Tài liệu A study of syntactic and pragmatic features of indirect interrogative directives in english and in vietnamese

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1 2 MINISTY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING UNIVERSITY OF DANANG The study has been completed at The College of Foreign Languages, University of Danang NGUYỄN THỊ THANH BÌNH Supervisor: Phan Thị Bé, M.Ed Examiner 1: Trần Hữu Mạnh, Assoc. Prof. Dr. A STUDY OF SYNTACTIC AND PRAGMATIC FEATURES OF INDIRECT INTERROGATIVE DIRECTIVES IN ENGLISH AND IN VIETNAMESE Examiner 2: Trần Quang Hải, Ph.D Subject area: THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE Code : 60.22.15 The thesis will be orally defended to the dissertation board Time : January 15th, 2011 Venue : University of Danang M.A THESIS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE (SUMMARY) Supervisor: PHAN THỊ BÉ, M. Ed The origin of the thesis is accessible of purpose of reference at: - The College of Foreign Language Library, University of Danang DANANG – 2011 - Information Resources Centre, Danang University 3 4 CHAPTER 1 - To contrast these features in English and Vietnamese to find INTRODUCTION out the similarities and differences between two languages. 1.1. RATIONALE - To suggest some implications of the findings for the teaching When people want someone to do something, they often make and learning English and Vietnamese as foreign languages requests, give suggestions or ask for information… . In other words, (essentially in Speaking and Translation). language is used widely to demand some future act in response from 1.3. RESEARCH QUESTIONS the hearer. Thus, with indirect interrogative directives, we can really do things with words and language is a really means to an end. But in fact, each language's characteristics and their unique culture is reflected in language in different ways both in form, content and quality. This makes me want to find, identify, classify, and find 1. What are the syntactic and pragmatic features of indirect interrogative directive in English and Vietnamese? 2. How many typical types of indirect interrogative directive in English and Vietnamese? 3. What are the similarities and differences of indirect similarities and differences of requests, particularly in the field of interrogative directive in English and Vietnamese? pragmatics, use of language, in English and in Vietnamese. 1.4. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY [68, p.60] With the aim to making a study on the syntactic and pragmatic In this utterance, we are not really asking a question about features of indirect interrogative directive in English and Vietnamese, (1) Can you pass the salt? someone’s ability, we normally use it to make a request. the study will provide useful knowledge to enable better use of 1.2. AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY indirect interrogative directive in Cross- Cultural communication in 1.2.1. Aims of the study English and Vietnamese. The findings of the study can be the The study aims at providing learners of English with a detailed potential source for the teaching and learning of speech acts in description of indirect interrogative directive with their syntactic and general and directives in particular in English and Vietnamese as pragmatic features in English in comparison with those in foreign languages. Vietnamese. 1.5. THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY 1.2.2. Objectives of the study - To describe some kinds of indirect interrogative directive in teaching and learning English as a foreign language. This research is carried out in contrastive analysis of the syntactic and pragmatic features of indirect interrogative directive in English and Vietnamese speech events, which focuses mainly on - To describe the syntactic and pragmatic features of indirect verbal communication through the analysis of the data collected from interrogative directive in teaching and learning English as a foreign the conversations, books, novels, short stories, …in both English and language. Vietnamese. 5 6 Within the scope of the study, non- verbal strategies such as - Searle [68], “Syntax and Semantics”, categories speech acts in facial expressions, body language, gestures are not included. 5 groups: Representatives, Directives, Commissives, Expressive and Furthermore, during the time of collecting data, we find that there are Declaratives. too many samples of giving directives, so in this thesis we just - In Vietnamese, there are some studies on particles in relation mention and investigate some ways of indirect interrogative to the illocutionary force of directives in Vietnamese by Dr. Đỗ Hữu directives. Châu ,Dr. Nguyễn Văn Hiệp , Chu Thị Thuỷ An . 1.6. ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY - Assoc. Prof. Dr Đào Thanh Lan [18], [19] has studied how to Chapter 1: Introduction express the action of directives by interrogative directives. Chapter 2: Review of Literature 2.2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Chapter 3: Methodology and Procedures J.L.Austin (1962) was the first linguist who proposed the Chapter 4: Findings and Disccussions theory of speech act, his theory of speech act was adopted and Chapter 5: Conclusion, Implications, Limitation, developed by the subsequent linguists. George Yule (1996) includes Recommmendations. speech act classification, performatives, felicity condition, direct and CHAPTER 2 indirect speech acts. And I also introduce some theoretical concepts REVIEW OF LITERATURE of J.L.Austin about speech acts of indirect interrogative directives, 2.1. PRIOR RESEARCH ON DIRECTIVES - Nguyễn Thị Tố Nga [21]: “An investigation into the syntactic components of speech acts of indirect interrogative directives. 2.2.1. Speech Acts Theory and Pragmatic Features of directives in English and Vietnamese”, Speech acts theory based on the belief that language is used to the study focuses on the syntactic and pragmatic features of perform actions was initiated by John Austin, a philosopher working directives in English and Vietnamese and the author at the same time at Oxford University in the 1940s and 1950s. presents the similarities and differences between English and 2.2.2. The Classification of Speech Acts: Vietnamese in the syntactic and pragmatic perspectives of directive George Yule (1996), lists five types of general functions speech acts. However, the study doesn’t focus on indirect performed by speech acts: declarations, representatives, expressives, interrogative directives with their syntactic and pragmatic features in directives, and commissives. English and in Vietnamese. And the study has not denoted the 2.2.3. Direct and Indirect Speech Acts influence of other factors of context to indirect interrogative Whenever there is a direct relationship between a structure and directives utterances in their contrastive in English and Vietnamese. a function, we have a direct speech act. Whenever there is an 7 8 indirect relationship between a structure and a function, we have an 2.2.8. The Directive and Its Realized Functions indirect speech act. Bach and Harnish’s view that directives express the speaker’s 2.2.4. Speech Acts of Indirect Interrogative Directives attitude toward some prospective actions by the hearer and the For example, a speaker may utter the sentence: speaker’s intention that his utterance. This category covers six kinds Can you reach the salt? In such cases it is important to emphasize that the utterance is mean as a request. Such cases, in which the utterance has two of acts including requestives, questions, requirements, prohibitives, permissives, and advisories. 2.3. LINGUISTIC COMMUNICATION illocutionary forces, are to be sharply distinguished from the cases in 2.3.1. Spoken language in face-to-face communication which, for example, the speaker tells the hearer that he wants him to Spoken language has to be understood immediately. For that do something; and then the hearer does it because the speaker wants reason, spoken language depends much on the situational context in him to, though the request at all has been made, meant, or face-to-face interaction: gestures and body language, variation in understood. The cases we will be discussing are indirect speed and loudness, intonation, stress, rhythm, pitch range, pausing interrogative directives. and phrasing. 2.2.5. Components of Speech Acts of Indirect Interrogative Directives 2.3.2. Communicative intention Communicative intention or speaker’s intended meaning 1. Locutionary act: represents the aim, possibly linguistic irrelevant, that the speaker 2. Illocutionary act or the illocutionary force: bears in mind before uttering the sentence(s) and the purpose of the 3. Perlocutionary act or the perlocutionary effect: act performed by the utterance is to achieve the aim. 2.2.6. Performatives Hypothesis 2.3.3. Mutual belief in communication 1. Explicit performative Communication is a joint act. For communication to be 2. Implicit performative possible, there must be certain mutual knowledge and beliefs 2.2.7. Felicity Condition between interlocutors. Felicity conditions are conditions to count an act as having 2.3.4. Context in face-to-face interaction with directives illocutionary act of one sort or another. Austin distinguished between Context of communication can be understood as environment three main categories on the conventional procedure and it effect of the utterance including all that is present or in action at the with the appreciate speaker and circumstance, the completion and moment of speaking. It may be divided into linguistic and non- correctness of the procedure performance and the speaker’s desires in linguistic context for the convenience of our investigation. giving directives. 9 10 2.3.5. Participants in communication with directives 2.5.2. Face Threatening Acts (FTAs) The most common term for the two participants in a dialogue is According to Brown and Levinson, positive and negative face interlocutors with speaker as the initiator of the utterance and the exist universally in human culture. In social interactions, face- addressee for the other which is used roughly by many linguists as threatening acts are at times inevitable based on the terms of the the hearer. conversation. A face threatening act is an act that inherently damages 2.4. CONVERSATIONAL PRINCIPLES AND CONVERSATIONAL the face of the addressee or the speaker by acting in opposition to the IMPLICATURE wants and desires of the other. 