Tài liệu 90 questions of garments washing & dyeing - tài liệu 90 câu hỏi cần lưu ý khi tìm hiểu về nhuộm và wash trong ngành may mặc thời trang

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90 QUESTIONS OF GARMENTS WASHING & DYEING TÀI LIỆU: 90 CÂU HỎI CẦN LƯU Ý KHI TÌM HIỂU VỀ NHUỘM VÀ WASH TRONG NGÀNH MAY MẶC THỜI TRANG 90 QUESTIONS OF GARMENTS WASHING & DYEING. 1. DEFINITION OF GARMENT WASHING. The technology which is used to modify the appearance, outlook comfort ability and fashion of the garments is called garment washing. Depending on garments construction different types of washing process can be done. Twill/Canvas/Knitted/Corduroy - Normal wash, Pigment wash, Caustic ,Si wash Denim/Jeans/Gabardine - Enzyme wash, Stone wash, Bleach wash , Acid wash Grey fabric- Super white wash 2. WRITE THE PURPOSE OF WASHING.  Garment washing is the best touch of a garment.  Same type of garments can produce several effects for several wash Like this:  To create wash look appearance, seems the new touch of fashion.  By the washing technique, faded/old, color or tinted affect .  Washing technique creates new fashion such as tagging, grinding, destroy, blasting, whickering, permanent wrinkle, deep dye, tie dye, p.p spray, hand crapping, p.p spoonzing etc.  To reduce size materials that imports soft hand feels.  To attraction the customers/buyer by different types of fashionable washing and market development.  Due to washing, shrinkage occurs in the garments. There is no possibility of further shrinkage of the wash garments.  Any dirt, spot or germ if added in the garments during manufacturing is also removed due to washing. 3. WRITE DIFFERENT TYPES OF DRY PROCESSING.         Hand scrapping 3D whiskering Broken Tagging Wrinkle (Permanent & Overall) Grinding (Hem,Pocket,Coller,Cuff) Destroy PP spray & PP sponging. 4. WRITE DIFFERENT TYPES OF WET PROCESSING.            Normal wash/ garment wash/rinse wash Pigment wash Caustic wash Enzyme wash Stone wash Stone enzyme wash Tinting (Tie) & Over Dyeing(Dip Dyeing) Super white wash Bleach wash Acid wash Silicon wash 5. WRITE THE MACHINE NAMES WHICH ARE USED IN WASHING PLANT.             Sample washing machine ( horizontal/vertical) Washing machine Washing machine Hydro extractor machine Dryer machine Dryer machine Chemical mixture machine Industrial oven Boiler Submersible pump Grinding machine Tagging machine        Steam chamber for crinkle E.T.P Generator Sand blasting gun Sand blasting chamber Spray gun and dummy Screw compressor 6. WRITE THE CHEMICAL NAMES WHICH ARE USED IN WASHING PLANT.                       Enzyme Acetic acid [CH3-COOH] Detergent Ant staining agent Bleaching powder [Ca(OCl)CL] Sodium hyposulfite [Na2S2O2] Caustic soda [NAOH] Soda ash [Na2CO3] Sodium bicarbonate [NaHCO3] Potassium permanganate [KMnO4] Cationic/ nonionic flax softener Micro emulsion silicon Salt Buffer Hydrogen peroxide [H202] Stabilizer Fixing agent Catanizer Optical brightner Resin Sodium metabisulphite [Na2S2O5 ] Desizing agent. 7. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF NORMAL WASH?  To remove dust, dirt, oil spot, impurities from the garments.  To remove starch presents on the garment fabrics.  For soft feeling to wear the garments after purchasing.  To achieve buyer washing standard. 8. WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF HYDRO EXTRACTOR MACHINE? The function of hydro extractor machine removes excess water from the washed garments. 9. DESCRIBE THE 1ST STEP AND 2ND STEP OF NORMAL/GARMENT WASH/RINSE WASH. First step  Lot size…………………70 kg twill/canvas garment  Add water, L:R= 1:8-10…….560-700 liter  Machine running  Add detergent, 0.5 gm/liter…………..280-350gm  Temperature………….sometime cold and sometime 40∙c to 60∙c  Time………………….5 to 10 minutes  Drop the liquor  Cold wash. Second step  Add water, L:R= 1:6…….…….420 liter  Washing machine running  Add Fax softener, 0.6 gm/liter…………..252 gm  Add acetic acid, 0.5gm/liter……………..210 gm  Time………………….5 to 10 minutes  Drop the liquor  Unload the garments on trolley. 10. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF SILICON WASH?  To give durable softness and elastic handle properties.  To increase anti pilling affects, dimensional stability and tear resistance.  To improve wear and easy care properties. 11. WRITE DIFFERENT BETWEEN NORMAL WASH AND SILICON WASH. Normal wash To remove dust, dirt, oil spot, impurities from the garments. Silicon wash To give durable softness and elastic handle properties. To remove starch presents on the garment fabrics. For soft feeling to wear the garments after purchasing. To achieve buyer washing standard. To increase anti pilling affects and dimensional stability. To increase tear resistance property. To improve wear and easy care properties 12. DESCRIBE THE DESIZING PROCESS OF SILICON WASH.          Lot weight (Approx 125 pes) ............ 60 kg. Add water @ L: R = 1: 10.............. 600 Liter Machine Running. Add Desizing agent @ 0.6 gm / litre ............ 360 gm. Add Detergent @ 0.5 gm / litre.................... 300 gm. Temperature.......................... 50°c. Time...............................10-20 mts. Drop the liquor. Rinse one time 3 minutes. 13. DESCRIBE THE SOFTENING PROCESS OF SILICON WASH.           The softening=DESIZING Lot weight (Approx 125 pes) ............ 60 kg. Add water @ L: R = 1: 10.............. 600 Liter Machine Running. Add Desizing agent @ 0.6 gm / litre ............ 360 gm. Add Detergent @ 0.5 gm / litre.................... 300 gm. Temperature.......................... 50°c. Time...............................10-20 mts. Drop the liquor. Rinse one time 3 minutes. 14. WRITE THE CHEMICALS NAME WHICH ARE USED FOR PIGMENT/CAUSTIC WASH PROCESS. 1.Caustic soda 2.Soda ash 3.Detergent 4. Acetic acid 5. Flax softener 6. Silicon 15. WRITE THE CHEMICALS NAME WHICH ARE USED FOR ENZYME WASH.           Desizing agent Detergent Anti back staining agent Acetic acid Cationic softener Chlorine bleach Soda ash Sodium hypo sulphite Sodium bi carbonate Silicon. 16. WRITE THE DESIZING/ FIRST STEP OF CAUSTIC WASH PROCESS.          Lot size: - ...................... 80 kg. Add water @ L : R = 1 : 8.............. 640 Liter Machine Running. Add Caustic soda (NAOH)..... @ 1.60 gm / litre........ 1024 gm. Add Detergent ........................ @ 0.8 gm / litre ............ 512 gm. Temperature........... 50°c to 60°c. Time (Depend upon the shade) ....... 20 to 60 mts. Drop the liquor. Wash cold water for 3 mts. 17. WHAT IS THE STANDARD R.P.M OF WASHING MACHINE?  (28-35) RPM 18. WRITE THE CHEMICALS NAME WHICH ARE USED FOR SOFTNESS OF GARMENTS.  Cationic softener  Silicon  Enzyme 19. WRITE THE CHEMICALS NAME WHICH ARE USED FOR GOOD QUALITY HAND FEEL.  