Working quality of higher education intelligentsia in Vietnam currently

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HO CHI MINH NATIONAL POLITICAL ACADEMY TRAN THI LAN WORKING QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION INTELLIGENTSIA IN VIETNAM CURRENTLY Major : Scientific Socialism Code : 62 22 85 01 SUMMARY PHD THESIS IN PHILOSOPHY HA NOI - 2014 The work was completed at Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics Scientific supervisor: PROF. DR. HOANG CHI BAO Reviewer 1:…………………………………………………………………………. Reviewer 2:…………………………………………………………………………. Reviewer 3:…………………………………………………………………………. The PhD thesis will be defensed in front of a jury and marked by at Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics At…: On ..... ...... ...... 2014 The PhD thesis is available in National Library and the Library of Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Urgency of the topic Entering the twenty-first century, the development of the knowledge economy and the revolution of science and technology not only definites the top-ten situation of human in productive force but also more and more clearly understand the extremely significant role of the intellectual resource in the development of the internal resources in each nation, each country. Vietnam is in the period of turning-point for development and promotion of industrialization and modernization. The context of the world and the era is creating prospects and favorable conditions for Vietnam as well as places our nation in the face of many risks, severe challenges in the process of integration, of which intellectual lagging and backwardness are the most fearful things. As a cradle of training high-quality human resources, the higher education of Vietnam hold a heavy responsibility to the creation and development of intellectual potential of the nation. This explains the reason why the overcoming of high-level human resources through improving labor quality of higher-education intelligentsia is considered as a strategic solution to the protection and development of Nation that should be taken interest by Vietnam. This is a direct result arising from an increase in intellectural resources that is paid special attention by Vietnam and other countries in the face of Knowledge, science and technology-based economic competition. This serious problem is also explained from long-term weaknesses of training quality of higher-education human resource in Vietnam. The more deeply Vietnam penetrates into the integration, the more affected training of human resource of Vietnam will be by the rules of competition and the negative impacts of the dark side of market mechanism. Qualification and capacity insufficiency, expression of individualism, pragmatism, formalism in labor and lack of devotion of many people in the intellectural and educators to their great responsibility to the education career. Especially, quality of higher education trained human resources does not meet requirements of domestic and international labor market that is completely stranger to the nature of creative scientific pedagogical labor and Noble Qualities of teachers. If it is not promptly remedied, human resources will be affected not only in the present but also in the future. Synchronous solutions, in particular, groundbreaking remedies play an important role in overcoming those difficulties and challenges as well as in improving the mentioned actual situation. It is requirement of development of human resource that makes working quality of higher education intelligentsia become a top interest of managers and leaders as well as of the whole society during implementation of educational revolution. On the other hand, it also ensure the the existence, sustainable development of Vietnamese higher 2 education institutions in the context of competition and international integration, in the face of expectations of the society for the innovation of educators, programs and higher education methods with the aim of improving quality of trained human resource. This is the urgent demands of society, a difficult and complex task, waste much effort, time, intellectual faculties and money. On a higher plane, concerning responsibility and conscience of the society, the interest in working quality of higher education intelligentsia means caring about training intelectual resources of the nation. It is needed to find a groundbreaking of human potential on the material racks of economic development in order to ensure reliability of the development strategy and sustainability. The key of creating the higher education human resources is working quality of the intelligentsia and educators. With the such dialectical perspective, we can see the importance and urgency of innovation of higher education, starting from innovation of working quality of managers and generations of lecturer. Interpretation and survey of the issue for finding out the solution to development not only bring theoretical meaning but also contribute to implement verification of quality of universities in accordance with standards of Ministry of Education and Training with the a view to “basic and comprehensive innovation of the education” according to the Resolution 8 in the 11th session of the Communist Party. For the above reasons, the author chooses the issue “Working quality of higher education intelligentsia in Vietnam currently” as the topic for the doctoral dissertation. 2. Research purposes and tasks 2.1. Research purposes The research is to definite a systematic conception of working quality of higher education intelligentsia in order to establish a scientific arguments of assessment of real situation in Vietnam, and then solutions to improving working quality of Vietnamese higher education intelligentsia are suggested in the beginning decades of the twenty-first century. 2.2. Research tasks In order to achieve the said purpose, apart from overview of the research situation related to intellectual issues, higher education intelligentsia, the dissertation is focused on performing the following basic tasks: - Clarigying the theoretical basis of working quality of Vietnamese higher education intelligentsia from showing the general conception to showing labor characteristics, assessment criteria and assessment of improvement of working quality of Vietnamese higher education intelligentsia presently. - Assessing the real situation of working quality of Vietnamese higher education intelligentsia and arising issues - Suggesting some key solutions in order to improve working quality of Vietnamese higher education intelligentsia with the view to meeting requirements 3 of international integration, development of intellectual economy and promotion of industrialization and modernization of the country. 