HO CHI MINH NATIONAL POLITICAL ACADEMY
TRAN THI LAN
WORKING QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
INTELLIGENTSIA IN VIETNAM CURRENTLY
: Scientific Socialism
: 62 22 85 01
SUMMARY PHD THESIS IN PHILOSOPHY
HA NOI - 2014
The work was completed at Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics
Scientific supervisor: PROF. DR. HOANG CHI BAO
The PhD thesis will be defensed in front of a jury and marked by at
Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics
At…: On ..... ...... ...... 2014
The PhD thesis is available in National Library and the
Library of Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics
1. Urgency of the topic
Entering the twenty-first century, the development of the knowledge
economy and the revolution of science and technology not only definites the
top-ten situation of human in productive force but also more and more clearly
understand the extremely significant role of the intellectual resource in the
development of the internal resources in each nation, each country.
Vietnam is in the period of turning-point for development and promotion of
industrialization and modernization. The context of the world and the era is
creating prospects and favorable conditions for Vietnam as well as places our
nation in the face of many risks, severe challenges in the process of integration,
of which intellectual lagging and backwardness are the most fearful things.
As a cradle of training high-quality human resources, the higher education of
Vietnam hold a heavy responsibility to the creation and development of
intellectual potential of the nation. This explains the reason why the
overcoming of high-level human resources through improving labor quality of
higher-education intelligentsia is considered as a strategic solution to the
protection and development of Nation that should be taken interest by Vietnam.
This is a direct result arising from an increase in intellectural resources that is
paid special attention by Vietnam and other countries in the face of
Knowledge, science and technology-based economic competition.
This serious problem is also explained from long-term weaknesses of
training quality of higher-education human resource in Vietnam. The more
deeply Vietnam penetrates into the integration, the more affected training of
human resource of Vietnam will be by the rules of competition and the
negative impacts of the dark side of market mechanism. Qualification and
capacity insufficiency, expression of individualism, pragmatism, formalism in
labor and lack of devotion of many people in the intellectural and educators to
their great responsibility to the education career. Especially, quality of higher
education trained human resources does not meet requirements of domestic and
international labor market that is completely stranger to the nature of creative
scientific pedagogical labor and Noble Qualities of teachers. If it is not
promptly remedied, human resources will be affected not only in the present
but also in the future.
Synchronous solutions, in particular, groundbreaking remedies play an
important role in overcoming those difficulties and challenges as well as in
improving the mentioned actual situation. It is requirement of development of
human resource that makes working quality of higher education intelligentsia
become a top interest of managers and leaders as well as of the whole society
during implementation of educational revolution. On the other hand, it also
ensure the the existence, sustainable development of Vietnamese higher
education institutions in the context of competition and international integration, in
the face of expectations of the society for the innovation of educators, programs
and higher education methods with the aim of improving quality of trained human
resource. This is the urgent demands of society, a difficult and complex task, waste
much effort, time, intellectual faculties and money.
On a higher plane, concerning responsibility and conscience of the society,
the interest in working quality of higher education intelligentsia means caring
about training intelectual resources of the nation. It is needed to find a
groundbreaking of human potential on the material racks of economic
development in order to ensure reliability of the development strategy and
sustainability. The key of creating the higher education human resources is
working quality of the intelligentsia and educators.
With the such dialectical perspective, we can see the importance and urgency
of innovation of higher education, starting from innovation of working quality
of managers and generations of lecturer. Interpretation and survey of the issue
for finding out the solution to development not only bring theoretical meaning
but also contribute to implement verification of quality of universities in
accordance with standards of Ministry of Education and Training with the a
view to “basic and comprehensive innovation of the education” according to
the Resolution 8 in the 11th session of the Communist Party.
For the above reasons, the author chooses the issue “Working quality of
higher education intelligentsia in Vietnam currently” as the topic for the
2. Research purposes and tasks
2.1. Research purposes
The research is to definite a systematic conception of working quality of
higher education intelligentsia in order to establish a scientific arguments of
assessment of real situation in Vietnam, and then solutions to improving
working quality of Vietnamese higher education intelligentsia are suggested in
the beginning decades of the twenty-first century.
