] gave a definition of Chapter 1: Introduction hyperbole and he distinguish the little difference between hyperbole Chapter 2: Literature Review and Theoretical Background and mere exaggeration. Chapter 3: Methodology and Procedures Chapter 4: Findings and Discussions. Chapter 5: Conclusions and Implications. Penelope Brown and Stephen C. Levinson give their definitions of positive and negative politeness Furthermore, in scientific research article “At the risk of exaggeration: how do listeners react to hyperbole?”, Mora (2003) provides a general framework for the description and understanding of exaggeration in interaction. A more recent ray of light in exaggeration research came from the experimental psychology research area, with an investigation by Kreuz, et al. (1998).. -7Joan Cutting [9, p.37, 72] presents theory which the speaker -82.2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND flouting the maxim of quality by exaggerating as in “I could eat a 2.2.1 Definition of term horse”. If we understand simply, “exaggeration is representation of In Vietnamese, exaggeration has been dealt with by many Vietnamese linguists such as Đinh Trọng Lạc, Nguyễn Thái Hòa, Cù Đình Tú, Hoàng Tất Thắng, and so on.All these authors consider hyperbole as a stylistic device used to express various meanings. something as greater than it really is” (Oxford English Dictionary) [20, p.138] According to Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, “exaggeration means the describing of something and making it more than it really In “Để Tiếng Việt ngày càng trong sáng ”, Phan Hồng Liên is”. Similarly, WordNetSearch.edu gives the following definition of emphasizes that exaggeration is the way using means of language to exaggeration: “Exaggeration is the act of making something more draw attention and to make a strong impression. He also states that noticeable than unusual ” Vietnamese people usually use words denoting the parts of human Cano Mora [3, p.14] defined exaggeration as “A form of body such as “Buồn nẫu ruột”, “Nói vỗ vào mặt”… She assumes extremity that either magnifies or minimizes some real state of affairs. that exaggeration is somewhat related to simile. [32, p.106-111] Exaggerated expressions has traditionally been thought of as Nguyễn Thị Thảo (2005) investigates ways of expressing overstated stimulacrums of reality”. absolute meanings in English and Vietnamese , gives a definition of In Vietnamese, Đinh Trọng Lạc says that “ Phóng ñại là dùng exaggeration (hyperbole) and considers hyperbole as a way of từ ngữ hoặc cách diễn ñạt ñể nâng lên gấp nhiều lần những thuộc expressing absolute meanings effectively . tính của khách thể hoặc hiện tượng nhằm mục ñích làm nổi bật bản Phan Thị Uyên Uyên (2006) deals with exaggeration as one of the commonly used stylistic devices in advertising language in newspaper. chất của ñối tượng cần miêu tả, gây ấn tượng ñặc biệt mạnh mẽ ” (Exaggeration is using words or expressions several times to multiply the properties of the object or phenomenon. It aims to Unsolved problem highlight the nature of the object which need describing, and to make The comparison and contrast of exaggeration in English and particularly strong impression) Vietnamese conversations and short stories have not received Based on the above definitions, the exaggeration is defined in appropriate attention of linguists. Therefore, this study attempts to this paper as “Exaggeration is deliberate overstatement of a feature discover exaggeration in three aspects (syntax, semantics and essential to the object or phenomenon to produce a strong impression pragmatics) with comparison and contrast in English and Vietnamese or to draw attention. Exaggeration is closely associated with TRUTH, everyday conversations, poetry and short stories. or rather going beyond TRUTH.” -9- -10- 2.2.2 Stylistic Devices “Negative politeness is any kind of behavior that is intentionally and Stylistics - one of the branches of General Linguistics – appropriately meant to show the speaker does not want to impinge on studies the nature, functions, and structure of stylistic devices. the addressee’s privacy, thus, maintaining the sense of distance According to Galperin [5], stylistics observes not only the nature of between them. ” an expressive means but also its potential capacity of being a stylistic device. Galperin defines that a stylistic device is “a conscious and intentional literary use of some of the fact of the language (including Brown & Levinson (1987) recognized that exaggeration is an essential part of positive politeness and going off record in their treatment of linguistic politeness. Social factors are the most apparent in the uses of exaggeration for politeness. expressive means) in which the most essential features (both 2.2.5 Grice and Conversational Implicature structural and semantic) of the language forms are rised to a H. P. Grice in his theory on the logic of conversation. He generalized level and thereby present a