3. Subject, scope of research: 3.1. Research subjects: The dissertation researches into working quality of Vietnamese higher education intelligentsia in the progress of innovation and promotion of industrialization and modernization of the nation along with impacts of trend of international integration and the great development of knowledge economy. 3.2. Scope of reseach - Quality of the higher education intelligentsia consists of a large content. Nevertheless, the dissertation only researches into three main aspects viz teaching, scientific research and education management of higher education intelligentsia in Vietnamese public universities. - Concerning time, the dissertation surveys the real situation of working quality of Vietnamese higher education inntelligentsia in the range from 2000 to 2013 and establishes solutions to improvement of working quality of such intelligentsia in the future. 4. Theoretical bases and method of the research 4.1. Theoretical bases The dissertation is performed on the basis of theoretical Marxism Leninism and Ho Chi Minh thought, viewpoint, guidelines and policies of the Party, State law on intelligentsia, education intelligentsia, higher education intelligentsia in labor and labor motivation in general. The dissertation is also inherited research results related to dissertations of authors in Vietnam and in the world. 4.2. Method of research The disseration is performed on the basis of methodology of dialectical materialism and historical materialism, method of logics and history and interdisciplinary methods such as analysis, summary, sociological investigation, comparison and generalization. 5. New scientific contributions of the dissertation - The dissertation systematically researches into issues concerning working quality of higher education intelligentsia in terms of philosophy - politics - society - education. - The dissertation establishes assessment criteria of working quality of higher education intelligentsia in professional activities. - The dissertation suggests solutions in order to improve the working working quality of Vietnamese higher education intelligentsia in the context of innovation, promotion of industrialization and modernization of the country in the impacts of trends of integration, globalization and knowledge economy development. 4 6. Theoretical and practical significances of the dissertation - The dissertation contributes to the development of new theoretical and practical research direction for working quality of Vietnamese higher education intelligentsia with the combination of philosophy - politics - society and education. - The dissertation contributes to the consolidation of scientific arguments as the basic of planning guidelines and policies of the Party and of the State on higher education intellectual activities in the new conditions. - The dissertation can be used as a reference for researching and teaching topics related to intellection and higher education intellection. 7. Structure of the dissertation Apart from the introduction, conclusion, list of references, appendix, the dissertation is divided into 4 chapters, 11 lessons. Chapter 1 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH RELATED TO THE DISSERTATION 1.1. RESEARCHES DISSERTATION IN VIETNAM WITH THE REGARD TO THE 1.1.1. Typical researches direct discussing the knowledge In the context of increase of interest in resources for development of the country in the period of industrialization and modernization, there are many State-level scientific topics, projects, dissertations and scientific articles explaining various knowledge aspects. In order to continue clarifying nature of Marxism - Leninism science, revolutionary and appropriate awareness of Vietnamese Communist Party about knowledge, such researches has given plausible interpretation of roles and missions of knowledge in promotion of industrialization and modernization of the country. By the interpretation of potiential of Vietnamese intelligentsia with the respect for the knowledge, authors suggested practical solutions to promotion of roles of intelligentsia in order to meet requirements of integration and development of knowledge economy. 1.1.2. Researches into higher education, characteristics and working quality of higher education intelligentsia Firstly, researches gave the general outline of higher education intelligentsia: With the view on considering higher education intelligentsia as a factor that directly affecting training quality of human resource, many researchers focused on explaination of situation and roles of higher education intelligentsia and finding out basic solutions in order to create motivation for educators and lecturers at undergraduation education level. 5 Secondly, researches directly discussed working characteristics of higher education intelligentsia, namely: The article “Working characteristics of lecturers in universities and vocational training schools”, Journal of higher and professional education, Vol. 5/2000 by author Do Van Phuc mainly emphasized creative labor, intellectual labor with some harmful elements and typical tensions of higher education intelligentsia. In order to determinate working characteristics of higher education intelligentsia, Associate.Professor. Doctor Nguyen Thi My Loc and Doctor Dang Xuan Hai in the topic: “higher education lecturers and pedagogical communication”, “teaching methods at higher education level” in the training material “Higher education”, Hanoi, 2003 came up with the concept: In universities, pedagogical creativity associated with scientific creativity. Assco.Prof.Dr Pham Hong Quang – author of the book named “educational environment”, Education Publishing House, 2006 affirmed that: function of pegagogical labor is to reproduce labor power of the society; it is a professional intellectual labor. During interpretation of “The nature of creative activities in scientific research”, (research material), Hanoi, 