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TÀI LIỆU TẶNG HỌC SINH (PHẦN 1) Chúc các em sẽ tự tin hơn với các tài liệu của cô Nguyệt Ca chia sẻ. Gửi các em với muôn vàn yêu thương và hi vọng. Cô Nguyệt Ca www.hocmai.vn NGÂN HÀNG ĐỀ ĐỌC HIỂU Theo cấu trúc kì thi THPTQG (answer keys are from page 19) READING COMPREHENSION 1 The development of genetically modified (GM) plants and animals had led to a huge global controversy. Opponents say that GM “Frankenfoods” are a threat to our well-being, and proponents say that the risks are minimal. There is one aspect of the war over GM that is often overlooked. Anyone who wears a cotton shirt these days is using a GM crop. Cotton is the only major non-food GM crop at present, but others are coming. GM cotton plants that is not food has not stopped the most passionate GM opponents from objecting. If GM cotton is grown in a field next to fields of non-GM cotton, they argue, then how to keep genes from being transferred from field to field. This danger, however, is not as compelling to the public as possible health hazards in food, so there is no great fury over GM cotton. GM cotton seeds produce higher yields, and they do without the need for pesticides. Planting of GM cotton has increased fivefold since 1997; three-quarter of cotton in America, and over half in China, is now GM. Farmers like it because it increases their profits. Other options for non-food GM include new variety of flowers with different colors or scents, tougher grasses for lawns, and plants designed to soak up pollutants from the soil. The paper industry provides another example of potential for GM to help produce better and cheaper products. Paper is made from pulp, and pulp is generally made from trees. Researchers in New Zealand and Chile have been working on insect-resistant pines, and a Japanese firm has combined carrot genes with tree genes to make them grow better in poor soil. Another interesting case is that of tobacco. It is not food crop, but it is consumed, and GM tobacco plants with both more and less nicotine have been created. The tobacco plant, however, is an ideal target for GM, since its genetics are very well understood and it produces a lot of leaves. The value of the drugs that could be produced by GM tobacco is so high, many farmers could switch from growing tobacco for cigarettes to growing it for medicine. Since medical cost is rising, consumers would also be happy to use drugs produced in bulk by GM tobacco. facebook.com/tienganh.conguyetca - hotline: 098.113.8785 1 Question 1. Why does the author mention a cotton shirt in paragraph 1? A. To show that cotton is one of the most popular materials for clothing. B. To give an example of a common GM product that is not a food. C. To give an example of a controversy surrounding GM products. D. To show that the risk of GM products are minimal. Question 2. The word “that” refers to A. war B. aspect C. GM D. risk Question 3. The word “compelling” is closest in meaning to A. interesting B. annoying C. dangerous D. obvious Question 4. Which country plants the most GM cotton mentioned in the passage? A. America B. Japan C. Chile D. China Question 5. Which of the following is TRUE, according to the passage? A. GM cotton is less controversial than other GM products. B. There are several major non-food GM products at present. C. There have been no objection to GM cotton. D. GM cotton has no significant advantage over controversial cotton. Question 6. Which options for non-food GM is NOT mentioned in the passage? A. flowers B. grass C. tobacco D. rubber Question 7. According to the passage, why are researchers developing GM trees? A. To improve or make paper less expensive. B. To produce more fruit. C. To find a way to make paper without pulp. D. To replace trees cut down for paper. Question 8. It can be inferred from the passage that GM tobacco A. is already in the market. B. produces drugs that are very expensive. C. makes cigarettes harmless to smokers. D. can have lower or higher levels of nicotine. Question 9. What is the topic of the paragraph? A. Controversial GM products. B. The hazards of GM products. C. Non-food GM products. D. GM cotton and tobacco. Question 10. The word “switch” in the last paragraph can best be replaced by A. select B. plant C. change D. replace facebook.com/tienganh.conguyetca - hotline: 098.113.8785 2 READING COMPREHENSION 2 Long ago prehistoric man began to domesticate a number of wild plants and animals for his own use. This not only provided more abundant food but also allowed more people to live on a smaller plot of ground. We tend to forget that all of our present-day pets, livestock, and food plants were taken from the wild and developed into the forms we know today. As centuries passed and human cultures evolved and blossomed, humans began to organise their knowledge of nature into the broad field of natural history. One aspect of early natural history concerned the use of plants for drugs and medicine. The early herbalists sometimes overworked their imaginations in this respect. For example, it was widely believed that a plant or part of a plant that resembles an internal organ would cure ailments of that organ. Thus, an extract