gernerative model” [5, p.26] 2.2.3 Figurative Aspects of Exaggeration suggested that conversation follows a Cooperative Principle (CP) When introducing these maxims, he points out that they are Hyperbole is not only non- literal but often has figurative or not always strictly followed by speakers. We sometimes violate the metaphorical aspects associated with it, for example in phrases like maxims when we communicate. Thus, if someone purposely flouts “books coming out of my ears”, “laugh my head off”, etc. Figurative one or more of the above maxims and remains within the CP, they set and non- literal speech is a common part of our everyday up a different meaning, or implicature. In the case of exaggeration, it conversations and interactions. Other figurative language research is the Maxim of Quality and Quantity that is normally flouted by has also assessed hyperbole and the reasons why it is used. [13, p113] saying what is obviously untrue. 2.2.4 Exaggeration and Politeness Theory Brown and Levinson provide a slightly different perspective on politeness phenomena. They point out that many speech acts are It may be necessary to investigate factors that may influence the production of exaggeration as well as linguistic features of exaggeration in English and Vietnamese. Face Threatening Acts (FTA), those which are some way threatening 2.2.6 Exaggeration as the Violation of CP to either, the speaker’s or hearer’s face. By flouting this maxim, say by exaggerating, speaker can Nguyen Quang [18, p.11,24,88] in the light of cross-cultural communication, presents conceptualization of politeness: “Positive convey a different meaning. Let us take into consideration this utterance of simple exaggeration: He’s got tons of money. politeness is any kind of behavior that is intentionally and 2.2.7 Exaggeration and other linguistic units appropriately meant to show the speaker’s concern to the addressee, Exaggeration and Lie thus, enhancing the sense of solidarity between them. ” and -11- -12- Lie is the deliberate act of deviating from the truth. Exaggeration and Irony Accordingly, both lie and exaggeration are the act of magnifying Once using irony, speakers/ writers do not use it more than the truth. Along with the purpose, the nature of unconsciously. Irony has a strong power of expressive and therefore exaggeration, lie is used to deceive other people. Otherwise, through it many writers proved that a pen is mightier than a sword. “exaggeration is inflation beyond the limits of truth and making Irony does not cause a humorous effect.. Phan Hong Lien something seem larger, better, worse, etc., than it really is” analysed clearly using exaggeration to mock everybody “ Cảm ơn (Longman, 1999). Exaggeration is aimed to make the hearer/ reader tiên sinh, tiên sinh cứ dạy quá lời”. The hearer knows that he/ she is pay more attention to and understand more deeply what the not “tiên sinh” and the ironic utterance implies a negative meaning. It speaker/writer’s intention. creates the opposite meanings compared with its environment. She (2) Your kindness will impress on my heart to grave, say I [23, p.111] Exaggeration and Litotes In stylisics, litotes is a figure of speech in which, rather than also distingwishs the difference between exaggeration and irony. (6) Mr Henry often helped us with hard work in difficult moments. We regarded him as superhuman. [23, p.78] 2.3.8 Speech Act making a certain statement directly, the speaker expresses it even Levinson [16, p.226] claims: “Of all the issues in the general more effectively, or achieves emphasis, by denying its opposite.. theory of language usage, speech act theory has probably aroused Litotes is nearly the opposite form of exaggeration. the widest interest” Exaggeration and Simile Simile, in English and Vietnamese is a very common poetic device, and also occurs frequently in everyday language. Many experiences, feelings, and ideas are difficult to express in words. Therefore similes are used to express them. Exaggeration is a type of figurative language. Exaggeration According to Yule, “Actions performed via utterances are generally call speech acts”. Austin [1] defines speech acts as the actions performed in saying something They also stated three speech acts performed by producing an utterance: a. Locutionay Act: also compares two objects to make something greater than it really is. b. Illocutionary Act For example, if you say “my cat is as big as a house” or “She was as c. Perlocutionary Act: brave as a lion”, you would be exaggerating. This is also a simile, (7) I feel a hundred times more thankful than I do [56, p.78] which is exaggerated to create a strong impression on the hearer. (8) His speech was endless. Most of people felt asleep. [59, p.36] -13- -14- Furthermore, Searle classified speech acts into functions: declarations, representatives, expressives, directives and commissives. Perlocutionary act is used for exaggeration more than illocutionary one. Therefore, perlocutionary utterances. my paper pays attention to CHAPTER 3 METHOD AND PROCEDURE 3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN AND RESEARCH METHOD This research is conducted using the Qualitive and Descriptive methods to achieve the aims and objectives specified in chapter 1. 