2.2. Research tasks
In order to achieve the said purpose, apart from overview of the research
situation related to intellectual issues, higher education intelligentsia, the
dissertation is focused on performing the following basic tasks:
- Clarigying the theoretical basis of working quality of Vietnamese higher
education intelligentsia from showing the general conception to showing labor
characteristics, assessment criteria and assessment of improvement of working
quality of Vietnamese higher education intelligentsia presently.
- Assessing the real situation of working quality of Vietnamese higher
education intelligentsia and arising issues
- Suggesting some key solutions in order to improve working quality of
Vietnamese higher education intelligentsia with the view to meeting requirements
of international integration, development of intellectual economy and promotion of
industrialization and modernization of the country.
3. Subject, scope of research:
3.1. Research subjects:
The dissertation researches into working quality of Vietnamese higher
education intelligentsia in the progress of innovation and promotion of
industrialization and modernization of the nation along with impacts of trend of
international integration and the great development of knowledge economy.
3.2. Scope of reseach
- Quality of the higher education intelligentsia consists of a large content.
Nevertheless, the dissertation only researches into three main aspects viz teaching,
scientific research and education management of higher education intelligentsia in
Vietnamese public universities.
- Concerning time, the dissertation surveys the real situation of working quality
of Vietnamese higher education inntelligentsia in the range from 2000 to 2013
and establishes solutions to improvement of working quality of such intelligentsia
in the future.
4. Theoretical bases and method of the research
4.1. Theoretical bases
The dissertation is performed on the basis of theoretical Marxism Leninism and Ho Chi Minh thought, viewpoint, guidelines and policies of
the Party, State law on intelligentsia, education intelligentsia, higher
education intelligentsia in labor and labor motivation in general.
The dissertation is also inherited research results related to dissertations of
authors in Vietnam and in the world.
4.2. Method of research
The disseration is performed on the basis of methodology of dialectical
materialism and historical materialism, method of logics and history and
interdisciplinary methods such as analysis, summary, sociological investigation,
comparison and generalization.
5. New scientific contributions of the dissertation
- The dissertation systematically researches into issues concerning working
quality of higher education intelligentsia in terms of philosophy - politics - society
- The dissertation establishes assessment criteria of working quality of higher
education intelligentsia in professional activities.
- The dissertation suggests solutions in order to improve the working
working quality of Vietnamese higher education intelligentsia in the context of
innovation, promotion of industrialization and modernization of the country in the
impacts of trends of integration, globalization and knowledge economy
6. Theoretical and practical significances of the dissertation
- The dissertation contributes to the development of new theoretical and
practical research direction for working quality of Vietnamese higher education
intelligentsia with the combination of philosophy - politics - society and
- The dissertation contributes to the consolidation of scientific arguments as the
basic of planning guidelines and policies of the Party and of the State on higher
education intellectual activities in the new conditions.
- The dissertation can be used as a reference for researching and teaching
topics related to intellection and higher education intellection.
7. Structure of the dissertation
Apart from the introduction, conclusion, list of references, appendix, the
dissertation is divided into 4 chapters, 11 lessons.
OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH RELATED TO THE DISSERTATION
1.1.1. Typical researches direct discussing the knowledge
In the context of increase of interest in resources for development of the
country in the period of industrialization and modernization, there are many
State-level scientific topics, projects, dissertations and scientific articles
explaining various knowledge aspects. In order to continue clarifying nature of
Marxism - Leninism science, revolutionary and appropriate awareness of
Vietnamese Communist Party about knowledge, such researches has given
plausible interpretation of roles and missions of knowledge in promotion of
industrialization and modernization of the country. By the interpretation of
potiential of Vietnamese intelligentsia with the respect for the knowledge,
authors suggested practical solutions to promotion of roles of intelligentsia in
order to meet requirements of integration and development of knowledge
1.1.2. Researches into higher education, characteristics and working
quality of higher education intelligentsia
Firstly, researches gave the general outline of higher education
With the view on considering higher education intelligentsia as a factor that
directly affecting training quality of human resource, many researchers focused
on explaination of situation and roles of higher education intelligentsia and
finding out basic solutions in order to create motivation for educators and
lecturers at undergraduation education level.