made from a heart-shaped leaf might be prescribed for a person suffering from heart problems. Nevertheless, the overall contributions of these early observers provided the rudiments of our present knowledge of drugs and their uses. Question 1: What does this passage mainly discuss? A. Cures from plants. B. The beginning of natural history. C. Prehistoric man. D. Early plants and animals. Question 2: Domestication of plants and animals probably occurred because of ______ . A. need for more readily available food B. lack of wild animals and plants C. early man’s power as a hunter D. the desire of prehistoric man to be nomadic Question 3: The word “This” in the first paragraph refers to ________ . A. providing food for man B. man’s domestication of plants and animals C. man’s ability to live on a small plot of land D. the earliest condition of prehistoric man Question 4: The word “blossomed” in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to ______ . A. produced flowers B. changed C. learned D. flourished Question 5: An herbalist is which of the following? A. A dreamer. B. An early historian. facebook.com/tienganh.conguyetca - hotline: 098.113.8785 3 C. Someone who uses plants in medicine. D. A farmer. Question 6: The phrase “in this respect” in the second paragraph refers to ______. A. the development of human culture B. the development of the field of natural history C. the use of plants for drugs and medicine D. the origin of knowledge of nature Question 7: The word “extract” in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to ________. A. design B. substance C. flavour D. ailment Question 8: Which of the following can be inferred from the passage? A. The shape of a plant is indicative of its ability to cure ailments of a similarly shaped organ. B. There is little relation between a cure for illness and the physical shape of a plant. C. The work of early herbalists has nothing to do with present day medicine. D. Early herbalists were unimaginative. Question 9: The word “rudiments” in the last paragraph is closest in meaning to _______. A. beginnings B. history C. requirements D. proofs Question 10: The passage would most likely lead to a more specific discussion in the field of _____ . A. zoology B. biology C. anatomy D. astrology READING COMPREHENSION 3 Martin Luther King, Jr., is well known for his work in civil rights and for his many famous speeches, among them is his moving "I Have A Dream" speech. But fewer people know much about King's childhood. M.L., as he was called, was born in 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia, at the home of his maternal grandfather. M.L.'s grandfather, the Reverend A.D. Williams, purchased their home on Auburn Avenue in 1909, twenty years before M.L. was born. The Reverend Williams, an eloquent speaker, played an important role in the community since so many people's lives centered around the church. He allowed his church and his home to be used as a meeting place for a number of organizations dedicated to the education and social advancement of blacks. M.L. grew up in this atmosphere, with his home being used as a community gathering place, and was no doubt influenced by it. facebook.com/tienganh.conguyetca - hotline: 098.113.8785 4 M.L.'s childhood was not especially eventful. His father was a minister and his mother was a musician. He was the second of three children, and he attended all- black schools in a black neighborhood. The neighborhood was not poor, however. Auburn Avenue was the main artery through a prosperous neighborhood that had come to symbolize achievement for Atlanta's black people. It was an area of banks, insurance companies, builders, jewelers, tailors, doctors, lawyers, and other black-owner black-operated businesses and services. Even in the face of Atlanta's segregation, the district thrived. Dr. King never forgot the community spirit he had known as a child, nor did he forget the racial prejudice that was a seemingly insurmountable barrier that kept black Atlantans from mingling with whites. Question 1: What is this passage mainly about? A. the prejudice that existed in Atlanta B. Martin Luther King's childhood C. M.L.'s grandfather D. the neighborhood King grew up in Question 2: The word "eloquent" means most nearly A. powerful B. active C. romantic D. fascinating Question 3: The word "gathering" could best be replaced by A. picking B. learning C. exciting D. meeting Question 4: Which of the following statements is NOT true? A. Anburn was a commercial areas B. M.L’s grandfather built their home on Anburn Avenue in 1909 C. M.L grew up in a rich, black neighborhood. D. M.L’s childhood was uneventful Question 5: According to the author, blacks in King's neighborhood were involved in all the following businesses and services EXCEPT A. dentistry B. medicine C. law D. banking Question 6: According to the author, King was influenced by A. community spirit B. black lawyers C. his mother D. his speeches facebook.com/tienganh.conguyetca - hotline: 098.113.8785 5 Question 7: The word "thrived" refers to which of the following? A. achieved B. surrendered C. flourished D. held Question 8: Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word "seemingly"? A. apparently B. inevitable C. inexplicable D. hastily Question 9: The word "mingling" could best be replaced by which of the following? A. interfering B. gargling C. consuming D. associating Question 10: According to the author, M.L. A. had a difficult childhood B. was a good musician as a child C. loved to listen to his grandfather speak D. grew up in a relatively rich area of Atlanta READING COMPREHENSION 4 The biologist's role in society as well as his moral and ethical responsibility in the discovery and development of new ideas has led to a reassessment of his social and scientific value systems. A scientist can no longer ignore the consequences of his discoveries; he is as concerned with the possible misuses of his findings as he is with the basic research in which he is involved. This emerging social and political role of the biologist and all other scientists requires a weighing of values that cannot be done with the accuracy or the objectivity of a laboratory balance. As a member of society, it is necessary for a biologist now to redefine his social obligations and his functions, particularly in the realm of making judgments about such ethical problems as man's control of his environment or his manipulation of genes to direct further evolutionary development. As a result of recent discoveries concerning hereditary mechanisms, genetic engineering, by which human traits are made to order, may soon be a reality. As desirable as it may seem to be, such an accomplishment would entail many value judgments. Who would decide, for example, which traits should be selected for change? In cases of genetic deficiencies and disease, the desirability of the change is obvious, but the possibilities for social misuse are so numerous that they may far outweigh the benefits. Probably the greatest biological problem of the future, as it is of the present, will be to find ways to curb environmental pollution without interfering with man's constant effort to improve the quality of his life. Many scientists believe that underlying the spectre of pollution is the facebook.com/tienganh.conguyetca - hotline: 098.113.8785 6 problem of surplus human population. A rise in population necessitates an increase in the operations of modern industry, the waste products of which increase the pollution of air, water, and soil. The question of how many people the resources of the Earth can support is one of critical importance. Although the solutions to these and many other problems are yet to be found, they do indicate the need for biologists to work with social scientists and other members of society in order to determine the requirements necessary for maintaining a healthy and productive planet. For although many of man's present and future problems may seem to be essentially social, political, or economic in nature, they have biological ramifications that could affect the very existence of life itself. Question 1: According to the passage, a modern scientist should be more concerned about ____. A. his basic research B.the development of new ideas C. his manipulation of genes D. the consequences of his discoveries Question 2: The pronoun "it" in paragraph 2 refers to ____. A. a reality C. genetic engineering B. an accomplishment D. hereditary mechanism Question 3: It is implied in the passage that genetic engineering ____. A. may do us more harm than good B. is no longer desirable C. is the most desirable for life D. will change all human traits Question 4: The pronoun "they" in paragraph 2 refers to ____. A. discoveries concerning hereditary mechanisms B. effects of genetic engineering misuse C. cases of genetic deficiencies D. possibilities for genetic deficiencies Question 5: What is probably the most important biological problem mentioned in the passage? A. social and economic deficiencies B. manipulation of genes C. genetic engineering misuse D. environmental pollution Question 6: The word "which" in paragraph 3 refers to ____. A. activities of an overpopulated society's industry B. the waste products dumped into our environment C. activities of surplus human population D. serious environmental pollution facebook.com/tienganh.conguyetca - hotline: 098.113.8785 7 Question 7: The word "underlying" in paragraph 3 could best be replaced by "____". A. noticing B. causing C. finding D. depriving Question 8: According to the passage, to save our planet, biologists should work A. harder and harder B. accurately and objectively C. on social and political purposes D. with other social scientists Question 9: Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word "ramifications" in paragraph 4? A. useful experiments B. effective techniques C. harmful consequences D. latest developments Question 10: What is the author's purpose in this passage? A. To conduct a survey of the biologist's role in society B. To urge biologists to solve the problem of surplus human population C. To emphasize the biologist's role in solving the world's problems D. To advise biologists to carry out extensive research into genetic engineering READING COMPREHENSION 5 In early civilizations, citizens were educated informally, usually within the family unit. Education meant simply learning to