2.4.1. Conversational Principles 2.5.3. Negative and positive face Typically there are three participants in any episode of Negative face is threatened when an individual does not avoid language use: the language, the speaker, and the listener. We have or intend to avoid the obstruction of their interlocutor's freedom of analyzed language use at the two levels that correspond to the first action. Positive face is threatened when the speaker or hearer does two elements - the level of the linguistic act and that of the speech not care about their interactor’s feelings, wants, or does not want act. what the other wants. 2.4.2. Conversational implicature Conversational implicature is a no conventional implicature based on an addressee’s assumption that the speaker is following the conversational maxims or at least the cooperative principle. 2.5. POLITENESS THOERY 2.5.1. The Politeness Principle Leech [57, p.105] defines politeness as forms of behaviour that establish and maintain comity. That is the ability of participants in a social interaction to engage in interaction in an atmosphere of relative harmony. George Yule [50, p.60] considered politeness “polite social behavior or etiquete within aculture”. He mentions the concept of face, which is individual’s feeling of self-worth or self-image which can be damaged, maintained, or enhanced through interaction with others. Different situation require different kinds of degrees of politeness. 2.5.4. Strategies for performing face threatening act Positive politeness strategies seek to minimize the threat to the hearer’s positive face. They are used to make the hearer feel good about himself, his interests or possessions, and are most usually used in situations where the audience knows each other fairly well. CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURES 3.1. METHOD OF STUDY The study is to utilize the methods of descriptive and contrastive. On the description of the samples gathered in each language, we draw out the fundamental features so that they are later put in a contrastive analysis to find out the similarities and differences of indirect interrogative directives in two languages. 3.2. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS 3.2.1. Object of the Study 11 12 The object of the study is utterances which have the communicative illocutionary force of indirect interrogative directives 4.1.1. Indirect interrogative directives consist of interrogative Wh-word in their particular context and co-text in their monolingual or 4.1.1.1. Indirect interrogative directives consist of interrogative bilingual books, short stories, novels, research books, plays and in What daily speech in English and Vietnamese languages. (20) What makes you think so? [45, p78] 3.2.2. Data Collection (21) Cả các ông, các bà nữa, về ñi thôi chứ? Có gì mà xúm lại như The data will be collected from a number of books related to thế này ? [4, p.19] “What makes you think so” = “It doesn’t concern to you.” Or this study, in English and in Vietnamese. 3.2.3. Data Analysis “You shouldn’t take part in my problem.” In this sentence, the Describing and analyzing the utterances conveying indirect speaker wants the hearer not to take part in his problem, so it isn’t a interrogative directive in both English and Vietnamese. question. 3.3. RESEARCH PROCEDURES “Có gì mà xúm xít lại như thế này?”. When saying this - Collecting samples on indirect interrogative directives. utterance, the speaker wants the hearer not to gather and go home. - Observing on the sentence structures of the samples. 4.1.1.2. Indirect interrogative directives consist of interrogative - Classifying into groups on the basic of the represented forms Who for the realizations of indirect interrogative directives in each (27) Ai cho phép mày khóc? [13, p. 674] language. (28) Get out of here, Dillon? [60, p.134] - Drawing out on the basic of the syntactic and pragmatic features of indirect interrogative directives . We can understand that, the speaker wants to say: Who allowed you to sit here, get out of here, Dillon? 4.1.1.3. Indirect interrogative directives consist of interrogative - Proceding contrastive analysis the similarities and differences in the syntactic and pragmatic features of indirect interrogative To ask the reason, we use Why in English and sao, tại sao, vì directives in English and in Vietnamese. sao in Vietnamese. CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS AND DICUSSION 4.1 DESCRIPTION ON SYNTACTIC FEATURES OF INDIRECT INTERROGATIVE DIRECTIVES IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE Why (30) Why don’t you rest a while before you start work? [72, p.4] (32) Kìa, sao anh không ngồi xuống? [4, p.427] 4.1.1.4. Indirect interrogative directives consist of interrogative Where (40) Taxi! 13 Where to, Miss? 14 [70, p.116] (41) Thong thả ñã, ñi ñâu mà vội? (56) Would