Secondly, researches directly discussed working characteristics of higher
education intelligentsia, namely:
The article “Working characteristics of lecturers in universities and
vocational training schools”, Journal of higher and professional education,
Vol. 5/2000 by author Do Van Phuc mainly emphasized creative labor,
intellectual labor with some harmful elements and typical tensions of higher
In order to determinate working characteristics of higher education
intelligentsia, Associate.Professor. Doctor Nguyen Thi My Loc and Doctor
Dang Xuan Hai in the topic: “higher education lecturers and pedagogical
communication”, “teaching methods at higher education level” in the training
material “Higher education”, Hanoi, 2003 came up with the concept: In
universities, pedagogical creativity associated with scientific creativity.
Assco.Prof.Dr Pham Hong Quang – author of the book named “educational
environment”, Education Publishing House, 2006 affirmed that: function of
pegagogical labor is to reproduce labor power of the society; it is a professional
During interpretation of “The nature of creative activities in scientific
research”, (research material), Hanoi, 2006, Prof. Dr. Hoang Chi Bao
emphasized that higher education combines teaching with scientific research
and serves production. Working of higher education intelligentsia presents
creativity by its rich, diversified and complex expression.
Studying on the characteristics of higher education, Dr. Nguyen Ba Can in his
dissertation “Competition of policy on Vietnamese higher education development
presently”, Hanoi, 2009 showed that products of higher education have their unique
quality – viz labors take responsibility to their families, the society and the nation.
Thirdly, the researches initially mentioned working quality of higher
education intelligentsia, notably:
Vietnam National University, Hanoi Key topic, 2006, code: QGTĐ.02.06:
“Researching into creating assessment criteria of higher education activities
and scientific research of lecturers in Vietnam National University, Hanoi”
was leaded by Prof. Dr. Nguyen Duc Chinh and Assco.Prof.Dr Nguyen Phuong
Nga and accepted. The report “Higher education and skills for Growth”, 2008
by Human Development Department of East Asia and Pacific Region under
World Bank. They are researches into measurement and assessment of
efficiency of responsibility implementation of educators carried out by
specialists, thus the research result plays an important role in suggesting
direction of general assessment of working quality of higher education
Moreover, there are many other independent articles of scientific researches
into quality of higher education in general, typical: Nguyen Duc Chinh,
Nguyen Phuong Nga: “Researching into construction of assessment criteria of
higher education training quality”, Journal of Higher and professional
education, 2000, Vol. 7; Ta Thi Thu Hien: “Quality assurance system in
universities according to viewpoints of network of universities in Southeast Asia
region”, Journal of Political Theory and Communications, Vol. 08/2011; Le Huu
Ai, Lam Ba Hoa: “Higher education in Vietnam currently – Actual situation and
solutions to improvement of quality”, Journal of Philosophy, 2010, Vol. 9; Pham
Ngoc Trung: “Quality of education in Vietnamese universities presently”, Journal
of Political Theory and Communications, 2011, Vol. 8.
By researching into different conceptions of quality in sectors, the authors
has taken their general conceptions of quality of higher education, whereby
they can determine assessment criteria and suggest some solutions to
improvement of working efficiency of higher education intelligentsia in
In almost countries, higher education intelligentsia are appreciated by their
States. In many subjects to researches, it is nescessary to take interest in the
intelligentsia, educators, especially lecturers, typically: J.Vial in the book
named “History and News about teaching methods”, 1993; J.A Centra with the
research into: “Self-assessment of university lecturers: A comparison of
student’s assessment", Journal of Educational Assessment, Vol. 13, 1973;
Ph.N.Gônôbôlin: “The psychological qualities of the teachers”, Education
Publishing House, 197;Franz Emanuel Weinert: “Development of awareness of
studying and teaching”, Education Publishing House, Hanoi, 1998; Especially,
UNESCO has held activities on human intelligence of an education for the 21st
century with “Higher Education in the Twenty - First Century - vision and
Action”, World Conference on Higher Education, Paris, October, 1998.