3.2 RESEARCH PROCEDURES - Choosing the topic to investigate by reviewing the previous studies carefully .- Choosing the relevant materials (books, researches and thesis) and research articles, extracting exaggerating expressions from film scripts in English and Vietnamese - Calculating the frequency of occurrence. - Generalizing and identifying the similarities and differences between two languages of exaggeration in the fields of syntax, semantics and pragmatics. - Making tables and calculating the frequency of occurrence. - Suggesting some implications for teaching and learning of exaggeration. 3.3 DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLES In order to survey samples of thesis, the study is focused to reach 1000 samples of English and Vietnamese exaggeration. 3.4 DATA COLLECTION The data collection consists of samples obtained from various sources in different languages: English and Vietnamese. 3.5 DATA ANALYSIS In this study, the reviewed existing theories serve as a basis of the data analysis. Particular is paid to analyzing and categorizing the data syntactically, semantically and pragmatically. 3.6 RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY Reliability and validity are two most important criteria to guarantee the quality of the data collection procedures. -15CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION -164.1.2 Syntactic features of Exaggeration in Vietnamese Table 4.2. A summary of Vietnamese exaggeration in syntactic 4.1 The Syntactic Features of Exaggeration in English and patterns Vietnamese Compound N 4.1.1 Syntactic features of Exaggeration in English Noun Phrase Pre-modifier + H Noun Table 4.1. A summary of English exaggeration in syntactic Simple N Head N + Post-modifier Adj + N Noun Phrase N + Prep + Adj + N Adj Compound N+N Simple Adj Adjective Phrase Adjective Phrase Present/ Past Participle Head Adj + Post-Modifier Pre-modifier + Head Adj N + Adj Adj + PP Pre-modifier + Head Adj + Post-modifier V+N Verb Phrase Simple V V + N + PP V + Prep + NP Verb Phrase Pre-modifier + Head V V + N + Adj Adverb Phrase Head V + Post-modifier Simple Adv Pre-modifier + Head V + Post-modifier Adv + Adv Exaggerating Clauses Prepositional Phrase Prep + NP Clause of S1 + V + As + Adj/ Adv + As + S2 Comparison S1 + V+ Comp Adj/ Adv + Than of Comparison S + Adj+ ñến vô cùng Nothing + V + Comp Adj + Than + S2 S1 + V + The superlative Adj/Adv + N + PP Noun Clause Clause S + Adj + bằng / bằng cả/ như + Clause + S2 Clause Structure S + V + Adv/ Adj + tới mức/ ñến/ ñến mức + S + V + N + Adj + nhất Exaggerating Clauses of Result S + V + Adv/ Adj + tới mức/ ñến/ ñến mức + Clause -17- -18- 4.1.3 Summary 4.2.9 Exaggeration of Value, Quantity This part showed how exaggerating expressions behave 4.2.10 Exaggeration of Poverty syntactically into common patterns: phrases and clauses. The results 4.2.11 Exaggeration of Appearance of analysis indicate that exaggerations in English and Vietnamese are 4.2.12 Exaggeration of Beauty similar to each other in form. Both English and Vietnamese possess a 4.2.13 Exaggeration of Ugliness system of exaggeration words such as adjectives, nouns, adverbs. 4.2.14 Exaggeration of Sexuality Besides, we can see exaggeration appearing in phrases: adjective 4.2.15 Exaggeration of Tiredness phrases, noun phrases, verb phrases. 4.2.16 Exaggeration of Movement However, exaggerations in English and Vietnamese are not 4.2.17 Summary completely similar in syntactic patterns. It is discovered that there is In summary, this research has analyzed the semantic features no case of exaggeration in prepositional phrases and adverb phrases. of exaggeration in English and Vietnamese The semantic features of The study also reveals that exaggeration by means of a single verb is exaggeration are shown in table 4.3 below where all the features have absent been categorized into common topics. in English. Moreover, noun clauses appear in English exaggeration while no examples of exaggerating noun clauses can be Based on an analysis of exaggeration of various aspects such found in Vietnamese. In contrast, exaggerating clauses of result don’t as love, appearance, beauty, sex, and others, this part of the study appear in English. shows the importance of culture in language Exaggeration in both 4.2 The Semantic Features of Exaggeration in English and languages can be categorized into 16 groups that mention 16 Vietnamese interesting topics. From our data corpus in English and Vietnamese, We can realize that exaggeration can be categorized into the following topics: 4.2.1 Exaggeration of Sadness 4.2.2 Exaggeration of Happiness 4.2.3 Exaggeration of Anger 4.2.4 Exaggeration of Suffering 4.2.5 Exaggeration of Wish 4.2.6 Exaggeration of Quality