Cationic softener  Silicon  Enzyme 20. WHAT CHEMICAL USE IS FOR PROTECT STAINING/BLEEDING ON GARMENTS.  Anti-back staining agent 21. WHAT PROCESS IS DOING FOR REMOVE STARCH/SIZING MATERIALS FROM THE GARMENTS?  Desizing process 22. WHY ACETIC ACID IS USED IN ENZYME BATH?  Acetic acid is used in enzyme bath to neutralize the garments from alkaline condition and to control the ph value of the bath.  Then acid enzyme is given in enzyme wash. 23. WRITE DIFFERENT BETWEEN STEAM DRYER & GAS DRYER. Steam dryer Gas dryer High production rate. Low production rate. Generally light garments, white Generally heavy garments are used for dry. coloured garments are dried May be form yellowish effect No risk of yellowish formation. on the garments. 24. DESCRIBE THE DESIZING PROCESS OF DENIM LONG PANT.          Lot weight (80 pes) ............ 60 kg denim long pant. Add water @ L : R = 1 : 9 .............. 540 Liter Machine Running. Temperature.......................... 60°c. Add Desizing agent @ 0.6 gm / litre ............ 324 gm. Add Detergent @ 0.8 gm / litre.................... 432 gm. Time...............................10-- 20 mts. Drop the liquor. Wash 1 time by cold water. 25. DESCRIBE THE ENZYME BATH PROCESS OF DENIM LONG PANT BY ACID ENZYME.  Add water @ L : R = 1 : 8 .............. 450 Liter  Temperature.......................... 45°c.  Add Acetic Acid @ 0.6 gm / litre ................... 270 gm.  Add Anti back staining @ 0.6 gm / litre........ 270 gm.  Add Acid Enzyme @ 2.00 gm / litre ................ 900 gm.  Time.............. (Depend upon the shade )...40--60 mts.  Increase temperature to 90°c and run 1 minute (enzyme killing).  Drain the bath. Rinse Twice, each 3 minutes. 26. DESCRIBE THE ENZYME BATH PROCESS OF DENIM LONG PANT BY NEUTRAL ENZYME.  Add water at, L: R = 1: 8.............. 480Liter  Temperature................................ 45°c.,  Add Acetic Acid at 0.3 gm / liter..... 135CC  Add Anti Back staining at 0.6 gm / liter ... 270 gm.  Add Neutral Enzyme at 2.00 gm / liter ... 900 gm.  Time... (Depend upon the shade)….40- 80 min.  Increase temperature to 90°c and run 1 minute (enzyme killing).  Drain the bath.  Rinse Twice, each 3 minutes. 27. HOW CAN DO THE KILLING OF ENZYME IN ENZYME BATH?  For killing of enzyme in enzyme bath the temperature is increased to 900c and run for 1 minute. Or,  By using ENZYME KILLER. 28. WHY CHLORINE BLEACH IS USE IN DENIM WET PROCESSING?  Chlorine bleach is use in denim wet processing for the better bleach action on garments. Because we know that chlorine has strong bleaching power. So that it can easily create bleaching effect on garments. 29. WHAT CHEMICALS IS USE FOR NEUTRALIZATION OF CHLORINE BLEACH?  Sodium hypo sulphite (Na2S2O2) 30. WRITE THE MAIN 5 FUNCTIONS OF ENZYME WASH.  Develop ‘’Bio-polishing’’ affect on denim in echo-friendly way  Enzyme improves the ‘’Anti-pilling’’ properties.  It attacks more the surface of the fabrics and gives a very smooth surface.  It increases the color fastness and rubbing fastness properties.  Achieve high-low abrasion to produce fading effect in sewing area. 31. WHAT IS THE ACTION OF ENZYME ON GARMENTS?  It just hydrolysis the cellulose, first it attacks the projecting fiber then the yarn portion inside fabric and faded affect is produced.  It reduces GSM of the garment.  