Summary of the said researches defines a new conception of working
characteristics of educators at undergraduate education level. Whereby, quality
of higher education is considered as a multi-dimensional concept covering
every roles and activities of the universities.
1.3. VALUES AND SHORTCOMINGS OF RESEARCHES WITH REGARD TO
THE DISSERTATION AND ISSUES NEED TO BE CLARIFIED IN THE
From overview of the research projects related to the dissertation, the author
would like to make an overall assessment as follows:
Firstly, research projects outlined approaches to higher education
intelligentsia and intelligentsia. Notably, those views considers the
intelligentsia as a social force, a social class who are identified and classified
by nature of intellectual, creative and complex labor.
Secondly, the theoretical studies of intelligentsia and higher education
intelligentsia are various but there is no State-level special research, project,
scientific research, dissertation focusing on interpretation interpretation of
issues concerning working quality of Vietnamese higher education
Thirdly, under the angle, aspects, scope of different studies, the researches
mentioned working natures of lecturers in each aspect, mainly focusing on
responsibility, tasks, subject, impact tools and working natures of lecturers and
Fourthly, in the aspect of working quality of higher education intelligentsia,
published researches were mainly focused on assessing lecturers’ tasks under
the angle of approach of education. In fact, working quality of higher education
intelligentsia is not studied globally and systematically by interdisciplinary
perspective of philosophy - politics - society – education.
Fifthly, many actual aspects concerning improvement of working quality of
Vietnamese higher education intelligentsia have been clarified such as actual
situation, issues steamed from such situation; regulations of working quality
of higher education intelligentsia in training institutions nationwide; regime,
level, impact of the guidelines, policies and laws on improvement of working
quality of this group currently.
Sixthly, clarification of working quality of Vietnamese higher education
managers is a new issue, there is no in-depth research towards building into a
theory and practical summary of working quality of this group in order to
meet requirements of basic and comprehensive innovation of Vietnamese
higher education today.
Seventhly, many issues settled by the author such as:
- With the philosophy - politics - society – education interdisciplinary
approach, the dissertation forms a new systematic conception of working
quality of higher education intelligentsia.
- Construction of scientific arguments for the necessity of improvement of
working quality of Vietnamese higher education intelligentsia today.
- The dissertation establishs assessment criteria of working quality of higher
education intelligentsia in some public universities.
- The dissertation clarifies some problems concerning working quality of
Vietnamese higher education intelligentsia, whereby the author suggests some
key solutions to improvement of working quality of higher education
intelligentsia in Vietnam presently.
RATIONALE ON LABOR QUALITY
OF HIGHER EDUCATION INTELLIGENTSIA
2.1. CONCEPT OF INTELLIGENTSIA, HIGHER EDUCATION INTELLIGENTSIA
AND LABOUR OF HIGHER EDUCATION INTELLIGENTSIA
2.1.1. Concept of intelligentsia
Intelligentsia is a term, a science concept with different connotations.
Accordingly, when considering the concept of intellectual requires attention to
history - specific and perspective approach. In consistent with the concept of
Marxism - Leninism, Communist Party of Vietnam on intelligentsia, we believe
that, intelligentsia is a social class characterized by method of intellectual
labor and creativity. They are the main force directly involved in the
innovation, preservation and dissemination of knowledge, contributing to the
development of cognitive science and social progress.
Intelligentsia is recognized in the following outstanding characteristics:
Intelligentsia is not a class but a special and typical social class. Intelligentsia
should be considered an individual - entity with creative personality, education,
knowledge being form through continuously training, fostering and developing
by way of self-training, self-picking up and completing in creative labors and
activities as well as genuine intelligentsia, knowledge must be associated with
dedication; political ideals and social responsibility should be expressed
through ideal career, particular professional activity, deeply attached to his
motherland and people.