live. As civilizations became more complex, however, education became more formal, structured, and comprehensive. Initial efforts of the ancient Chinese and Greek societies concentrated solely on the education of males. The postBabylonian Jews and Plato were exceptions to this pattern. Plato was apparently the first significant advocate of the equality of the sexes. Women, in his ideal state, would have the same rights and duties and the same educational opportunities as men. This aspect of Platonic philosophy, however, had little or no effect on education for many centuries, and the concept of a liberal education for men only, which had been espoused by Aristotle, prevailed. In ancient Rome, the availability of an education was gradually extended to women, but they were taught separately from men. The early Christians and medieval Europeans continued this trend, and single-sex schools for the privileged classes prevailed through the Reformation period. Gradually, however, education for women on a separate but equal basis to that provided for men was becoming a clear responsibility of society. Martin Luther appealed for civil support of schools for all children. At the Council of Trent in the 16th century, the Roman Catholic Church encouraged the establishment of free primary schools for children of all classes. The concept of facebook.com/tienganh.conguyetca - hotline: 098.113.8785 8 universal primary education, regardless of sex, had been born, but it was still in the realm of the single-sex school. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, co-education became a more widely applied principle of educational philosophy. In Britain, Germany, and the Soviet Union the education of boys and girls in the same classes became an accepted practice. Since World War II, Japan and the Scandinavian countries have also adopted relatively universal co-educational systems. The greatest negative reaction to co-education has been felt in the teaching systems of the Latin countries, where the sexes have usually been separated at both primary and secondary levels, according to local conditions. A number of studies have indicated that girls seem to perform better overall and in science in particular in single-sex classes: during the adolescent years, pressure to conform to stereotypical female gender roles may disadvantage girls in traditionally male subjects, making them reluctant to volunteer for experimental work while taking part in lessons. In Britain, academic league tables point to high standards achieved in girls' schools. Some educationalists therefore suggest segregation of the sexes as a good thing, particularly in certain areas, and a number of schools are experimenting with the idea. Question 1: Ancient education generally focused its efforts on ____. A. on male learners B. both sexes C. female learners D. young people only Question 2: Education in early times was mostly aimed at ____. A. teaching skills B. learning to live C. learning new lifestyles D. imparting survival skills Question 3: The first to support the equality of the sexes was ____. A. the Chinese B. the Greek C. Plato D. the Jews Question 4: The word "informally" in this context mostly refers to an education occurring____. A. in classrooms B. outside the school C. in a department D. ability Question 5: When education first reached women, they were ____. A. locked up in a place with men B. isolated from normal life C. deprived of opportunities D. separated from men Question 6: When the concept of universal primary education was introduced, education____. A. was given free to all B. was intended for all the sexes C. focused on imparting skills D. was intended to leave out female learners Question 7: The word "espouse" is contextually closest in meaning to "____". A. to introduce B. to put off C. to give D. to induce facebook.com/tienganh.conguyetca - hotline: 098.113.8785 9 Question 8: Co-ed was negatively responded to in ____. A. Japan B. the Scandinavian countries C. South American countries D. conservative countries Question 9: The word "tables" is closest in meaning to "____". A. shapes B. meeting tables C. personalities D. figures Question 10: The word "segregation" may be understood as "____". A. grouping B. mixture C. separation D. extraction READING COMPREHENSION 6 Commuting is the practice of travelling a long distance to a town or city to work each day, and then travelling home again in the evening. The word commuting comes from commutation ticket, a US rail ticket for repeated journeys, called a season ticket in Britain. Regular travellers are called commuters. The US has many commuters. A few, mostly on the East Coast, commute by train or subway, but most depend on the car. Some leave home very early to avoid the traffic jams, and sleep in their cars until their office opens. Many people accept a long trip to work so that they can live in quiet bedroom communities away from the city, but another reason is ‘white flight’. In the 1960s most cities began to desegregate their schools, so that there were no longer separate schools for white and black children. Many white families did not want to send their children to desegregated schools, so they moved to the