Tài liệu A critical discourse analysis of medicine products advertisements in new zealand

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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES ----------o0o---------- HOÀNG THỊ MẬN A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF MEDICINE PRODUCTS ADVERTISEMENTS IN NEW ZEALAND PHÂN TÍCH DIỄN NGÔN PHÊ PHÁN CÁC QUẢNG CÁO DƯỢC PHẨM Ở NEW ZEALAND M.A. MINOR PROGRAMME THESIS Field: English Linguistics Code: 60.220.201 HANOI – 2014 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES ----------o0o---------- HOÀNG THỊ MẬN A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF MEDICINE PRODUCTS ADVERTISEMENTS IN NEW ZEALAND PHÂN TÍCH DIỄN NGÔN PHÊ PHÁN CÁC QUẢNG CÁO DƯỢC PHẨM Ở NEW ZEALAND M.A. MINOR PROGRAMME THESIS Field: English Linguistics Code: 60.220.201 Supervisor: Nguyễn Thi Thu Ha,̀ PhD ̣ HANOI – 2014 DECLARATION I hereby declare that this Master‘s thesis entitled ―A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF MEDICINE PRODUCTS ADVERTISEMENTS IN NEW ZEALAND” is my own work. This study project report is conducted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts. Hanoi, 2014 Hoàng Thị Mận i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would have never been able to finish my thesis without the guidance of my supervisor, help from friends and support from my family. Foremost, I would like to express my deeply sincere gratitude to my supervisor Dr. Nguyen Thi Thu Ha for the continuous support of my thesis, for her enthusiasm, invaluably constructive criticism and friendly advice during the project work. Her hearty and aspiring guidance helped me in all the time of my work. I could not have imagined having a better supervisor and mentor for my M.A thesis. My thanks are also due to lecturers of the Faculty of Post-Graduate Studies for their knowledge and encouragement from that I have learned during 2 years of the course. My sincere thanks also go to my relative, who is living in New Zealand, Tran Thi Huyen for helping me collect the sample data. I especially thank all of my friends and my parents for all their love, support and encouragement which help me to finish one of important project works in my life. ii ABSTRACT This study investigated medicine products advertisements in New Zealand under the perspective of Critical Discourse Analysis. A qualitative research was conducted on total 50 advertisements chosen from 4 most popular websites for online medicine advertising in New Zealand. The ideologies hidden behind linguistic features and strategies employed by medicine advertisers are the main focus. The analysis is based on a combination framework of Fairclough and Systematic Function Grammar of Halliday. It demonstrates how ideologies of a ―positive medicine product‖ are produced and reproduced in medicine products advertisements. The findings indicated that advertisers used various strategies to influence and manipulate their customer‘s perception and behavior. Thus, language in medicine advertising discourse is a means for people in power (advertisers) to control and exercise power over others. iii LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES Figure 1: Three dimensional framework of Fairclough, 2001 Figure 2: Aristotle‘s strategies of persuasion Table 1: Summary of Finding of the first step Table 2: Summary of Process, mood used Table 3: Discursive strategies used in medicine advertisements iv TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION…………………………………………………………………….i ACKNOWLEDGEMENS...........................................................................................ii ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................. iii FIGURES AND TABLES .......................................................................................... iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................... vi PART A: INTRODUCTION .................................................................................... 1 1. Rationale ................................................................................................................ 1 2. Research question………………………………………………………………..2 3. Scope of the study ................................................................................................... 2 4. Significance of the study ........................................................................................ 3 5. Design of the study.................................................................................................. 3 PART B: DEVELOPMENT ..................................................................................... 5 CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................ 5 1.1. An overview of CDA ........................................................................................... 5 1.1.1. Summary of CDA development ........................................................................ 5 1.1.2 CDA: Theory or method .................................................................................. ..6 1.2 Advertising discourse ............................................................................................ 9 1.2.1 Overview of advertising discourse ..................................................................... 9 1.2.2 Approach to adverting discourse ........................................................................ 9 CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURES ................................... 12 2.1 Data ..................................................................................................................... 12 2.1.1 Data source ....................................................................................................... 12 2.1.2 Data selection and sampling............................................................................. 12 2.2 Analytical frameworks ........................................................................................ 13 2.2.1 Faiclough‘s frameworks ................................................................................... 