2006, Prof. Dr. Hoang Chi Bao emphasized that higher education combines teaching with scientific research and serves production. Working of higher education intelligentsia presents creativity by its rich, diversified and complex expression. Studying on the characteristics of higher education, Dr. Nguyen Ba Can in his dissertation “Competition of policy on Vietnamese higher education development presently”, Hanoi, 2009 showed that products of higher education have their unique quality – viz labors take responsibility to their families, the society and the nation. Thirdly, the researches initially mentioned working quality of higher education intelligentsia, notably: Vietnam National University, Hanoi Key topic, 2006, code: QGTĐ.02.06: “Researching into creating assessment criteria of higher education activities and scientific research of lecturers in Vietnam National University, Hanoi” was leaded by Prof. Dr. Nguyen Duc Chinh and Assco.Prof.Dr Nguyen Phuong Nga and accepted. The report “Higher education and skills for Growth”, 2008 by Human Development Department of East Asia and Pacific Region under World Bank. They are researches into measurement and assessment of efficiency of responsibility implementation of educators carried out by specialists, thus the research result plays an important role in suggesting direction of general assessment of working quality of higher education intelligentsia currently. Moreover, there are many other independent articles of scientific researches into quality of higher education in general, typical: Nguyen Duc Chinh, 6 Nguyen Phuong Nga: “Researching into construction of assessment criteria of higher education training quality”, Journal of Higher and professional education, 2000, Vol. 7; Ta Thi Thu Hien: “Quality assurance system in universities according to viewpoints of network of universities in Southeast Asia region”, Journal of Political Theory and Communications, Vol. 08/2011; Le Huu Ai, Lam Ba Hoa: “Higher education in Vietnam currently – Actual situation and solutions to improvement of quality”, Journal of Philosophy, 2010, Vol. 9; Pham Ngoc Trung: “Quality of education in Vietnamese universities presently”, Journal of Political Theory and Communications, 2011, Vol. 8. By researching into different conceptions of quality in sectors, the authors has taken their general conceptions of quality of higher education, whereby they can determine assessment criteria and suggest some solutions to improvement of working efficiency of higher education intelligentsia in Vietnam currently. 1.2. INTERNATIONAL DISSERTATION RESEARCHES WITH REGARD TO THE In almost countries, higher education intelligentsia are appreciated by their States. In many subjects to researches, it is nescessary to take interest in the intelligentsia, educators, especially lecturers, typically: J.Vial in the book named “History and News about teaching methods”, 1993; J.A Centra with the research into: “Self-assessment of university lecturers: A comparison of student’s assessment", Journal of Educational Assessment, Vol. 13, 1973; Ph.N.Gônôbôlin: “The psychological qualities of the teachers”, Education Publishing House, 197;Franz Emanuel Weinert: “Development of awareness of studying and teaching”, Education Publishing House, Hanoi, 1998; Especially, UNESCO has held activities on human intelligence of an education for the 21st century with “Higher Education in the Twenty - First Century - vision and Action”, World Conference on Higher Education, Paris, October, 1998. Summary of the said researches defines a new conception of working characteristics of educators at undergraduate education level. Whereby, quality of higher education is considered as a multi-dimensional concept covering every roles and activities of the universities. 1.3. VALUES AND SHORTCOMINGS OF RESEARCHES WITH REGARD TO THE DISSERTATION AND ISSUES NEED TO BE CLARIFIED IN THE RESEARCH From overview of the research projects related to the dissertation, the author would like to make an overall assessment as follows: Firstly, research projects outlined approaches to higher education intelligentsia and intelligentsia. Notably, those views considers the intelligentsia as a social force, a social class who are identified and classified by nature of intellectual, creative and complex labor. 7 Secondly, the theoretical studies of intelligentsia and higher education intelligentsia are various but there is no State-level special research, project, scientific research, dissertation focusing on interpretation interpretation of issues concerning working quality of Vietnamese higher education intelligentsia. Thirdly, under the angle, aspects, scope of different studies, the researches mentioned working natures of lecturers in each aspect, mainly focusing on responsibility, tasks, subject, impact tools and working natures of lecturers and scientists. Fourthly, in the aspect of working quality of higher education intelligentsia, published researches were mainly focused on assessing lecturers’ tasks under the angle of approach of education. In fact, working quality of higher education intelligentsia is not studied globally and systematically by interdisciplinary perspective of philosophy - politics - society – education. Fifthly, many actual aspects concerning improvement of working quality of Vietnamese higher education intelligentsia have been clarified such as actual situation, issues steamed from such situation; regulations of working quality of higher education intelligentsia in training institutions nationwide; regime, level, impact of the guidelines, policies and laws on improvement of working quality of this group currently. Sixthly, clarification of working quality of Vietnamese higher education managers is a new issue, there is no in-depth research towards building into a theory and practical summary of working quality of this group in order to meet requirements of basic and comprehensive innovation of Vietnamese higher education today. Seventhly, many issues settled by the author such as: - With the philosophy - politics - society – education interdisciplinary approach, the dissertation forms a new systematic conception of working quality of higher education intelligentsia. - Construction of scientific arguments for the necessity of improvement of working quality of Vietnamese higher education intelligentsia today. - The dissertation establishs assessment criteria of working quality of higher education intelligentsia in some public universities. - The dissertation clarifies some problems concerning working quality of Vietnamese higher education intelligentsia, whereby the author suggests some key solutions to improvement of working quality of higher education intelligentsia in Vietnam presently. 