suburbs, which have their own schools, and where, for various reasons, few black people live. Millions of people in Britain commute by car or train. Some spend two or three hours a day travelling, so that they and their families can live in suburbia or in the countryside. Cities are surrounded by commuter belts. Part of the commuter belt around London is called the stockbroker belt because it contains houses where rich business people live. Some places are becoming dormitory towns, because people sleep there but take little part in local activities. Most commuters travel to and from work at the same time, causing the morning and evening rush hours, when buses and trains are crowded and there are traffic jams on the roads. Commuters on trains rarely talk to each other and spend their journey reading, sleeping or using their mobile phones, though this is not popular with other passengers. Increasing numbers of facebook.com/tienganh.conguyetca - hotline: 098.113.8785 10 people now work at home some days of the week, linked to their offices by computer, a practice called telecommuting. Cities in both Britain and the US are trying to reduce the number of cars coming into town each day. Some companies encourage carpooling (called car sharing in Britain), an arrangement for people who live and work near each other to travel together. Some US cities have a public service that helps such people to contact each other, and traffic lanes are reserved for car-pool vehicles. But cars and petrol/gas are cheap in the US, and many people prefer to drive alone because it gives them more freedom. In Britain many cities have park-andride schemes, car parks on the edge of the city from which buses take drivers into the centre. Question 1: Which of the following definitions of commuting would the author of this passage most probably agree with? A. Travelling to work and then home again in a day within a rural district. B. Travelling for hours from a town or city to work in the countryside every day. C. Regularly travelling a long distance between one’s place of work and one’s home. D. Using a commutation ticket for special journeys in all seasons of the year. Question 2: The word “repeated” in paragraph 1 most probably means______. A. buying a season ticket again. B. happening again and again. C. saying something again. D. doing something once again. Question 3: The passage mentions that many Americans are willing to travel a long distance to work in order to be able to live in ______. A. quiet neighbourhoods B. comfortable bedrooms C. city centres D. noisy communities Question 4: Which of the following is true according to the passage? A. The US has considerably more commuters than Britain. B. Commuting helps people in the US and Britain save a lot of time. C. Britain has considerably more commuters than the US. D. Both the US and Britain have a great number of commuters. Question 5: Which of the following is NOT true about the London commuter belt? A. It surrounds London. facebook.com/tienganh.conguyetca - hotline: 098.113.8785 11 B. It is in central London. C. It is home to some wealthy business people. D. It is like “bedroom communities” in the US. Question 6: It can be inferred from the passage that dormitory towns in Britain are places where people______. A. stay for the night B. contribute to the local community C. are employed locally D. take part in local activities Question 7: As mentioned in the passage, commuters usually______. A. talk to each other during train journeys B. go to work at different hours C. go home from work at different hours D. cause traffic congestion on the roads Question 8: The phrase “linked to” in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to______. A. shared with B. satisfied with C. connected to D. related to Question 9: All of the following are measures to reduce the number of cars coming into town each day in the US and/or Britain EXCEPT______. A. traffic lanes for carpooling B. free car parks in the city centre C. park-and-ride schemes D. carpooling/sharing Question 10: The word “it” in the last paragraph refers to______. A. travelling together B. car pool C. driving alone D. petrol/gas READING COMPREHENSION 7 Even before the turn of the century, movies began to develop in two major directions: the realistic and the formalistic. Realism and formalism are merely general, rather than absolute, terms. When used to suggest a tendency toward either polarity, such labels can be helpful, but in the end they are still just labels. Few films are exclusively formalist in style, and fewer yet are completely realist. There is also an important difference between realism and reality, although this distinction is often forgotten. Realism is a particular style, whereas physical reality is the facebook.com/tienganh.conguyetca - hotline: 098.113.8785 12 source of all the raw materials of film, both realistic and formalistic. Virtually all movie directors go to the photographable world for their subject matter, but what they do with this material - how they shape and manipulate it - determines their stylistic emphasis. Generally speaking, realistic films attempt to reproduce the surface of concrete reality with a minimum of distortion. In