14 2.2.2 Halliday‘s systematic functional grammar ....................................................... 17 2.3 Method of analysis .............................................................................................. 19 CHAPTER 3: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION: ...................................... 20 v 3.1 Summary of the findings of the first step ............................................................ 20 3.2. The main findings .............................................................................................. 21 3.2.1 Textual analysis ................................................................................................ 21 3.2.1.1 Analysis in terms of word choices .............................................................. ..21 3.2.1.2 Analysis in terms of grammar features ......................................................... 25 3.2.2 Discourse practice analysis .............................................................................. 30 3.2.3 Social practice analysis .................................................................................... 38 PART C: CONCLUSION: ...................................................................................... 40 1. Main findings ........................................................................................................ 40 2. Limitations and suggestions for future studies .................................................... 41 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................ 44 APPENDICES ........................................................................................................... I APPENDIX 1: 50 brand-name medicine advertisements products in New Zealand . I APPENDIX 2: Extraction of Medicine Acts 1984: Advertisement for Medicine. ..IV vi PART A: INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale Since its appearance in humankind history, language has played a part as one of essentially important means of communication. Therefore, in accordance with the changes in human society, the function of language has been increasingly varied in numbers. It no longer confines in terms of describing, explaining or exchanging information but means to represent ideologies, to practice power and to influence others. ―Language connects with the society through ideologies and through being both a site of and a stake in, struggles for power‖ (Fairclough, 2001). The relationship between language, ideologies and power, hence has instilled interest in linguistics. Power is presented through ideologies in language or language is employed with strategies to enact power. This figures out a very close relationship between them as ―exercise of power is increasingly achieved through ideology, particularly through the workings of language‖ (Fairclough, 2001). Concerning this issue, a wide range of studies were conducted in a field of applied linguistics: Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). CDA is referred to as ―an interdisciplinary approach to the study of discourse that views language as a form of social practice and focuses on the ways social and political domination are reproduced in text and talk‖ (Fairclough, 1995). Among types of discourse, advertising discourse, in its nature could be regarded as one of the very interesting forms of language since ―advertising is the most influential institution of socialization in modern society‖ (Jhally, 1995). Although describing advertising as discourse is ―both more complex and more difficult than any of these approaches.‖ ( El-daly, 2011), advertising discourse still offers a very promising area for study due to vigorous and diversified language used. It involves the nature of social practices and the properties of language. Moreover in this channel of discourse, seemingly a huge number of receivers are aimed to influence as advertisers often use visual and linguistic features to persuade their audience. Thus, advertising language servers as a tool to influence people. 1 Also this scenario ―has brought into perspective on how people who are in control of advertisement manage to exercise their power‖ (Kuar Kuldip, 2013). Linguists and researchers in fact have conducted a noticeable number of studies related to advertising discourse. However, studies on advertising discourse from perspective of CDA, to some extent seem to be minor in number. Following this trend of research, the researcher conducts a study which focuses on advertising discourse or in a more detail it is a critical discourse analysis of medicine products advertisements in one of the English-speaking countries. The aim is to examine the way language used in medicine products advertisements as a means to present some ideologies, practice power in order to influence customers. Also, there is another concern, among various types of advertisements; I merely take notice of medicine products advertisements. In many countries all over the world, advertisement for medicine products is under extremely strict and limited control. According to WHO, New Zealand is one of the English-speaking countries that allows a direct-to-customer advertising for medicine products. However, all forms of medicine advertisements are limited in a strictly legitimate requirement which means advertising information will be displayed according to a prevailed frame. For this special situation, it is worth investigating how language is used in the medicine advertisements as a mean to influence people, to enact power and to present ideologies under those limitations of censorship. 2. Research question To be specific, the thesis aims to seek the answers to the following 2 questions: 1. What ideologies are represented through linguistic features used in medicine products advertisements? 2. What discursive strategies were employed by medicine advertisers to manipulate and influence their customers? 