2.1.2. Concept of higher education intelligentsia of Vietnam
Vietnam higher education intelligentsia is a typical or specific social force or
a social- career group of intelligentsia; entity of pedagogical activities in the
field of higher education with the duty of teaching; researching science, applying &
transferring technology; organizing and managing pedagogical activities to raise
people's knowledge, train the high levels of human resource and develop talented
people for the country.
In the process of building socialism in our country today, the roles and
responsibilities of Vietnam higher education intelligentsia are more and more
formed clearly as follows:
Firstly, Vietnam higher education intelligentsia must directly associate the
training with scientific research, activities of schools with production and
Secondly, Vietnam higher education intelligentsia is a striking force, key force
directly to build the advanced higher education of Vietnam, significantly
contribute to develop the country's education.
Thirdly, with the role of intellectual resources, Vietnam higher education
intelligentsia participates directly in training human resource, building team of
experts, scientists to meet requirements of labour quality of socio-economy.
Fourthly, Vietnam higher education intelligentsia contributes to improve the
national capacity of scientific and technology.
Finally, Vietnam higher education intelligentsia is a force that brings creative
talent, enthusiasm and responsibility in building the scientific arguments as the
basic for planning the ways, policies of the Party and State.
2.1.3. Concept of labour of higher education intelligentsia
Labour of higher education intelligentsia is the purpose of the impact of
teachers on learners in order to train, foster and development high quality
human resource. This should be recognized on the main following aspects:
Firstly, which means that a job; labour of higher education intelligentsia is
activity of professional career, education and training in higher education that
the outstanding features are scientific & pedagogical activities, teaching and
vocational training and training people.
Secondly, labour of higher education intelligentsia is higher creative labour
with the particularly important role to create physical and mental values. Every
success in teaching or each new contribution in research and in leadership and
management activities of higher education intelligentsia contribute to build the
intellectual potential for nation and promote the socio-economic growth of nation.
Thirdly, approach of labour of higher education intelligentsia on functional
aspects, we can consider that teaching of literacy, teaching personality and
vocational training are three consistent activities in the process of training
high-quality human resources for development of nation socio-economy.
Finally, it needs to consider that the labour of higher education intelligentsia
is individual labour but the occupation characteristics have been brought and
required strictly the collective, universal, and interactive and consensus.
2.2. SPECIAL FEATURES OF VIETNAM
INTELLIGENTSIA IN THE PRESENT CONTEXT
2.2.1. Labour of higher education intelligentsia is the intellectual and
Labour of higher education intelligentsia is primarily intellectual labour. The
special features in labour are presented in regularly to mobilize intellectual
resources, promote the creative thinking with high concentration of gray matter
crystallized in product. That is inventions, innovations and initiatives, even
personality of learners, qualifications and skills of human resource.
If the creativity in teaching of higher education intelligentsia is capacities of
systematization, inheritance, selection of information associated with
operations of analysis, synthesis, lecture which help learners understand and
acquire knowledge, the creativity in scientific research will be the finding of new
ones, providing new interpretations or a new proposal to contribute to the issue
that Lenin called the truth of perception.
As human resource scientific, the activities of leadership, education
management of higher education intelligentsia are also intellectual labour and
creativity. It requires the leaders; managers must skillfully use the talent,
intellectual and emotional by scientific methods, creative thinking which
convincing in managing labour activities of collective and teachers.
2.2.2. Labour of higher education intelligentsia is high level of pedagogical labour
The key factor to differentiate the characteristic expresses in occupation
function, objective, labour method, focusing on intellectual development
requirements, thinking capacity forming, labour skill for high quality human
resource which meet the requirements and demand of nation in the context of
strengthening industrialization and modernization, international integration and
intellectual economy development. That requires each intelligentsia the high level
of pedagogical skills- skill of cognitive activity orientation, skill of vocational
training and skill of sensitizing people by ethics, personality and heart.
Requirement appreciated highly in pedagogical labor of higher education
intelligentsia is capacity of to lead students in creative environment in order
that they can learn by themselves to find the knowledge on the basic of
teacher’s instruction. For higher education intelligentsia, all knowledge and
understanding need to be transformed into methods to generate the knowledge
and renew the own knowledge. Besides, it can orient, organize the cognitive
performance of learners, create transformation step from education to selfeducation, training to self-training.