8 Chapter 2 RATIONALE ON LABOR QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION INTELLIGENTSIA 2.1. CONCEPT OF INTELLIGENTSIA, HIGHER EDUCATION INTELLIGENTSIA AND LABOUR OF HIGHER EDUCATION INTELLIGENTSIA 2.1.1. Concept of intelligentsia Intelligentsia is a term, a science concept with different connotations. Accordingly, when considering the concept of intellectual requires attention to history - specific and perspective approach. In consistent with the concept of Marxism - Leninism, Communist Party of Vietnam on intelligentsia, we believe that, intelligentsia is a social class characterized by method of intellectual labor and creativity. They are the main force directly involved in the innovation, preservation and dissemination of knowledge, contributing to the development of cognitive science and social progress. Intelligentsia is recognized in the following outstanding characteristics: Intelligentsia is not a class but a special and typical social class. Intelligentsia should be considered an individual - entity with creative personality, education, knowledge being form through continuously training, fostering and developing by way of self-training, self-picking up and completing in creative labors and activities as well as genuine intelligentsia, knowledge must be associated with dedication; political ideals and social responsibility should be expressed through ideal career, particular professional activity, deeply attached to his motherland and people. 2.1.2. Concept of higher education intelligentsia of Vietnam Vietnam higher education intelligentsia is a typical or specific social force or a social- career group of intelligentsia; entity of pedagogical activities in the field of higher education with the duty of teaching; researching science, applying & transferring technology; organizing and managing pedagogical activities to raise people's knowledge, train the high levels of human resource and develop talented people for the country. In the process of building socialism in our country today, the roles and responsibilities of Vietnam higher education intelligentsia are more and more formed clearly as follows: Firstly, Vietnam higher education intelligentsia must directly associate the training with scientific research, activities of schools with production and community services. Secondly, Vietnam higher education intelligentsia is a striking force, key force directly to build the advanced higher education of Vietnam, significantly contribute to develop the country's education. Thirdly, with the role of intellectual resources, Vietnam higher education 9 intelligentsia participates directly in training human resource, building team of experts, scientists to meet requirements of labour quality of socio-economy. Fourthly, Vietnam higher education intelligentsia contributes to improve the national capacity of scientific and technology. Finally, Vietnam higher education intelligentsia is a force that brings creative talent, enthusiasm and responsibility in building the scientific arguments as the basic for planning the ways, policies of the Party and State. 2.1.3. Concept of labour of higher education intelligentsia Labour of higher education intelligentsia is the purpose of the impact of teachers on learners in order to train, foster and development high quality human resource. This should be recognized on the main following aspects: Firstly, which means that a job; labour of higher education intelligentsia is activity of professional career, education and training in higher education that the outstanding features are scientific & pedagogical activities, teaching and vocational training and training people. Secondly, labour of higher education intelligentsia is higher creative labour with the particularly important role to create physical and mental values. Every success in teaching or each new contribution in research and in leadership and management activities of higher education intelligentsia contribute to build the intellectual potential for nation and promote the socio-economic growth of nation. Thirdly, approach of labour of higher education intelligentsia on functional aspects, we can consider that teaching of literacy, teaching personality and vocational training are three consistent activities in the process of training high-quality human resources for development of nation socio-economy. Finally, it needs to consider that the labour of higher education intelligentsia is individual labour but the occupation characteristics have been brought and required strictly the collective, universal, and interactive and consensus. 2.2. SPECIAL FEATURES OF VIETNAM INTELLIGENTSIA IN THE PRESENT CONTEXT HIGHER EDUCATION 2.2.1. Labour of higher education intelligentsia is the intellectual and creative labour Labour of higher education intelligentsia is primarily intellectual labour. The special features in labour are presented in regularly to mobilize intellectual resources, promote the creative thinking with high concentration of gray matter crystallized in product. That is inventions, innovations and initiatives, even personality of learners, qualifications and skills of human resource. If the creativity in teaching of higher education intelligentsia is capacities of systematization, inheritance, selection of information associated with operations of analysis, synthesis, lecture which help learners understand and acquire knowledge, the creativity in scientific research will be the finding of new ones, providing new interpretations or a new proposal to contribute to the issue 10 that Lenin called the truth of perception. As human resource scientific, the activities of leadership, education management of higher education intelligentsia are also intellectual labour and creativity. It requires the leaders; managers must skillfully use the talent, intellectual and emotional by scientific methods, creative thinking which convincing in managing labour activities of collective and teachers. 