3. Scope of the study In this thesis, I aim to focus only on the verbal advertising – the written texts 2 of the advertisements. However, under the scope of a minor thesis, there are 50 brand- names and full-text medicine advertisements chosen from 4 most popular websites for online medicine advertising in New Zealand. Also, I have no ambition to make an analysis from all aspects of language used. Rather, only word and grammatical choices are the main focuses. In other words, the research focuses on analyzing the linguistic features of medicine products advertisements in New Zealand and reveals how the use of language tends to manipulate and influence the consumers based on the content of the advertisements. As its nature is a linguistic study, the thesis will be conducted for the academic purpose only which has no relation to discussion or analysis of marketing or commercial strategies which belong to the domain of economics. 4. Significance of the study The thesis is conducted in the hope of making some contributions. Theoretically, this study provides a support to CDA theories as from analysis of selected medicine advertisements, ideologies and power hidden behind them could be explored. In addition, as the genre of discourse dealt with is advertising discourse which is not yet widely and fully explored from the perspective of CDA in Vietnam, thus the researcher holds an expectation to signal more future researchers who will have the same interest. It is because topics for CDA should not only confine in politic argument but other sources of social practices in which advertising is an example. 5. Design of the study Within 40 pages of a minor thesis, the study is divided into 3 main parts: Part A (Introduction) aims to give the background of the study. It mentions the rationale, aims of the study, the research questions, scope and the design of the thesis. Part B (Development) includes 3 chapters: 3 Chapter 1 (Literature review) presents a review on CDA and advertising discourse with a summary of development of CDA, the nature of CDA, overview of advertising discourse. Chapter 2 (Methodology and procedures) offers a detailed explanation on the choice of database, analytical frameworks, and analysis tools for the thesis. Chapter 3 (Data analysis and discussion) is the analysis of data under frameworks of Fairclough and Halliday‘s SFG. The research questions are expected to reveal from the result of the analysis. Part C (Conclusion) summarizes the main findings from which some important conclusions have been drawn out. Some limitations are also drawn out in this chapter. 4 PART B: DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW 1.1 Overview of CDA 1.1.1 Summary of CDA development Before ―emerging as a distinct theory of language, a radically different kinds of linguistics ―(Kress, 1990) by the 1990s, the history of CDA dated back to 1970s. At that time, there was an emergence of a discourse and text analysis form which was referred to as Critical Linguistics. This new form recognized the role of language in structuring power relation in society. It is completely different from the Chomskian‘s former focus in that it aimed at ―describing and explaining language variation, language change and the structures of communication interaction with limited attention to issue of social hierarchy and power‖ (Labov, 1972). This new trend drew interest from a number of researchers whose names are: Kress and Hodge, Fowler, Van Dijk, Fairclough, Wodak, etc. Their works made a significant contribution to Critical Linguistics. The assumptions, principles, procedures were developed and this made ―CL is able to describe its aims, research interests chosen perspective and methods of analysis much more specifically and rigidly than hitherto‖ (Wodak, 2001). Critical Linguistics at that time paved the way to a new concern to the relationship between language and environment, however, the attention to social disparities and power, to some extent, is still in low state. By the end of 1980s, however, the term Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) became recognized as: ―a distinct theory of linguistic analysis‖ when there was a bloom of works and studies from many researchers: Kress (1990) should be the first name mentioned to as he laid the foundation for the CDA in early stage. Fairclough and Chouliariki (1999) offered a framework for CDA. Fairclough developed a threedimensional framework for studying discourse, where the aim is to map three separate forms of analysis onto one another: analysis of (spoken or written) language texts, analysis of discourse practice (processes of text production, distribution and consumption) and analysis of discursive events as instances of 5 sociocultural practice (Fairclough, 1995). Fairclough contributes numerous works, books and journal in CDA (Critical discourse analysis, Language and Power, Media Discourse, et al). He also claimed that Functional Grammar theory of Michael Halliday could be applied to uncover linguistic structures which are represented power in text. Wodak (1996) is another representative who shows support for the relationship between society and language. There are other researchers: Scollon, (2001), Siegfield Jager (2001) who makes considerable contribution to the development of CDA. In short, since its appearance, ―CDA has passed through the first flush of youth and is embarked upon the maturation process. It is the moment for some consolidation, for some collective thought to be given to the unity and coherence of CDA, its theoretical bases is methods of analysis and to its relationship with adjacent areas of study‖ (Faircough, 1995). 