It produces buyer loving soft feel in use. 32. WHAT IS THE STANDARD TIME FOR BLEACHING IN BLEACHING BATH OF DENIM GARMENTS?  (15-25) mts 33. WHAT TYPES OF ENZYME USED IN BANGLADESH?  Acid and neutral Enzymes Acid and neutral Enzymes 34. WRITE DIFFERENT BETWEEN ACID ENZYME & NEUTRAL ENZYME. Acid enzyme 1) Acid enzyme colour is slightly brown. 2) ph =( 4.5 to 5.5) 3) Temperature: (40-55)0 C 4) Time: 25-50 min 5) More staining Neutral enzyme 1) Neutral enzyme is slightly white powder form. 2) ph= ( 6 to 7) 3) Temperature: (40-60)0C 4) Time: 40-70 min 5) Less staining. 35. HOW CAN CONTROL THE PH VALUE IN GARMENTS?  If garments in alkali media then we apply acid to control ph.  if any garments in acetic media then we apply alkali to control ph.  By using Buffer solution. 36. WHAT TYPES OF ENZYME SUITABLE FOR DARK SHADE ENZYME WASH OF DENIM LONG PANT & WHY?  Neutral enzyme is used for Dark shade enzyme wash because it comes fading effect slowly. 37. WHAT TYPE OF ENZYME SUITABLE FOR MEDIUM/LIGHT SHADE ENZYME WASH OF DENIM SKIRT?  Acid enzyme is used for medium /light shade Enzyme wash of denim skirt because it comes enzyme effect quickly than neutral enzyme. 38. WRITE DESIZING PROCESS OF TWILL LONG PANT FOR ENZYME WASH. Lot weight (80 pieces) ............ 60 kg denim long pant.  Add water at L : R = 1 : 9  Machine Running.  Add Desizing agent at 0.6 gm / litre  Add Detergent at 0.8 gm / litre  600C & (15-20) min then drop the liquor. 39. WRITE ENZYME BATH PROCESS OF TWILL LONG PANT ENZYME WASH.  Add water at L : R = 1 : 8 .............. 450 Litre  Temperature.......................... 45°c.  Add Acetic Acid at 0.6 gm / litre ................... 270 gm.  Add Anti back staining at 0.6 gm / litre........ 270 gm.  Add Acid Enzyme at 2.00 gm / litre ................ 900 gm.  Time.............. (Depend upon the shade)...40--60 mts.  Increase temperature to 90°c and run 1 minute (enzyme killing).  Drain the bath. Rinse Twice, each 3 minutes. 40. WRITE DIFFERENT TYPES OF WASHING FAULTS.  Color shade variation.  Crease Marks.  After wash hole.  Very dark & very light.  Bleach Spot.  Bottom hem & course edge destroy.  Running shading.  Over blasting / low Blasting.  Over grinding / low grinding.  Bad smell due to poor neutralization.  Poor hand feel.  To high hairiness.  Poor brightness.  High or low affect / abrasion on garments.  Spot on garments.  Out of range / level of ph value of garments. 41. WHAT IS THE PERFECT TEMPERATURE FOR ACID ENZYME AND NEUTRAL ENZYME?  (40-60) 0C 42. WRITE MAIN PROCESS OF STONE ENZYME WASH FOR DENIM LONG PANT. 1.DESIZING: WATER=700 L 8 MARK ID ECHO=500 g SODA ASH=1 kg 60CX20 min 2.WASH 2 TIMES WATER 700 L 00CX2 min 3.ENZYME WATER=700 L 8 MARK ACETIC ACID= 200g ID ECHO=500 g ACID ENZYME=200g POWDER ENZYME=700 g STONE=15 kg 45CX35min 4.WASH 1 TIMES WATER=700 L 8 MARK 00CX2 min 5.ID ECHO WATER=700 L 8 MARK ID ECHO =300g 45CX5 min 6.WASH 1 TIME WATER=700 L 8 MARK 00CX2 min 7. SEND TO PP SIGNATURE (CHECK & to PP): 8. PP NEUTRAL WATER=600 L 9 MARK DENIM CALL PACE=1kg 00CX5 min 9.WASH 2 TIMES WATER=700L , 00CX min 10.BLEACH WATER=700 L , K.C.I.