2.2.3. Teaching and scientific research are two parallel tasks of most
higher education intelligentsia
Although every higher education intelligentsia participates in teaching and
scientific research, most intelligentsia is a lecturer even the force of leadership,
educational management in universities participating in teaching and scientific
research in certain level. Therefore, it may be considered that the teaching and
the scientific research are two parallel tasks of must higher education
Dialectical association between teaching and scientific research actually is
the requirements of having knowledge and known how to impart the
knowledge. After all, fostering learners the ability to self-thinking, self-study
and self-research is fostering methods of scientific research, which requires
each higher education intelligentsia not only has two pairs of most important
qualities, capacities of teacher: pedagogical occupation trend and pedagogical
capacity but also associate with pedagogical occupation trend and capacity of
scientific research. Besides, they must know how to organize the cognitive
processes of students by teaching and how to self-research, deploy scientific
ideas and develop capacities, good qualities of an expert.
2.2.4. Labour product of higher education intelligentsia contributes to
develop the high quality human resource of nation
Both theoretical and practical aspects require university as typical place for
intellectual life and spiritual culture of society. It is the nursery of future
scientific talent and the cradle nurturing scientific minds of many generations.
By talent, dedication and his own way, each intelligentsia needs to participate
in process of producing knowledge, creating the high quality human resource
of nation from the general level to each development stage step by step to meet
the rigorous demands of the market economy with socialist orientation. The
growth of higher education intelligentsia of our country and their labour product
will be the biggest additional resources to develop the intelligentsia and high
quality human resource of country.
2.3. CONCEPT OF LABOR QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION INTELLIGENTSIA
2.3.1. Concept of labor quality
In many respects, levels or ambiguous nature of the category “labor quality”
in methodology, it requires research from comprehensive perspective, synthesis
and system method. In our opinion, labour quality is concept which to indicate
the level of satisfaction, ability to meet the criteria and requirements set forth by a
particular work. Labour quality itself contains a range of factors as the
satisfaction, response and coincidence between actual labour result and demand,
desire of the subject or the available goal and identified target.
Labor quality of any subject also reflects the real labor quality of individual.
On the larger scale, it also creates the mirror to reflect the labour value of
society in each certainly period of history.
2.3.2. Concept of labour quality of higher education intelligentsia
It is said that the labor quality of higher education intelligentsia is a
multidimensional concept, covering the responsibilities and duties of teachers
at university, expressing the synthesis result of occupation activities of
teachers. We believe that, the labour quality of higher education intelligentsia
needs to be reviewed as a result of completing the responsibility of teachers,
management officers at higher education center with effect in changing the
level, thinking capacity and developing the personality of the learner positively
and progressively; is the characteristic to consistently satisfy and meet
customer requirements, or entities benefit from professional activities of
teacher intelligentsia at university.
Teaching quality of teacher intelligentsia at our university not only expresses
in volume of information imparted but also receives the high evaluation in
level and effectiveness of forming cognitive capacity, thinking, practice as well
as the capacity to create jobs or adapt and integrate in international of students
The quality of scientific research, technology transfer of higher education
intelligentsia s expressed at the level of creation, effect of deployment, application
of research result, inventions, innovations in real training, fostering of school and
duty of developing socio-economy of country.
The quality of management operation of higher education intelligentsia is
reflected in effect of building, implementing and monitoring the performance
of teaching & studying plan, scientific research and technology transfer of
intelligentsia who is leader or undertakes some activities such as academic
advisor, class teacher or the work of unions, associations.
2.3.3. Criteria for assessing the quality of current higher education
intelligentsia in Vietnam
Assessing the quality of higher education intelligentsia in Vietnam is actually
the judgment of labor values to clarify intellectual contributions of university
lecturers and subjects managing the education in higher education to the
society. Assessing the quality of higher education intelligentsia is needed to
focus on the following basic criteria:
Firstly, level of satisfying the teachers’ standards for higher education intelligentsia
Secondly, level of fulfilling tasks by higher education intelligentsia under the
Thirdly, actual work results of higher education intelligentsia
Fourthly, satisfaction level of university lecturers, students and subjects using
higher education products against the work results of higher education
Fifthly, satisfaction ability of the trained human resources for the labor
market. This criterion is quantified at an employment rate of students after
graduation and quality of higher education human resources.