you like us to keep them for you or send them on? [4, p.257] [71, p.140] In these examples, illocutionary act of interrogative Where is The overt form of the alternative question then is one polar indirectly indentified by some accompanied utterances. question with two or more alternative connected by the coordinator 4.1.1.5. Indirect interrogative directives consist of interrogative How “or” in English and “hay”, “hay là”, “hoặc” in Vietnamese. The answer is to be found in the question itself, no other information This kind is incapable of joining in interrogative directive sought outside that is contained in the question. structure, the second is used to ask about specific characteristics, (59) Mày có giơ tay hay không thì bảo? either motive or stative; or ask about relationship. 4.2. DESCRIPTION ON PRAGMATIC FEATURES OF (43) How can I help you, my friend? (44) Thế bây giờ anh ñịnh thế nào? [61, p.45] [74, p. 360] 4.1.2. Indirect interrogative directives consist of Tagquestion [13, p.57] INDIRECT INTERROGATIVE DIRECTIVES IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE 4.2.1. Specific realizations of indirect directives in English and Vietnamese (48) Let's go and see Auntie Mary, shall we?" [79, p.397] (49) Anh sẽ giúp em chứ? [39, p.281] Only when the tag is produced in a rising intonation, the sentence has the force of a question. The tag in a rising intonation in English can be indicated in Vietnamese by the final particles hả, 4.2.1.1. Indirect interrogative directives consist of Wh-word in English and Vietnamese a. Some kinds of indirect interrogative directives consist of interrogative WHAT * Representation of indirect requestives in English and Vietnamese chứ, sao, à or the group “có phải không?” which have the function (63) What can I do for you? of checking the true value of the previous statement. (64) Các bà ñi vào nhà. Đàn bà chỉ lôi thôi, biết gì? 4.1.3 Indirect interrogative directives consist of Yes/No Interrogatives [77, p.22] [18, p.110] 4.1.4. Indirect interrogative directives consist of Alternative questions [4, p.19] * Representation of indirect suggestion in English and Vietnamese relationship between the speaker and the hearer is often higher than the behavior of commanding. before the subject and giving a sentence a rising intonation. (55) Anh không ñợi xe ñiện mà về à? [81, p.53] In this case, participants in the communication consider the Yes- No questions are usually formed by placing the operator (53) May I take your coat? interrogative (66) Việc gì ñến chị mà chị na mốt hớt? [4, p.201] * Representation of indirect advisories in English and Vietnamese 15 16 Participants in the communication consider as sentimental relationship between the speaker and the hearer, it is higher than suggestion. The agent of directive is often has higher position. (67) Làm gì mà hốt hoảng thế? Bình tĩnh nào [36, p.36] interrogative WHO [70, p.57] * Representation of indirect sugesstion in English and Vietnamese [48, p.77] (71) Ai dám xung trận bây giờ? [74] In this utterance, the speaker wants the hearers to attack the enemy. (72) Ai? Đứa nào? Nói mau lên, tao không thể chịu nổi nữa rồi? c. Some kinds of indirect interrogative directives consist of interrogative WHY [27, p.34] * Representation of indirect requestives in English and Vietnamese [31, p.61] (85) Why don’t you call your bank and check it out. [4, p.78] d. Some kinds of indirect interrogative directives consist of interrogative WHERE * Representation of indirect sugesstion in English and Vietnamese (87) Where would you like to go? [69, p.91] (88) Thong thả ñã, ñi ñâu mà vội? [4, p.257] (89) Where can I find the secretary’s office, please? [69, p.88] [73, p.347] e. Some kinds of indirect interrogative directives consist of interrogative HOW is also eliminated in interrogative directive structure. (91) How may I help you? (92) Thế nào? Mày có trả lời không thì bảo? [70, p.138] [39, p.34] 4.2.1.2 Question with answering orientation (76) Why not leave the priesthood rather than put up with it? [79, p.195] [71] * Representation of indirect sugesstion in English and Vietnamese (80) Kìa, sao anh không ngồi xuống? [81, p.386] The capacity of asking about the relationship in the second way * Representation of indirect command in English and Vietnamese (79) Why don’t we keep it safe for you until …? (84) Tại sao cậu không làm một hớp rượu nhỉ? (90) Chúng ñâu? Đem ra ñây! [37, p.25] (78) Sao không tháo gông cho huynh trưởng? (83) Then why don’t we go back and find it? * Representation of indirect command in English and Vietnamese * Representation of indirect urgence in English and Vietnamese (75) Sao mày không rót nước mời bà xơi? [4, p.427] * Representation of indirect urgency in English and Vietnamese * Representation of indirect requestives in English and Vietnamese (70) Who do first? (82) Sao anh không lấy vợ? * Representation of indirect invitation in English and Vietnamese b. Some kinds of indirect interrogative directives consist of (68) Ai cho anh kia ngó ngoáy? (81) Why not take advantage of your foresight and try to prevent it? [81, p.889] [4, p.427] * Representation