1.1.2 CDA: Theory or method? In broad sense, CDA is understood as a part of applied linguistics stems from a critical theory of language which sees the use of language as a form of social practice (Janks 1998). Also in linguistics, CDA takes place as a branch or a tool of discourse analysis. Regarding to the term, as the name implies, CDA is a type of discourse analysis from a ―critical‖ perspective. CDA, thus is equal to ―critical + discourse analysis‖. However, what makes CDA different from other forms of discourse analysis? To answer this, it is worth reviewing the nature of CDA. According to Roger (2004), CAD ―is both a theory and a method. Researchers who are interested in the relationship between language and society use CDA to help them describe, interpret and explain such relationships. CDA is different from other discourse analysis methods because it not only is a description and interpretation of discourse in context but also offers an explanation of how and why discourse works. CDA is domain of critical applied linguistics‖. This definition, possibly is the most comprehensive and overall one. Roger gives out the position of CDA in applied linguistics, the objectives and principles of CDA, its difference and more 6 importantly Roger (2004) proves that CDA is both theory and method. On theory, as Meyer (2001) claimed that: ―CDA in all of its various forms understands itself to be strongly based in theory‖. Firstly, it is due to the fact that CDA draws on a range of theoretical resources derived from numerous disciplinary fields. It has developed historically from differing conceptions of linguistics and from differing influence from a range of post-structural and neon-Marxist influences. In the fields of CDA, there are all different theoretical levels including: the theoretical level of sociological and socio psychological theory. Secondly, CDA holds a wide range of theories as Meyer (2001) reviews: micro sociological perspective of Rocollon, society and power of Michael Foucault, tradition with Siegfield Jager, Norman Fairclough and Ruth Woodak, theories of social recognition (Teun van Dijk) and grammar. However, is CDA a pure theory in domain of applied linguistics? Van Dijk (1985) though, stated that ―CDA is neither a method nor a theory that simply applied to social problems‖ and it is ―a critical perspective on doing scholarship, it is so to speak discourse analysis with an ―attitude‖, still claimed the multidisciplinary of CDA as ―the complexities of the relationships between discourse structure and social structure‖. In van Dijk‘s argument, CDA is ―explicit and systematic methods, however, it is highly a ―sophisticated, empirically grounded theory‖ because ―in CDA, theory formation, description, problem formulation and applications are closely interviewed and mutually inspiring‖. In fact as Meyer (2001) discusses, not only in the field of linguistics but the contributions from social theorists like Karl Marx, Antonio Gramsci, Louis Althusser, Jürgen Habermas, Michel Foucault and Pierre Bourdieu have shaped the basement for CDA to emerge as a theory. Thus, CDA is a theory, a linguistic and social theory to examine ideologies and power relations involved in discourse. In a more common view, CDA is considered as an emerging method of analyzing discourse. It has its own objective and method of approaching discourse in which researchers apply CDA to ―explain the relationship between language, 7 ideology and power by analyzing discourse in its material form‖ (Janks, 1998). Also CDA is a form of discourse analysis which uses Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG) to study how formal linguistic features of text, such as vocabulary and grammar are related to social power and the relationship between text and power is mediated by ideology. However, CDA does not limit itself as a method of analyzing discourse which aims at specific structures of text or conversation, but systematically relates these linguistic aspects to structures of the sociopolitical context. According to Fairclough (1995) : ―CDA sees language then as socially produced (or constituted) and at the same it also shapes the society (constitutive) and ―CDA is analysis of the dialection relationship between semiosis (including language) and other elements of social practices‖. In other words, as a form of discourse analysis, CDA aims at describing, explaining, interpreting ideologies, power hidden behind discourse. Faiclough (2001) also supposes that CDA can be used in social scientific research. This means CDA is regarded as a research tool since ―it is combined scholarly and social responsibilities, CDA must be rigorous scholarship‖ (van Dijk, 1995). Indeed, CDA can be applied widely in different domains of linguistics: translation, literature… or other social domains. Moreover, in the word of Wodak: ―most generally, CDA can be defined as a problem-oriented interdisciplinary research program, subsuming a variety of approaches with different theoretical models, research methods and agendas‖. In short, as many scholars supposing CDA lies in the fence of both theory and method. They all agree that CDA is a ―shared interest in social process of power hierarchy building, exclusion and subordination. In the tradition of critical theory, CDA aims to make transparent the discursive aspect of social disparities and inequalities. CDA in majority of cases takes the part of under the privileged and tries to show up the linguistics means used to stabilize or even to intensify iniquities in society‖ (Meyer, 2001). Thus, ―CDA needs to be understood as both a theory and a method‖ (Chouliaraki and Fairclough, 1999) in that it offers: ―not only a description and interpretation of discourses in social context but also offers an 8 explanation of why and how discourses work‖ (Rogers, 2004) and CDA provides opportunities to consider the relationships between discourse and society, between text and context, between language and power (Fairclough, 2001). 1.2 Advertising discourse 1.2.1 Definition and character of advertising discourse Advertising language, according to El-daly (2011) is referred to as a form of discourse in the sense that it has influenced not only the structure of language and the modality of lifestyle, but also the content of routine daily acts of communicative exchanges‖. The term ―advertising‖, as El-daly (2011) argues, is not often familiar as a form of ―discourse‖ but a form of public announcement intended to direct people. She also indicated types of advertisements often used:‖ printed advertisements fill the pages of newspapers and magazines. Commercials interrupt TV and radio programs constantly‖. Advertising discourse, as in the word of Fill (2002) is often presented through: "Brand names, logos. Trademarks, jingles, and slogans have become part and parcel of the ―mental encyclopedia‖ of virtually everyone who lives in a modern- day society‖. Fill (2002) also indicates 3 main categories of Advertising: (1) consumer advertising, which is directed towards the promotion of some product or service to the general public; (2) trade advertising, which is directed to dealers and professionals through appropriate trade publications and media, and (3) public relations advertising, which is directed towards society by citizens or community groups, or by politicians, in order to promote some issue of social concern or political agenda. The category of advertising in my thesis is consumer advertising. 