=6 kg 50CXCHECK AS TIME 11.WASH 1 TIME WATER=700L, 00CX2 min 12.BLEACH NEUTRAL: WATER=700L HYPO=2 kg, 00CX5 min 13.WASH 1 TIME WATER=700 L, 00CX2 min 14. CAUSTIC WATER=700 L ID ECHO=100g CAUSTIC = 200g SOF PEC(SILICON)=50 g WASH 1 TIME 15(last step).ph CONTROL+SOFTNER WATER=400L 11 MARK ACETIC ACID=300 g NORMAL SOFTNER=2kg 00CX3 min SIGNAURE (Check and Delivery): 43. WRITE THE FUNCTION OF ANTISTAIN, DETERGENT, AND POTASSIUM PER MANGANATE, MICRO EMULSION SOFTENER, HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, OPTICAL BRIGHTENER, AND DESIZING AGENT. ANTISTAIN: To protect the garment from staining , bleeding. DETERGENT: To remove dust, dirt and other impurities from the garments. POTASSIUM PER MANGANATE: after desizing it is sprayed in garments area. It helps for color out from garment during Enzyme wash. MICRO EMULSION SOFTENER: To soft the garment and get better hand feel. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE: Enhances bleach to produce light shade. OPTICAL BRIGHTENER: For more whitening grey fabrics. DESIZING AGENT: Removes the sizing material from the garment 44. DESCRIBE ONLY BLEACHING PROCESS OF BLEACH WASH OF DENIM LONG PANT.  Add water @ L: R = 1: 8.............. 480 litres.  Machine running.  Add bleaching powder (k.c.i) @ 10 gm/litre. 4800 gm.  Add soda ash @ 5 gm/litre ............................... 2400 gm.  Temperature............................................................ 60°c.  Time (Depend upon the shade).................... 12 to 15 mts.  Drop the liquor.  Rinse twice, each 3 minutes. 45. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT PUMIC STONE?  When the impurities amount will be 10% of a pumic stone its density increases to 1 gm/cm3. Then the stone will not float.  Alternative of pumic stone: SYNTHETIC STONE  Stone wt. /fabric wt. = 0.5 to 3 /1  Dia.of stone-1-7 cm  Moisture content-less than 5%  Surface properties-less than 5% fines  Apparent Density-0.5-0.75gm/cm3  Abrasion loss-35%  Large, hard stones last longer and may be suited for heavy weight fabrics only.  Smaller, softer stones would be used for light weight fabrics and more delicate items. 46. WRITE THE APP. ENZYME & SILICON WASH CHARGE FOR TWILL MEN’S & BOY’S TROUSER SEPARATELY.  Twill men’s for Enzyme u$ 2.5-3.00 / Doz. For boys trouser U$ (2.00-2.50)/Doz.  For silicon wash twill men’s u$2.00-2.50/Doz and For boys trouser U$(1.50-2.00)/Doz. 47. WHY WE RUN THE DRYER WITH GARMENT AFTER DRY 10 TO 15 MTS. IN COLD POSITION?  We run the dryer with garment after dry 15-20 mts to back the garments to normal temperature  Evaporation of water vapor from inner drum. 48. WHICH DRYER IS SUITABLE TO DRY WHITE READYMADE GARMENTS AND WHY?  STEAM DRYER.  because there is no possibility to occur any stain, yellowish effect. 49. DESCRIBE THE RISK/PROBLEM OF GAS DRYER.  The temp of gas dryer can be increased suddenly and it also makes flame. So there have high risk to get damage of garments.  If the temp of gas dryer is higher, then garments will also be destroyed or loss of strength.  Sometime occurs yellowish effect on fabrics so avoided during white coloured garments drying 50. DESCRIBE THE FAULT/PROBLEM OF GARMENTS IF EXCESS LOAD IN THE WASHING MACHINE. Washing chemicals will not work properly so desizing/fading/bleaching/softening will not achieve as required level. 51. WHAT ARE THE REASONS OF AFTER WASH HOLE?  For improper application of chemical  Defect of washing machine.  FOR STONE with less L:R amount during washing 52. WHAT IS THE STANDARD R.P.M (INNER DRUM) OF INDUSTRIAL DRYER?  RPM= 24 for any volume of garments 53. IF INNER DRUM R.P.M OF WASHING M/C AND DRYER M/C IS TOO HIGH, WHAT TYPES OF EFFECT ON GARMENTS?  