of indirect advisories in English and Vietnamese In this type of indirect interrogative directives, the hearer has only one choice to the answer. (93) You will marry me soon. Miss Scarlett? (95) Dừng lại, tất cả có dừng lại hay không thì bảo ? [66, p.193] [36, p.56] 4.2.1.3. Question with recommending implication to do something 17 18 English informational question with “What about / How about…?” are conventionally used to avoid repetition in 4.2.1.8. Question with particle directive (121) Harriet, may I speak to Mr. Stanhope, please? communication. The indirect interrogative directives in this part express the They are used in many functions of directives such as requestives, suggestion. (102) How about going to that new Indian restaurant ? (105) Còn con Minh? [81, p.73] actions: asking about directive, both asking and giving directive, asking and directive with threatening meaning. [70, p.85] Table 4.2. Some types of indirect interrogative directives in English [11, p.168] and Vietnamese 4.2.1.4. Question with recommending implication not to do something Types Representation in English and Vietnamese 1 Wh-word interrogative 2 Question with answering orientation negative form of one kind or another. 3 Question with recommending implication to do something (107) When are you going to stop being such a boy scout?[81, p.378] 4 Question with recommending implication not to do Negative orientation is found in questions which contain a 4.2.1.5. Question about the ability of hearer something This type of question has the implication directive and often 5 Question about the ability of hearer expresses the representation of indirect suggestion, invitation and 6 Question with Wh-question in negative meaning offering in English and Vietnamese. 7 Question with the aspiration of speaker 8 Question with particle directive (110) Will you help me escape? [51, p.181] 4.2.1.6. Question with Wh-question in negative meaning (112) Why do you go on making so noise? [51, p.57] This type of question often has situation allowing identifying 4.2.2. Directive under the influence of socio-cultural context in English and Vietnamese. The purpose of this study is to investigate polite request the negative meaning. This negative meaning creates prerequisite strategies implicature directive with as requestive. ranking and the effect of social distance, social power of imposition in the choice of request and indirect 4.2.1.7. Question with the aspiration of speaker interrogative directives in their daily conversation. This type of question has the implication directive and often (126) If we're finished eating, why don't we get back to the game? expresses indirect suggestion, asking permission and offering in English and Vietnamese. (116) Could you help me to meet some of them? (119) Sao cháu không ướp cho thơm? [81, p.298] (132) Hễ ñược nước thì bắc lên ñây, con nhé? [61, p.150] [16, p.59] [4, p. 112] 4.2.2.1. The conception of solidarity in English and Vietnamese 19 20 a. The representation of solidarity between the interlocutors in interrogative directives in English and Vietnamese. In Vietnamese, imperatives without subjects or with informal or colloquial address terms as subjects or vocatives with the vocative Social relationship or solidarity between interlocutors can be particle: ơi, à, ạ in imperatives and hở in interrogative , signal close indicated by the choice of clause type and sentence structure. relationship between interlocutors. And we also have final particles, (135) How can I help you, my friend? [57, p.190] such as: nào, ñã, với give an important contribution to inform the [36, p.11] close relationship among interlocutors, which can not be found in (136) Tan lễ rồi, sao con không về? b.Representation of distant relationship in interrogative (153) Nghỉ tay chút xíu tụi bay ơi directive in English and Vietnamese. People of distant relationship often use formal style of language to communicate with each other. (137) May I ask you a question, Mr Faber? (138) Tan lễ rồi, sao con không về ? English. [15, p.38] In Vietnamese, a pronoun for family relationship in final position in a special tone is used more often to show the loving and [61, p.121] caress toward the hearer that do not exist in English. Compare the [36, p.11] tones for the final address terms in English and Vietnamese in the In formal context, English conventional address terms Sir, Madam. Miss, Mrs can be used alone when we don’t know the following sentence (154) Mình có bằng lòng hay không bằng lòng ? [4, p.288] surname, but in Vietnamese, we use a pronoun to express the English pronouns I – You makes no differences to the relative utterance, and it depends on the relationship distance in the age. For distance in age between interlocutors but Vietnamese pairs of instance, ông, bác for men, bà for women, cô for girls… pronouns such as cậu, tớ, mày, tao can be reciprocally used by close (142) Will you wait for me, Miss Scarlett? [43, p. 205] friends of equal age. (143) Kìa con, ông hỏi, sao con không trả lời? [13, p.141] (160) Cậu giúp tớ làm bài tập này chứ? c. Representation of close relationship in indirect interrogative directives in English and in Vietnamese. [17, p.55] In Vietnamese, the choice of the appropriate address terms for a pair for speaker and hearer is an effective means for indicating the The familiar relationship on both English and Vietnamese is marked by the informal and colloquial use of language and more subjective and direct way of giving indirect interrogative directives with some polite markers. nature of the kind of close relationship: bà – cháu, mẹ – con, anh em … while that is by no means to be expressed in English. 