1.2.2. Approach to advertising discourse When discussing the nature of advertising discourse, El-daly (2011) claims that ―studies of the discourse of advertising with a linguistic focus remain relatively rare. In the sense that they constitute departures from the study of more elaborated linguistic form, they are all indebted, directly or indirectly‖. The approach of critical discourse analysis used in studying advertising discourse seems to occupy a modest 9 amount. The reason for this, to some extent, relates to the nature of advertising. According to Harms (2010), most of research in advertising are ―administrative research‖, whether theses research are working out at micro level or content analysis, the insight found often to reveal the effects of advertising in carrying out certain specific tasks such as influence audiences, sell products, promote politicians rather than critical or analysis on linguistic aspect. In 1970s, since the emergence of ―critical media studies which addressed to social and cultural effects of mass communications and their roles in perpetuating and unjust social order‖, there were more studies focus on this. However, Harms (2010) argues that ―very rarely have critical studies of advertising and mass communications adequately circulated the linkage between the macro political economic structure of mass media and micro mass communication forms and techniques so as to reveal both the soio-economic functions of advertising and the ways that advertising actually shape and influence perception and behavior which reproduce the existing social system‖. Hence, the micro mass communication form such as linguistic form is directly or indirectly imbedded in the way. In fact, as El-daly (2011) indicates there are ―studies which describe the pictures of advertising without paying any attention to language‖. In other words, to examine the way language used in advertising discourse, there are generally conducted toward the pragmatic, semantic, syntax or even from psycholinguistics approaches. Studies on advertising discourse, in the light of CDA, to some extent, are still rare in number. In a study which examined beauty advertisements in local English magazines from CDA perspective conducted by Kaur Kuldip (2013), the focus was on the use of language in beauty advertisements and strategies employed by advertisers to manipulate and influence their customers in two popular local woman‘s magazines, Cleo and Women Weekly. The findings indicated that advertisers used various strategies to manipulate women. The advertisements promote an idealized lifestyle and manipulate readers to a certain extent into believing whatever that is advertised is indeed true. This study revealed how the ideology of beauty is constructed and 10 reconstructed through magazines by stereotyping how beauty products are synonymous with a better life. In addition, Rosul Shubarna (2011) conducted a critical discourse analysis of fairness products advertisements with the aim to raise awareness in order that the consumers do not get influenced by the use of persuasive discourse in advertisements before buying any kind of fairness product in Bangladesh. The findings suggest that texts influence the consumers through their artificial language. The similarity of the two studies is both of them are adopted the framework of Fairclough which reveal the representations and construction of power and ideologies through language. It also proves that language plays an essential part in enhancing effectiveness for advertisement in general. 11 CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY & PROCEDURES In this chapter, there is a detailed explanation on the choices of database, analytical frameworks and analysis tools for the thesis. In addition, the procedures of data collection, data analysis will be discussed in full detail. 2.1. Data 2.1.1 Data source The main data for analysis in this thesis are 50 medicine advertisements taken from 4 out of the most popular websites on medicine advertising in New Zealand. They are all secure and well-known online shopping sites. Furthermore, the researcher has made decision on choosing these sources as they are reliable, informative and convenient for the analysis. The links are enclosed as the following: (1) http://www.naturalmedicine.net.nz (2) http://www.kiwidrug.com (3) http://www.yourpharmacy.co.nz (4) http://www.netpharmacy.co.nz 2.1.2. Data selection and sampling There are wide ranges of medicine advertisements available on those websites. However, the researcher has made a choice of particular number of medicine products advertisements for analysis. Since the study aims at investigating medicine advertising discourse, only advertisement component are selected. All other editorials, comments, visual aids, instruction, direction, warnings or nonverbal acts are excluded for they are of different genres or require different methods of analysis. As investigated, the advertisement information of medicine products in New Zealand often lies in the Description and Ingredients. Therefore, only two sets of data: brand name - headline and full-text of those parts are investigated. Within the scope of a MA minor thesis, it is assumed that 50 brand names and full-text of medicine products advertisements would be sufficient for a relatively comprehensible analysis. Brand-names and full-text advertisements are selected 12
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