If inner drum r.p.m of washing machine is high then the garments attached with inner drum and with one another and their rotation be increase. As a result the garments become more compact and that’s why the chemical solution for washing machine and temp for dryer machine cannot work properly towards the garments. 54. WHAT ARE THE STD L:R FOR DESIZING, ENZYME BATH, SOFTENER BATH. L: R for desizing 1:9. L: R for enzyme bath 1:7. L: R for softener bath 1:6 55. WRITE THE NAME OF STEPS OF STONE ENZYME WASH PROCESS OF DENIM LONG PANT.          Desizing Hot wash Enzyme wash Bleaching Neutral wash Soft wash Hydro extractor Machine Drying Delivery. 56. WRITE THE NAME OF STEPS OF ENZYME WASH PROCESS OF DENIM (DARK) ENZYME WASH PROCESS.  Desizing  Enzyme  Softening  Hydro extractor Machine  Drying  Delivery. 57. WRITE THE FLOW CHART OF (MEDIUM) ENZYME WASH OF DENIM READYMADE GARMENTS. •DESIZING 2 •ENZYME 3 •BLEACHING 4 •NEUTRALIZING 5 •SOFTENING 6 •HYDRO-EXTRACTOR 7 •GAS DRYER 8 •DELIVERY 58. WRITE THE CHEMICAL NAME OF ACID WASH PROCESS.  Desizing agent  Detergent.  Potassium per manganate.  Phosphoric acid.  Metabisulphite.  Acetic acid.  Softener 59. WHAT IS THE STANDARD STOCK SOLUTION OF P.P. SOLUTION? Stock solutions for P.P spray is 10gm KMnO4 in 1 litre SOLn + 1% LUBRICANT 60. HOW DO YOU NEUTRALIZATION OF P.P. TREATMENT GARMENT? Oxalic acid (COOH-COOH) 61. WRITE THE PRECAUTION OF ACID WASH.  Maintain the stock solution properly constant when comes socking the stone.  No water licks age in to the machine when treated pumic stone & garments in to the machine.  Not excess load the garments in the Acid wash processing.  Add some new stone after finishing on batch to maintain the volume for 2nd batch. It is a matter of experience. 62. WHAT TYPE OF DYES USED FOR TINTING OF READY MADE GARMENTS? Reactive Dye, Direct dye. 63. GENERALLY WHICH COLOR IS USED FOR TINTING? Orange (bright color), Yellow or Blue. Similar shade given colours. 64. WRITE THE MAIN TINTING PROCESS (DYEING) BY DIRECT DYES. Step 1: Desizing: Batch size: 60pcs          Water is added Garments are loaded Machine started 500 gm Soda ash added 500 gm Caustic soda added 200 gm Bio. D added Steam temp: 60°C Process time: 25 minutes Drop liquor Step 2: Enzyme wash:          Water added 400 liters Machine running 200 ml liquid, 400 gm powder type enzyme added 150 ml Acetic acid added 200 gm Anti Back staining agent added 10 kg Pumice stone added Temp: 50°C Process time: 60 minutes Drop liquor  Step 3:Bleaching Add water at L:R=1:8…..480 litre   Machine running. Add bleaching powder (k.c.i) at 10 gm/litre.. 4800 Gms.   Add soda ash @ 5 gm/litre ..............2400 gm 50c x15-20 mts  Drop the liquor.  Rinse twice, each 3 minutes. . Step 4: Neutral wash      Water is added: 400 liters Machine running 500 gm Hypo sulphide added Steam temp: 45°C Process time: 10 minutes Drop liquor Step 5: Tinting    Water is added (400 liters) Machine running Add 0.02% Direct Brown GTL and 0.01% Direct Black V-200      4kg salt is added Steam temp: 70°C Process time: 20 minutes Check shade Drop the liquor Step 6: Drying 65. WRITE THE MAIN TINTING PROCESS (DYEING) BY REACTIVE DYES. Step 1: Desizing: Batch size: 60pcs    Water is added Garments are loaded Machine started
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