2.2.2. Labour of higher education intelligentsia is high level of pedagogical labour The key factor to differentiate the characteristic expresses in occupation function, objective, labour method, focusing on intellectual development requirements, thinking capacity forming, labour skill for high quality human resource which meet the requirements and demand of nation in the context of strengthening industrialization and modernization, international integration and intellectual economy development. That requires each intelligentsia the high level of pedagogical skills- skill of cognitive activity orientation, skill of vocational training and skill of sensitizing people by ethics, personality and heart. Requirement appreciated highly in pedagogical labor of higher education intelligentsia is capacity of to lead students in creative environment in order that they can learn by themselves to find the knowledge on the basic of teacher’s instruction. For higher education intelligentsia, all knowledge and understanding need to be transformed into methods to generate the knowledge and renew the own knowledge. Besides, it can orient, organize the cognitive performance of learners, create transformation step from education to selfeducation, training to self-training. 2.2.3. Teaching and scientific research are two parallel tasks of most higher education intelligentsia Although every higher education intelligentsia participates in teaching and scientific research, most intelligentsia is a lecturer even the force of leadership, educational management in universities participating in teaching and scientific research in certain level. Therefore, it may be considered that the teaching and the scientific research are two parallel tasks of must higher education intelligentsia. Dialectical association between teaching and scientific research actually is the requirements of having knowledge and known how to impart the knowledge. After all, fostering learners the ability to self-thinking, self-study and self-research is fostering methods of scientific research, which requires each higher education intelligentsia not only has two pairs of most important qualities, capacities of teacher: pedagogical occupation trend and pedagogical capacity but also associate with pedagogical occupation trend and capacity of scientific research. Besides, they must know how to organize the cognitive processes of students by teaching and how to self-research, deploy scientific ideas and develop capacities, good qualities of an expert. 11 2.2.4. Labour product of higher education intelligentsia contributes to develop the high quality human resource of nation Both theoretical and practical aspects require university as typical place for intellectual life and spiritual culture of society. It is the nursery of future scientific talent and the cradle nurturing scientific minds of many generations. By talent, dedication and his own way, each intelligentsia needs to participate in process of producing knowledge, creating the high quality human resource of nation from the general level to each development stage step by step to meet the rigorous demands of the market economy with socialist orientation. The growth of higher education intelligentsia of our country and their labour product will be the biggest additional resources to develop the intelligentsia and high quality human resource of country. 2.3. CONCEPT OF LABOR QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION INTELLIGENTSIA 2.3.1. Concept of labor quality In many respects, levels or ambiguous nature of the category “labor quality” in methodology, it requires research from comprehensive perspective, synthesis and system method. In our opinion, labour quality is concept which to indicate the level of satisfaction, ability to meet the criteria and requirements set forth by a particular work. Labour quality itself contains a range of factors as the satisfaction, response and coincidence between actual labour result and demand, desire of the subject or the available goal and identified target. Labor quality of any subject also reflects the real labor quality of individual. On the larger scale, it also creates the mirror to reflect the labour value of society in each certainly period of history. 2.3.2. Concept of labour quality of higher education intelligentsia It is said that the labor quality of higher education intelligentsia is a multidimensional concept, covering the responsibilities and duties of teachers at university, expressing the synthesis result of occupation activities of teachers. We believe that, the labour quality of higher education intelligentsia needs to be reviewed as a result of completing the responsibility of teachers, management officers at higher education center with effect in changing the level, thinking capacity and developing the personality of the learner positively and progressively; is the characteristic to consistently satisfy and meet customer requirements, or entities benefit from professional activities of teacher intelligentsia at university. Teaching quality of teacher intelligentsia at our university not only expresses in volume of information imparted but also receives the high evaluation in level and effectiveness of forming cognitive capacity, thinking, practice as well as the capacity to create jobs or adapt and integrate in international of students after graduated. The quality of scientific research, technology transfer of higher education intelligentsia s expressed at the level of creation, effect of deployment, application 12 of research result, inventions, innovations in real training, fostering of school and duty of developing socio-economy of country. The quality of management operation of higher education intelligentsia is reflected in effect of building, implementing and monitoring the performance of teaching & studying plan, scientific research and technology transfer of intelligentsia who is leader or undertakes some activities such as academic advisor, class teacher or the work of unions, associations. 