2.4. EVITABILITY OF IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF CURRENT HIGHER
EDUCATION INTELLIGENTSIA IN VIETNAM
2.4.1. Improving the quality of higher education intelligentsia in
Vietnam as an inevitable need from national development requirements
Building socialism in Vietnam in the aim of human liberation and
development requires socio-economic development based on science and
technology in the phase of promoting national industrialization and
modernization in line with the development of knowledge economy.
Moreover, pressure of enhancing the economy’s competitiveness requires
higher education to supply high-quality human resources for the society. This
requirement has only been satisfied if the quality of higher education
intelligentsia is enhanced as a basic condition directly decisive to the
production and reproduction of goods with a special product –
humanintelligence to meet needs of national development.
2.4.2. Improving the quality of higher education intelligentsia as an
internal requirement for basic and comprehensive renovation in Vietnam
In any higher education institutions, poor education quality is probably also a
constant threat to the university’s sustainable existence and development. It is
necessary to be deeply aware that higher education in Vietnam has faced a
crucially important requirement – basic and comprehensive renovation of
higher education in the aim of concentratedly training high-quality human
resource, including regional-level and international-level universities and
training majors; improving quality under the needs of standardization,
modernization, socialization and international integration. To carry out that
strategy successfully, improving the quality of higher education intelligentsia
has become an essential need.
On the other side, guidelines for credit-orientated training, trend for selfmanagement increase and requirements for enhancing the self-responsibility of
universities along with implementing quality inspection of universities under the
Ministry of Education and Training’s regulations have become a motivation
rocketing the quality enhancement of the intelligentsia in higher education. This
also makes higher education intelligentsia possibly be discharged if their labor
quality does not meet requests for learners or subjects using human resources.
2.4.3. Improving the quality of higher education intelligentsia to exploit
all potentials effectively, use higher education’s resources reasonably and
The university’s training efficiency is controlled by the exploration of
potentials as well as reasonable and cost-effective use of higher education
resources. In case of not improving the quality of higher education
intelligentsia, investment of facilities, modernization of teaching aids,
renovation of mechanism and development polices of higher education as well
as teaching methods have become meaningless, even seriously wasteful for
higher education in particular and socio-economic management in general in
the limited conditions of educational expenses and investment budget.
The quality of higher education is formed by many factors, but other factors
have only played a supportive role, facilitating so that the intelligentsia may
perform their functions and tasks. To conclude, improving the quality of higher
education intelligentsia has been considered as a central point not only affixing
educational elements to a perfect whole but also directly deciding the use
effectiveness of higher education resources.
CURRENT SITUATIONS OF THE QUALITY OF HIGHER
EDUCATION INTELLIGENTSIA IN VIETNAM AND SEVERAL
3.1. CURRENT SITUATIONS OF THE QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
INTELLIGENTSIA IN VIETNAM
3.1.1. Level of satisfying the teachers’ standards for higher education
intelligentsia in Vietnam
In line with the cause of comprehensive renovation in Vietnam and
expansion for the human resource training scale, the number of higher
education intelligentsia has constantly been supplemented in terms of quantity,
improved in terms of quality, gradually meeting the stipulated standards of
professional qualification, capacity and ethical quality of the teachers. Thereby
they have accomplished their teaching tasks, done scientific researches, maintained
honor and prestige, fostered political quality and occupational ethics.
Nevertheless, rate of the teachers not gaining the standards of professional
qualification under the laws’ regulations (due to not being trained postgraduation programs) still accounts for 38.75%. Furthermore, deficiency in
successive high-qualified officers has misbalanced age structure, qualification
and succession of intelligentsia in higher education. Additionally, ideal erosion
and ethical degradation as well as expressions of form labor, problems from a
large number of university lecturers have been remedied, not only adversely
affecting the teachers’ honor and prestige but also restricting the quality of
higher education intelligentsia in Vietnam.