photographing objects and events, the filmmaker tries to suggest the copiousness of life itself. Both realist and formalist film directors must select (and hence emphasize) certain details from the chaotic sprawl of reality. But the element of selectivity in realistic films is less obvious. Realists, in short, try to preserve the illusion that their film world is unmanipulated, an objective mirror of the actual world. Formalists, on the other hand, make no such pretense. They deliberately stylize and distort their raw materials so that only the very naive would mistake a manipulated image of an object or event for the real thing. We rarely notice the style in a realistic movie; the artist tends to be self-effacing. Some filmmakers are more concerned with what is being shown than how it is manipulated. The camera is used conservatively. It is essentially a recording mechanism that reproduces the surface of tangible objects with as little commentary as possible. A high premium is placed on simplicity, spontaneity, and directness. This is not to suggest that these movies lack artistry, however, for at its best the realistic cinema specializes in art that conceals art. Question 1. What does the passage mainly discuss? A. Acting styles B. Film plots C. Styles of filmmaking D. Filmmaking 100 years ago Question 2. With which of the following statements would the author be most likely to agree? A. Realism and formalism are outdated terms. B. Most films are neither exclusively realistic nor formalistic. C. Realistic films are more popular than formalistic ones. D. Formalistic films are less artistic than realistic ones. Question 3. Whom does the author say is primarily responsible for the style of a film? A. The director B. The actors C. The producer D. The camera operator Question 4. The word "shape" is closest in meaning to_____. A. specify B. form C. understand D. achieve Question 5. The word "preserve" is closest in meaning to A. encourage B. maintain C. reflect D. attain Question 6. The word "They" refers to_____. A. films B. realists C. formalists D. raw materials Question 7. How can one recognize the formalist style? facebook.com/tienganh.conguyetca - hotline: 098.113.8785 13 A. It uses familiar images. B. It is very impersonal. C. It obviously manipulates images. D. It mirrors the actual world. Question 8. The word "tangible" is closest in meaning to A. concrete B. complex C. various D. comprehensible Question 9. Which of the following terms is NOT used to describe realism in filmmaking? A. Simple B. Spontaneous C. Self-effacing D. Exaggerated Question 10. Which of the following films would most likely use a realist style? A. A travel documentary B. A science fiction film C. A musical drama D. An animated cartoon READING COMPREHENSION 8 Esperanto is what is called a planned, or artificial, language. It was created more than a century ago by Polish eye doctor Ludwik Lazar Zamenhof. Zamenhof believed that a common language would help to alleviate some of the misunderstandings among cultures. In Zamenhof’s first attempt at a universal language, he tried to create a language that was as uncomplicated as possible. This first language included words such as ab, ac, ba, eb, be, and ce. This did not result in a workable language in that these monosyllabic words, though short, were not easy to understand or to retain. Next, Zamenhof tried a different way of constructing a simplified language. He made the words in his language sound like words that people already knew, but he simplified the grammar tremendously. One example of how he simplified the language can be seen in the suffixes: all nouns in this language end in o, as in the noun amiko, which means “friend”, and all adjectives end in -a, as in the adjective bela, which means “pretty”. Another example of the simplified language can be seen in the prefix mal-, which makes a word opposite in meaning; the word malamiko therefore means “enemy”, and the word malbela therefore means “ugly” in Zamenhof’s language. In 1887, Zamenhof wrote a description of this language and published it. He used a pen name, Dr. Esperanto, when signing the book. He selected the name Esperanto because this word means “a person who hopes” in his language. Esperanto clubs began popping up throughout Europe, and by 1950, Esperanto had spread from Europe to America and Asia. In 1905, the First World Congress of Esperanto took place in France, with approximately700 attendees from 20 different countries. Congresses were held annually for nine years, and 4,000 facebook.com/tienganh.conguyetca - hotline: 098.113.8785 14 attendees were registered for the Tenth World Esperanto Congress scheduled for 1914, when World War I erupted and forced its cancellation. Esperanto has had its ups and downs in the period since World War I. Today, years after it was introduced, it is estimated that perhaps a quarter of a million people are fluent in it. This may seem like a large number, but it is really quite small when compared with the billion English speakers and billion Mandarin Chinese speakers in today’s world. Current advocates would like to see its use grow considerably and are taking steps to try to make this happen. Question 1: The