2.3.3. Criteria for assessing the quality of current higher education intelligentsia in Vietnam Assessing the quality of higher education intelligentsia in Vietnam is actually the judgment of labor values to clarify intellectual contributions of university lecturers and subjects managing the education in higher education to the society. Assessing the quality of higher education intelligentsia is needed to focus on the following basic criteria: Firstly, level of satisfying the teachers’ standards for higher education intelligentsia Secondly, level of fulfilling tasks by higher education intelligentsia under the assigned authority Thirdly, actual work results of higher education intelligentsia Fourthly, satisfaction level of university lecturers, students and subjects using higher education products against the work results of higher education intelligentsia Fifthly, satisfaction ability of the trained human resources for the labor market. This criterion is quantified at an employment rate of students after graduation and quality of higher education human resources. 2.4. EVITABILITY OF IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF CURRENT HIGHER EDUCATION INTELLIGENTSIA IN VIETNAM 2.4.1. Improving the quality of higher education intelligentsia in Vietnam as an inevitable need from national development requirements Building socialism in Vietnam in the aim of human liberation and development requires socio-economic development based on science and technology in the phase of promoting national industrialization and modernization in line with the development of knowledge economy. Moreover, pressure of enhancing the economy’s competitiveness requires higher education to supply high-quality human resources for the society. This requirement has only been satisfied if the quality of higher education intelligentsia is enhanced as a basic condition directly decisive to the production and reproduction of goods with a special product – humanintelligence to meet needs of national development. 2.4.2. Improving the quality of higher education intelligentsia as an internal requirement for basic and comprehensive renovation in Vietnam In any higher education institutions, poor education quality is probably also a constant threat to the university’s sustainable existence and development. It is necessary to be deeply aware that higher education in Vietnam has faced a 13 crucially important requirement – basic and comprehensive renovation of higher education in the aim of concentratedly training high-quality human resource, including regional-level and international-level universities and training majors; improving quality under the needs of standardization, modernization, socialization and international integration. To carry out that strategy successfully, improving the quality of higher education intelligentsia has become an essential need. On the other side, guidelines for credit-orientated training, trend for selfmanagement increase and requirements for enhancing the self-responsibility of universities along with implementing quality inspection of universities under the Ministry of Education and Training’s regulations have become a motivation rocketing the quality enhancement of the intelligentsia in higher education. This also makes higher education intelligentsia possibly be discharged if their labor quality does not meet requests for learners or subjects using human resources. 2.4.3. Improving the quality of higher education intelligentsia to exploit all potentials effectively, use higher education’s resources reasonably and cost-effectively The university’s training efficiency is controlled by the exploration of potentials as well as reasonable and cost-effective use of higher education resources. In case of not improving the quality of higher education intelligentsia, investment of facilities, modernization of teaching aids, renovation of mechanism and development polices of higher education as well as teaching methods have become meaningless, even seriously wasteful for higher education in particular and socio-economic management in general in the limited conditions of educational expenses and investment budget. The quality of higher education is formed by many factors, but other factors have only played a supportive role, facilitating so that the intelligentsia may perform their functions and tasks. To conclude, improving the quality of higher education intelligentsia has been considered as a central point not only affixing educational elements to a perfect whole but also directly deciding the use effectiveness of higher education resources. Chapter 3 CURRENT SITUATIONS OF THE QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION INTELLIGENTSIA IN VIETNAM AND SEVERAL PROPOSED PROBLEMS 3.1. CURRENT SITUATIONS OF THE QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION INTELLIGENTSIA IN VIETNAM 3.1.1. Level of satisfying the teachers’ standards for higher education intelligentsia in Vietnam In line with the cause of comprehensive renovation in Vietnam and expansion for the human resource training scale, the number of higher 14 education intelligentsia has constantly been supplemented in terms of quantity, improved in terms of quality, gradually meeting the stipulated standards of professional qualification, capacity and ethical quality of the teachers. Thereby they have accomplished their teaching tasks, done scientific researches, maintained honor and prestige, fostered political quality and occupational ethics. Nevertheless, rate of the teachers not gaining the standards of professional qualification under the laws’ regulations (due to not being trained postgraduation programs) still accounts for 38.75%. Furthermore, deficiency in successive high-qualified officers has misbalanced age structure, qualification and succession of intelligentsia in higher education. Additionally, ideal erosion and ethical degradation as well as expressions of form labor, problems from a large number of university lecturers have been remedied, not only adversely affecting the teachers’ honor and prestige but also restricting the quality of higher education intelligentsia in Vietnam. 