4.2.2.2. Power relationship in indirect interrogative directive in English and Vietnamese. (150) Why do you do it ? [67, p.132] a. The conception of power status relationship between the (151) Cả tuần làm gì mà không chịu ôn bài? [74, p.317] interlocutors in indirect interrogative directive in English and Vietnamese. 21 22 There are some differences in the perception of power relationship in English and Vietnamese. They enjoy more equality to adults. In Vietnamese, among the source of power: age, wealth, social position, education, the power that one has for his elder people and for his high hierarchical ranking in the kinship seems to (177) Thưa Cha, Cha có thể cho con một ñặc ân không? (178) Aye, aye. May I ask you a question? [36, p.11] [60, p.108] + Representation of interlocutors’s equal status in indirect interrogative directive in English and Vietnamese. The level of formality in this relationship depends on the dominate the force from other sources, especially in the old days. distance in the participants’ solidarity and their common form: (167) Could you just get me the menu again, please? [71, p. 140] formal if they both are of high background, well- educated or not b. Representation of relationship in status and power between close acquaintances; informal if they both are of low status or of the interlocutors in indirect interrogative directive in English and close relationship. Vietnamese. (181) Would you like me to come down there, Tracy? [64, p.47] (182) Thong thả ñã, ñi ñâu mà vội ? [4, p.257] The mood of the sentence of the utterance, the formality of the language use, the level of politeness of the act that is encoded either In Vietnamese, mày- tao, cậu – tớ are used when the in the linguistic forms of the utterance or the para-linguistic elements interlocutors have intimate relationship, but that in English, where can provide insights into identification of the relatively social status the pair I – you are used for speaker and hearer of all ages. and power between the speaker and the hearer. 4.4. FINDINGS (170) Sao không giật chuông gọi người nhà nó vào bẩm? [13, p.49] + Representation of the speaker’s higher status (high-low relationship in interrogative directive in English and in Vietnamese. In general, superior speaker take the prominent role in the talk. The inferior hearer then only giving verbal or nonverbal acts in 4.4.1. Similarities and differences in the syntactic features of indirect interrogative directives in English and Vietnamese. 4.4.1.1. Similarities in the syntactic features of indirect interrogative directives in English and Vietnamese. Firstly, the illocutionary force of indirect interrogative response to such directive directives in English and Vietnamese can be indicated by any clause (171) Mày ñứng ñấy à? Mày có quét ngay, không thì chết với tao bây types. In both languages, we can use some types of interrogative to giờ. [13, p.327] + Representation of speaker’s lower status (low-high relationship) in directives in English and Vietnamese. express indirect directives, such as: Wh-question, yes/ no question, tag- question, alternative questions. Secondly, the formation of indirect directives can contain As we know that, social group the hearer may belong to, vocatives, polite markers in forms of polite expression, mitigating people of lower status communicate with superior people in the devices and hedges as non-propositional component. Vocatives and formal style. 23 24 polite expressions, can exist in all forms of construction, while hedge particles, indefinite words, address term of various kinds and of wide and mitigating devices often work at the level of interrogatives. range for each kind are the effective means. Thirdly, the structures of indirect interrogative directives in every utterance are analogous and similar in the two languages. On the lower level, where the specifically linguistic means are motivated for the representation of such structure. Lastly, there are correspondence in performative verbs and 4.4.2. Similarities and differences in the pragmatic features of indirect interrogative directives in English and Vietnamese. 