topic of this passage is A. one man’s efforts to create a universal language B. how language can be improve C. using language to communicate internationally D. a language developed in the last few years Question 2: According to the passage, Zamenhof wanted to create a universal language A. to build a name for himself C. to resolve cultural differences B. to provide a more complex language D. to create one world culture Question 3: It can be inferred from the passage that the Esperanto word malespera means A. hopeless B. hope C. hopelessness D. hopeful Question 4: The expression “popping up” in line 17 could best be replaced by A. shouting B. opening C. hiding D. leaping Question 5: It can be inferred from the passage that the Third World Congress of Esperanto took place A. in 1905 B. in 1909 C. in 1907 D. in 1913 Question 76: According to the passage, what happened to the Tenth World Esperanto Congress? A. It had attendees from20 countries B. It never took place C. It had 4,000 attendees D. It was scheduled for 1915 Question 7: The expression “ups and downs” is closest in meaning to A. tops and bottoms B. floors and ceilings C. takeoffs and landings D. highs and lows Question 8: Which paragraph describes the predecessor to Esperanto? A. The first paragraph B. The second paragraph C. The third paragraph D. The fourth paragraph Question 9: The passage would most likely be assigned reading in a course on facebook.com/tienganh.conguyetca - hotline: 098.113.8785 15 A. European history B. English grammar C. world government D. applied linguistics Question 10: The paragraph following the passage most likely discusses A. how current supporters of Esperanto are encouraging its growth B. another of Zamenhof’s accomplishments C. the disadvantages of using an artificial language D. attempts to reconvene the World Congress of Esperanto in the 1920s READING COMPREHENSION 9 Ocean water plays an indispensable role in supporting life. The great ocean basins hold about 300 million cubic miles of water. From this vast amount, about 80,000 cubic miles of water are sucked into the atmosphere each year by evaporation and returned by precipitation and drainage to the ocean. More than 24,000 cubic miles of rain descend annually upon the continents. This vast amount is required to replenish the lakes and streams, springs and water tables on which all flora and fauna are dependent. Thus, the hydrosphere permits organic existence. The hydrosphere has strange characteristics because water has properties unlike those of any other liquid. One anomaly is that water upon freezing expands by about 9 percent, whereas most liquids contract on cooling. For this reason, ice floats on water bodies instead of sinking to the bottom. If the ice sank, the hydrosphere would soon be frozen solidly, except for a thin layer of surface melt water during the summer season. Thus, all aquatic life would be destroyed and the interchange of warm and cold currents, which moderates climate, would be notably absent. Another outstanding characteristic of water is that water has a heat capacity which is the highest of all liquids and solids except ammonia. This characteristic enables the oceans to absorb and store vast quantities of heat, thereby often preventing climatic extremes. In addition, water dissolves more substances than any other liquid. It is this characteristic which helps make oceans a great storehouse for minerals which have been washed down from the continents. In several areas of the world these minerals are being commercially exploited. Solar evaporation of salt is widely practiced, potash is extracted from the Dead Sea, and magnesium is produced from seawater along the American Gulf Coast. Question 1: The author’s main purpose in this passage is to _. A. explain how water is used in commerce and industry B. compare water with other liquids C. illustrate the importance of conserving water facebook.com/tienganh.conguyetca - hotline: 098.113.8785 16 D. describe the properties and uses of water Question 2: According to the passage, fish can survive in the oceans because _. A. they do not need oxygen B. ice floats C. evaporation and condensation create a water cycle D. there are currents in the oceans Question 3: The word “outstanding” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to _ . A. exceptionally good B. special C. important D. amusing Question 4: According to the passage, the hydrosphere is NOT _. A. a source of natural resources B. the part of the earth covered by water C. responsible for all forms of life D. in danger of freezing over Question 5: The word “replenish” in paragraph 1 can best be replaced by __ _. A. replace B. evaporate C. fill again D. form Question 6: The phrase “This vast amount” refers to _. A. 80,000 million cubic miles of water B. 300 million cubic miles of water C. 24,000 cubic miles of rain D. 80,000 cubic miles of water Question 7: The author’s tone in the passage can best be described as _ . A. speculative B. dogmatic C. biased D. dispassionate Question 8: Which of the following statements would be most likely to begin the paragraph immediately following the passage? A. Another remarkably property of ice is its strength. B. Water has the