3.1.2. Level of fulfilling tasks of higher education intelligentsia in Vietnam Firstly, fulfilling teaching tasks, doing scientific researches under training goals and curricula According to data from sociological surveys, 64.1% university lecturers have positively taken part in teaching activity under goals and contents of curriculum. An absolute majority of the teachers have strived to accomplish their standard teaching hours and do scientific researches subject to job titles. In fact, compiling course books, reference books and documents for education and training activities by the intelligentsia has not been completed at a high level. A number of higher education intelligentsia do not meet requirements of announcing research results on foreign and domestic scientific journals. Secondly, level of fulfilling tasks of periodical studies, fostering and enhancing professional qualification of higher education intelligentsia In many years, higher education intelligentsia has endeavored in the process of training, fostering and enhancing theoretical level, professional qualification and teaching methods. Nonetheless, prevailing limitations of high education intelligentsia are only paying attention to training and fostering professional qualification. It is a fact that the considerable number of university lecturers has actively not nourished their political theoretical level, research capacity, applied information technology and used foreign languages, meeting the required professional qualification. Thirdly, level of fulfilling tasks of higher education intelligentsia with the involvement of educational management Higher education intelligentsia with the involvement of management has accomplished tasks of building, implementing and supervising the performance of teaching and learning schedules as well as scientific researches of university lecturers. A number of young intelligentsia in higher education have devotedly 15 accomplished their work. Nevertheless, it is a fact that we have lacked talented education managers in the institutions. 3.1.3. Work results of higher education intelligentsia in Vietnam It is admitted that higher education intelligentsia has obtained positive results considerably contributing economic growth, social stability, national security and defense assurance as well as international integration. Every year higher education intelligentsia has directly participated the training of tens of bachelors, masters and doctors, making remarkable contributions to the implementation of high-qualified human resource development strategy for the promotion of national industrialization and modernization. Results from scientific researches, leadership and management of high education intelligentsia have contributed the improvement of national science and technology level, the making of guidelines and policies of the Party and the State as well as initially resolving new problems arising in the cause of renovation. Main limitations from labor results of higher education intelligentsia are poor education quality; poor non-governmental training; the renovation of training contents and curriculum in universities not keeping up with requirements of production reality; low applied efficiency of scientific works with about 40% research results not utilized; unreasonable management of the intelligentsia in higher education shown in the inactiveness before the macro-management causing the limitations of self-management and creativity in the education and training activities. 3.1.4. Satisfaction level of university lecturers, students and subjects using higher education products for the work results of teachers in higher education Although satisfaction level of students and university lecturers for work results of the intelligentsia in higher education has reached a high rate of more than 70%. In terms of results from training human resources satisfying national development needs, there have a number of feedback indicating concerns and dissatisfaction. This clarifies the reason(s) why 60% enterprises involving the surveys have given their dissatisfaction with quality of human resource education in universities. 3.1.5. Satisfying ability of the trained human resources for the labor market It can be confirmed that higher education intelligentsia through occupational labor has considerably contributed strategies of improving people’s intellectual levels, training human resource and fostering talented individuals for the country. Nowadays, every year higher education has provided the society with more than 10,000 people with their post-graduate qualification. They have been the core force involving the employment in almost all different social aspects. Looking at the picture of higher education in Vietnam can easily realize one of the biggest limitations – lack of employees fast responsive, active, creative 16 and capable for meeting the knowledge economy’s requirements. A majority of enterprise managers have joint comments: almost all information technology engineers have professional quality much lower than international standards; newly graduated students of business administration major are poor in terms of qualifications and prone to theories. The current situation demonstrates that not only severe deficiency in high-qualified human resource in key aspects must generate breakthroughs in the context of global integration and competitiveness as well as increasing distance between the quality of higher education intelligentsia as well as actual requirements and social expectations. 3.2. EMERGING ISSUES FOR THE LABOR QUALITY OF THE HIGHER EDUCATION INTELLIGENTSIA IN VIETNAM 3.2.1. The risk of lagging on the qualification and capacity of the higher education intelligentsia before the international integration requirements In fact, the higher education intelligentsia in Vietnam has a lot of shortcomings and inadequacies on the professional qualifications and capacitybefore the career requirements, the requirement of the country's development and international integration. Compared with the developed countries having the advanced higher educationbackground, the professional qualifications of our higher education intelligentsia tend to have more noticeable lagging. Notably, the rate of lecturers having a doctoral degree or scientific titles, such as Professor, Associate Professor in our country is very low. The number of intellectual elites and talented people is very little; the number of leading experts lacks seriously and the next generation is in short fall; andthere is very little strong scientific group with a reputation to compete on the global scale. Not only the foreign language proficiency is weak, but also higher education intelligentsia in our country lacks a creative capacity at the necessary level to create the product, the scientific work that can compete on equal terms with international colleagues. 