4.4.2.1. Similarities in the pragmatic features of indirect interrogative directives in English and Vietnamese. Firstly, in both languages, the relationship between modal elements, and the verbs of wanting in “want statement”, we interlocutors in solidarity and status or power position is the most use some verbs when you want to give directives (want, would like, important factors of the context of indirect directives. need Secondly, in English and Vietnamese, the level of politeness 4.4.1.2. Differences in the syntactic features of indirect interrogative directives in English and Vietnamese. Firstly, intonation is a supra-segmental element occurred as an and formality in giving indirect directive is corresponding to the level of face threat and the distance in the relationship between interlocutors. effective illocutionary force indicating device in English whereas its Thirdly, the functions of indirect directives and the sentences role is rather limited in Vietnamese. In Vietnamese, final particles structures for the representation of the functions are the same in both can take over that function (à, ạ, hả, nhỉ, nhé….) languages. Secondly, English uses mood, word forms and intonation for Fourthly, communication with indirect directive in English and the distinction of clause types. In Vietnamese, the use of particles and Vietnamese always needs being compensated with an amount of other function words and word combination takes the role ( ạ, nhỉ ) politeness. Thirdly, we can see morphological feature such as contraction Lastly, most English and Vietnamese choose indirect in English and phonological features of coalition and assimilation are interrogative to make directives, but the frequency of using indirect effective means for the indication or of a low level of formalities that interrogative directive of English is more than Vietnamese. do not have in Vietnamese. Fourthly, the linguistic means for the realization of the 4.4.2.2. Differences in the pragmatic features of indirect interrogative directives in English and Vietnamese. components of indirect directives in English and Vietnamese are Firstly, English show consideration to the hearer’s negative different in many ways. In English, it has grammatical categories face with the preference on the indirect way of giving directive, such as mood, modal finites, distal modals, passive voice, intensifying whereas Vietnamese displays the care for the hearer’s positive face and mitigating devices while in Vietnamese, lexical categories as with the preference on the direct way of giving directive. 25 Secondly, the grammar and vocabulary of the language are motivated. However, the linguistic strategies are not the same. In 26 relationship and preference strategies in their contrast in English and Vietnamese. English, it uses grammar such as modality, voice, mood, contraction The result analysis and discussion also gives an overview that and phonology such as intonation, coalition in the referring and most types of indirect interrogative directives in English can be inferring of the illocutionary force of indirect interrogative directives translated into Vietnamese. as well as other lexical item such as address term, particles, 5.2. IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY mitigating word. For teacher, the effective use of language and communication Thirdly, the way for the speaker of indirect interrogative with indirect interrogative directives, whatever in linguistic from or directive to reinforce imposition on the hearer is not correspondent in function must be taught or learned. For learners, different strategies the two languages. for learning are proposed. Young learners, especially children Fourthly, in some difficult situations, the English are more haven’t formed a pragmatic routine in communication even in their flexible in choosing some ways to express their speaking-aims than mother tongue. But for adult learners who have established a firm the Vietnamese. pragmatic routine of the linguistic use in their mother tongue. Fifthly, The English use more modulators in structures than the 5.3. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Vietnamese because English has more modulators than English. The Firstly, the thesis investigates some, not all, indirect modulation in Vietnamese is only words, intonation or some interrogative directives in English and Vietnamese, that is, there are supplemental behavior. still other interrogatives which need studying. Secondly, there are Lastly, the Vietnamese are more sensitive with high status and power relationship than the English. CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION- IMPLICATIONS AND LIMITATION 5.1. CONCLUSION OF THE STUDY Description and discussion have been made on the syntactic forms and pragmatic factors concerning the referring as well as the use of indirect interrogative directives in communication in English and Vietnamese. The result analysis and discussion gives an overall view about directives especially in relation to interlocutor’s different types of interrogatives which also express directives. Thirdly, the thesis just focus on written language, non- verbal strategies such as facial expressions, body language, gestures are not included. 5.4. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH. - The importance of social relationship in giving interrogative directives in English and Vietnamese. - Different ways of expressing indirect interrogative directives in English and Vietnamese.
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