of People/ Things 4.2.7 Exaggeration of Love 4.2.8 Exaggeration of Strength Exaggeration of Tiredness and Poverty cannot be found in English. -19- -20- Table 4.3 Frequency of Semantic Features of Exaggeration in 4.3.3. Exaggeration of Showing Compliment English and Vietnamese Semantic Type English 4.3.4. Exaggeration of Showing Complaint 4.3.5. Exaggeration of Sympathy Vietnamese Occurrence Percentage Occurrence Percentage 4.3.6. Exaggeration of Thanking Sadness 78 15.6% 72 14.4% 4.3.7. Exaggeration of Irony Happiness 102 20.4% 105 21% 4.3.8. Exaggeration of Interest Anger 46 11.2% 59 11.8% Table 4.4 Frequency of Pragmatic Features of Exaggeration in Sufering 38 7.6% 33 6.6% English and Vietnamese Wish 17 3.4% 12 2.4% Pragmatic Quality of 12 2.4% 18 3.6% Function Occurrence Percentage Occurrence Percentage Emphasis or 112 22.4% 98 19.6% People/ Things English Vietnamese Love 97 19.4% 65 13% Highlight Strength 25 5% 38 7.6% Humor 60 12% 75 15% Value/ Quantity 8 1.6% 11 2.2% Compliment 39 7.8% 34 6.8% Poverty 0 0% 8 1.6% Complaint 44 8.8% 37 7.4% Appearance 26 5.2% 28 5.6% Sympathy 0 0% 28 5.6% Beauty 18 3.6% 0 0% Thanking 28 5.6% 0 0% Ugliness 11 2.2% 11 2.2% Irony 96 19.2% 126 25.2% Sexuality 10 2% 12 2.4% Interest 121 24.2% 102 20.4% Tiredness 0 0% 8 1.6% Total 500 100% 500 100% Movement 12 2.4% 20 4% Total 500 100% 500 100% 4.3 Pragmatic Features of Exaggeration in English and Vietnamese 4.3.1. Exaggeration of Emphasis or Highlight 4.3.2. Exaggeration of Humor 4.3.9 Summary So far in this part, I have studied exaggeration in term of pragmatics in English and Vietnamese. There are both similarities and differences between English and Vietnamese exaggeration. They both use exaggeration of highlight, humor, compliment, complaint, irony and interest as shown in table 4.3 -21- -22- It seems that there are no big, considerable differences CHAPTER 5 between English and Vietnamese exaggeration. Exaggeration of CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS thanking can appear in English since it could not be found in 5.1 SUMMARY OF THE STUDY OF EXAGGERATION IN Vietnamese. In contrast, we cannot find exaggeration of sympathy in ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE English from the data. Besides, the differences between them lie in As it was presented in the four previous chapters, the study their frequency. Table 4.4 also points out that there is a significant involves descriptive and contrastive study of syntactic, semantic and difference in the distribution of exaggeration creating ironic effect in pragmatic features of exaggeration in English and Vietnamese. English and Vietnamese. 19,2% of English exaggeration investigated It is possible to conclude from the findings of the thesis that show this purpose. Meanwhile, 25,2% of Vietnamese exaggeration there is, in short stories and in daily conversations, a tendency of are found in creating ironic effect. In English, the exaggeration of employing exaggeration in order to make impressions, and to attract humor and showing compliment are nearly evenly distributed. the attention of the readers or the listeners. 5.1.1 Similarities Basically, exaggerations in Vietnamese and English share many characteristics in common. Firstly, in terms of syntax, most of the exaggerating expressions in English and Vietnamese are expressed through noun phrases, verb phrases and adjective phrases. Secondly, in term of pragmatics, exaggerating structures are used with the same purposes of showing emphasis, compliments, criticisms, irony, etc. as well as showing emphasis is the highest frequency in both languages. Thirdly, the semantic features of exaggeration in English and Vietnamese are expressed in the same topics such as sadness, happiness, anger, suffering, love… 5.1.2 Differences Syntactically, while in English, exaggeration tends to be recognized in the form of prepositional phrases, adverb phrases, in Vietnamese this form are not in use. Another difference is that, while -23- -24- in Vietnamese, exaggeration appears in superlative form with “ñến Through studying between different languages and cultures to vô cùng” and Clauses of Result with “tới mức”, “ñến mức” is see whether the same phenomenon exists and to show ultimately that common, these structures are not found in English. exaggeration is a universal phenomenon. It is clear that in two languages, the order of the frequency The result analysis and discussion also gives an overview that from the largest percentage to the smallest is rather similar. However, most exaggerating expressions in English can be translated into there is a difference in percentage of each structure. In English, for Vietnamese, however, they are transformed by some ways having the instance, the percentage of the topic “love” is larger than that in similarities and differences, especially in the form of languages, Vietnamese, 19.4% of the former compared with 13% of the latter. In cultures and society. English corpus, we do not discover any