ability to erode land. C. Droughts and flooding are two types of disasters associated with water. D. Magnesium is widely used in metallurgical processes. Question 9: The author organizes the passage by __ _. A. juxtaposition of true and untrue ideas B. hypothesis and proof C. general statements followed by examples D. comparison and contrast Question 10: Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a characteristic of water? A. Water contracts on cooling. B. Water can absorb heat. C. Water is a good solvent. D. Water expands when it is frozen. READING COMPREHENSION 10 facebook.com/tienganh.conguyetca - hotline: 098.113.8785 17 Colors are one of the most exciting experiences in life. I love them, and they are just as important to me as emotions are. Have you ever wondered how the two are so intimately related? Color directly affects your emotions. Color both reflects the current state of your emotions, and is something that you can use to improve or change your emotions. The color that you choose to wear either reflects your current state of being, or reflects the color or emotion that you need. The colors that you wear affect you much more than they affect the people around you. Of course they also affect anyone who comes in contrast with you, but you are the one saturated with the color all day ! I even choose items around me based on their color. In the morning, I choose my clothes based on the color or emotion that I need for the day. So you can consciously use color to control the emotions that you are exposed to, which can help you to feel better. Color, sound, and emotions are all vibrations. Emotions are literally energy in motion; they are meant to move and flow. This is the reason that real feelings are the fastest way to get your energy in motion. Also, flowing energy is exactly what creates healthy cells in your body. So, the fastest way to be healthy is to be open to your real feelings. Alternately, the fastest way to create disease is to inhibit your emotions. Question 1: What is the main idea of the passage? A. Colors can help you become healthy. B. Colorful clothes can change your mood C. Emotions and colors are closely related to each other D. Colors are one of the most exciting. Question 2: Which of the following can be affected by color? A. Your need for thrills B. Your appetite C. Your friend's feelings D. Your mood Question 3: Who is more influenced by colors you wear? A. Anyone B. Your family C. The people around you are more influenced D. You are more influenced Question 4: According to the passage, what do color, sound, and emotion all have in common? A. They are all forms of motion B. None is correct C. They all affect the cells of the body D. They are all related to health Question 5: According to this passage, what creates disease? A. Wearing the color black B. Ignoring your emotions facebook.com/tienganh.conguyetca - hotline: 098.113.8785 18 C. Being open to your emotions D. Exposing yourself to bright colors Question 6: The term "intimately" in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to A. simply B. clearly C. closely D. obviously Question 7: The term "they" in paragraph 3 refers to A. none of these B. colors C. people D. emotions Question 8: Why does the author mention that color and emotions are both vibrations? A. Because vibrations make you healthy B. Because they both affect how we feel. C. To prove the relationship between emotions and color. D. To show how color can affect energy levels in the body. Question 9: The phrase "saturated with" in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to A. covered with B. lacking in C. bored with D. in need of Question 10: What is the purpose of the passage? A. to give an objective account of how colors affect emotions B. to persuade the reader that colors can influence emotions and give a person more energy C. to show that colors are important for a healthy life D. to prove the relationship between color and emotion ************************************ ANSWER KEYS READING COMPREHENSION 1 The development of genetically modified (GM) plants and animals had led to a huge global controversy. Opponents say that GM “Frankenfoods” are a threat to our well-being, and proponents say that the risks are minimal. There is one aspect of the war over GM that is often overlooked. Anyone who wears a cotton shirt these days is using a GM crop. Cotton is the only major non-food GM crop at present, but others are coming. GM cotton plants that is not food has not stopped the most passionate GM opponents from objecting. If GM cotton is grown in a field next to fields of non-GM cotton, they argue, then how to keep genes from being transferred from field to field. This danger, however, is not as compelling to the public as possible health hazards in food, so there is no great fury over GM cotton. GM cotton seeds produce higher yields, and they do without the need for pesticides. Planting of GM cotton has increased fivefold since 1997; three-quarter of cotton in America, and over half in China, is now GM. Farmers like it because it increases their profits. facebook.com/tienganh.conguyetca - hotline: 098.113.8785 19
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