3.2.2. The structural imbalances in labor quality of higher education intelligentsia in Vietnam Building the consensus of higher education intelligentsia requires creating the continuity and the same dimensional effects to learners from trainers being different from age, seniority, qualifications, capacity, degree and title, even teachers in the various training majors and more broadly, in the regions of the country. Unfortunately, the actual labor quality of the higher education intelligentsia shows the clear shortcomings before the request to create this consensus. It is the structural imbalance on the qualifications and capacity in the labor results of the higher education intelligentsia between the industries and education sectors; and the feeling of uncertainty about the next generation with highly qualification. 17 3.2.3. Higher education intelligentsia should combine teaching activity and scientific research while the trend of overlooking the scientific research occurs in many places According to sociological surveys, 61.1 % have suggested that most lecturers only concentrate on teaching activities. This data is consistent with the assessment of the Ministry of Education and Training: "There are up to 50 - 60 % of lecturers not spending or spending very little time doing scientific research." Many lecturers choose the way to increase their income by teaching, even teach in another time due to the lack of time of the scientific research not because of the passion to the study. This is an alarming manifestation of the current state of higher education intelligentsia in our country in the process of implementing the training programs combining research and teaching, linking theory with practice, training under the social needs and career orientation. The separation of teaching and research makes the learning of students and even the teaching of the lecturers not be placed in the research environment the environment of creative thinking methods, of the reasoning and judgment. This reduces the value, potential ability, intelligence and creativity of higher education intelligentsia that it should have been respected and promoted. 3.2.4. Conflicts between the requirements of liberating creative energy, the dedication of higher education intelligentsia and the barriers in thinking, mechanisms, policies and conditions to ensure quality Introduction to thoroughly liberating the creative energy and dedication to the career of higher education intelligentsia is derived from the demands of teaching science rather than uphold the role of creativity and outrageous enthusiasm. However, the slowly thinking innovation, the lack of the necessary conditions to ensure the development of creative energy are the barriers that make a part of educators not focus the energy on teaching and the scientific research, education management and organization not really stick, servefor ideals of enhancing knowledge, personnel training and talent fostering. The biggest barrier is that the limitation in investment policy, incentive mechanisms with lack of innovation thinking and the weaknesses of professional qualifications of many lecturers that hinders the opening of the relation between scientific research and practical teaching and production, does not create strong potential power to promote the creativity in working of higher education intelligentsia. On the other hand, while macro-management methods to professional employees of the higher education intelligentsia have not broken with the subsidy administrative mechanism, not required the strict autonomy, selfresponsibility of every lecturer, the negative impact of the wrong side of the market mechanism coupled with the psychology respecting the degree and 18 payroll mechanism under the degree, seniority is not small hurdles before actually learning requirements to achieve the real power, real talent, real intellectual contribution of higher education intelligentsia. 3.2.5. Labor quality of higher education intelligentsia has been ensured by lecturers’ responsibility but the mechanisms of inspecting, supervising and assessing have been properlyrespected yet Professional qualifications and research capacity are the determining factors of the labor quality of higher education intelligentsia, but also a sense of responsibility is an important requirement that each lecturer need to meet, especially, in the present context, the market mechanism governs human life and leaves a lot of the negative impacts and social consequences. The current inadequate problem beingthe criteria for accreditation of education has not been constructed in accordance with the specific characteristics of each university; external assessment activities, especially the participation of assessing the education quality of objects using the products of higher education has not been properly respected. The evaluation, inspection and monitoring to professional activities of rectors and managerial staffshave not been implemented; so the quality of the organization, leadership, education management of the higher education intelligentsia in our country have not beenexamined and assessed generally. Mechanism to discharge weak lecturers has not become the fundamental elements in the cultural and scientific leadership and education management. This explains why higher educationintelligentsia has not found real pressure from the responsibilities and duties of a teacher and a scientist before the practical requirements as well as expectations of the society. Chapter 4 VIEW-POINT AND SOLUTION ON IMPROVING THE LABOR QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION INTELLIGENTSIA IN VIETNAM TODAY 4.1. BASIC VIEWPOINTS ON IMPROVING THE LABOR QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION INTELLIGENTSIA VIETNAM TODAY 4.1.1. Improving the labor quality of the higher education intelligentsia must be associated with the country's development needs To meet the demand for qualified human resources for the process of industrialization, modernization and development of the knowledge economy, positive and proactive international integration, the labor of higher education intelligentsia should aim to supply human resources being able to meet the requirements of the market. They will be leaders, workers, officials, high-level technical workers, businessman desiring dedicating to the country, elite
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