exaggeration on tiredness and 5.3 IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE poverty. In contrast, exaggeration of wish and beauty are not found in LEARNING AND TEACHING The English language learning and teaching cannot ignore Vietnamese. and exaggeration, a common phenomenon in language. Through the of study of exaggeration in English and Vietnamese, we hope that the exaggerations to show thanking. Meanwhile, among all of study will be part of contribution to the process of teaching and exaggerations investigated, there has not been any exaggeration learning English. Therefore, we should suggest some useful Pragmatically, Vietnamese differences exaggeration. exist English between employs a English number found in Vietnamese to express this function. Morever, while implications for learning and teaching English as a foreign language. showing sympathy is a popular function of exaggeration in Vietnamese, this function is not found in English. 5.2 CONCLUSION 5.3.1 Problems in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning Exaggeration is a very essential and important device, which is In reality, learning to interpret and express exaggeration seems used to produce emotional, artistic effects on the hearers or readers. to be a difficult task for Vietnamese learners of English. Its aesthetic value is hardly disputed. It cannot be denied that Exaggeration can present interesting challenges to the readers. The exaggeration is a device which sharpens the reader’s ability to make a comprehension process involves not only identifying the possible logical assessment of the utterance. Exaggeration is a common and interpretation through analyzing the syntactic structure, but also prevalent phenomenon, often being used in ordinary conversational using contextual clues to eliminate some interpretations. situations and readily understood and interpreted. 5.3.2 Suggestions for Language Teaching and Learning Exaggeration, a common phenomenon in language, is obviously a necessary part in English language learning and -25teaching . For this reason, we hope that the results of this study will -265.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE PRESENT STUDY be partial contribution to the improvement of teaching and learning My study has been relatively limited in its scope and aims and English. In other words, I’d like to put forward some the following is meant more as a foundation or initial study to pave the way for suggestions, which might be applicable in language teaching and future research. Due to the limited time and resources, I was not able learning. to carry out empirical testing on the different aspects of exaggeration. For teacher, I think that the effective use of language and Likewise, not all samples from short stories, films and conversational communication with exaggeration, whatever in linguistic form or situations were considered. My search for data initially concentrated function must be taught or learned, the linguistic form, context on areas where exaggeration was more likely to appear ,so that I appropriateness must be introduced all together. With the aim of could have occurrences of exaggeration to consider. In addition, the helping learners of English to write as well as to communicate lack of time, reference and material make it impossible for the effectively, teachers should draw their attention to subtle topics of researcher to provide more sufficient and more intensive focus on everyday life and provide them with a considerable number of exaggeration. As a result, mistakes and shortcomings are inevitable. exaggeration. Futhermore, there is difference between what is stated 5.5 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES and what is really meant and what we actually say cannot always be The present study attempts to provide some distinguishing taken literally, we can manage to help learners understand the linguistic features of exaggeration. For further research, the following exaggerating expressions in reading comprehension. topics should be explored to produce more valuable results in this Teachers and syllabus or materials should take into account area. this detail in teaching and preparing the linguistic content and the set 5.5.1 Emotion and Exaggeration of exercises for the teaching and practising exaggeration or function 5.5.2 Hearer Interpretation of Exaggeration of exaggeration in context. 5.5.3 Exaggeration in style of sports commentaries For learners, they usually improve their knowledge of language to be able to read professional magazines or reference books in the field. They can understand easily reading texts, or can make daily conversations using exaggeration. Moreover, they can use and translate exaggerating statements easily if they are equipped with a wide background knowledge of culture, custom and society, moral and psychological standards 5.5.4 The responses of exaggeration English and Vietnamese.
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