3.1.2. Level of fulfilling tasks of higher education intelligentsia in Vietnam
Firstly, fulfilling teaching tasks, doing scientific researches under training
goals and curricula
According to data from sociological surveys, 64.1% university lecturers have
positively taken part in teaching activity under goals and contents of curriculum.
An absolute majority of the teachers have strived to accomplish their standard
teaching hours and do scientific researches subject to job titles. In fact, compiling
course books, reference books and documents for education and training activities
by the intelligentsia has not been completed at a high level. A number of higher
education intelligentsia do not meet requirements of announcing research results
on foreign and domestic scientific journals.
Secondly, level of fulfilling tasks of periodical studies, fostering and
enhancing professional qualification of higher education intelligentsia
In many years, higher education intelligentsia has endeavored in the process
of training, fostering and enhancing theoretical level, professional qualification
and teaching methods. Nonetheless, prevailing limitations of high education
intelligentsia are only paying attention to training and fostering professional
qualification. It is a fact that the considerable number of university lecturers
has actively not nourished their political theoretical level, research capacity,
applied information technology and used foreign languages, meeting the
required professional qualification.
Thirdly, level of fulfilling tasks of higher education intelligentsia with the
involvement of educational management
Higher education intelligentsia with the involvement of management has
accomplished tasks of building, implementing and supervising the performance
of teaching and learning schedules as well as scientific researches of university
lecturers. A number of young intelligentsia in higher education have devotedly
accomplished their work. Nevertheless, it is a fact that we have lacked talented
education managers in the institutions.
3.1.3. Work results of higher education intelligentsia in Vietnam
It is admitted that higher education intelligentsia has obtained positive results
considerably contributing economic growth, social stability, national security
and defense assurance as well as international integration. Every year higher
education intelligentsia has directly participated the training of tens of
bachelors, masters and doctors, making remarkable contributions to the
implementation of high-qualified human resource development strategy for the
promotion of national industrialization and modernization. Results from
scientific researches, leadership and management of high education
intelligentsia have contributed the improvement of national science and
technology level, the making of guidelines and policies of the Party and the
State as well as initially resolving new problems arising in the cause of
Main limitations from labor results of higher education intelligentsia are poor
education quality; poor non-governmental training; the renovation of training
contents and curriculum in universities not keeping up with requirements of
production reality; low applied efficiency of scientific works with about 40%
research results not utilized; unreasonable management of the intelligentsia in
higher education shown in the inactiveness before the macro-management
causing the limitations of self-management and creativity in the education and
3.1.4. Satisfaction level of university lecturers, students and subjects using
higher education products for the work results of teachers in higher education
Although satisfaction level of students and university lecturers for work
results of the intelligentsia in higher education has reached a high rate of
more than 70%. In terms of results from training human resources satisfying
national development needs, there have a number of feedback indicating
concerns and dissatisfaction. This clarifies the reason(s) why 60%
enterprises involving the surveys have given their dissatisfaction with
quality of human resource education in universities.
3.1.5. Satisfying ability of the trained human resources for the labor market
It can be confirmed that higher education intelligentsia through occupational
labor has considerably contributed strategies of improving people’s intellectual
levels, training human resource and fostering talented individuals for the
country. Nowadays, every year higher education has provided the society with
more than 10,000 people with their post-graduate qualification. They have been
the core force involving the employment in almost all different social aspects.
Looking at the picture of higher education in Vietnam can easily realize one
of the biggest limitations – lack of employees fast responsive, active, creative
and capable for meeting the knowledge economy’s requirements. A majority of
enterprise managers have joint comments: almost all information technology
engineers have professional quality much lower than international standards;
newly graduated students of business administration major are poor in terms of
qualifications and prone to theories. The current situation demonstrates that not
only severe deficiency in high-qualified human resource in key aspects must
generate breakthroughs in the context of global integration and competitiveness
as well as increasing distance between the quality of higher education
intelligentsia as well as actual requirements and social expectations.
3.2. EMERGING ISSUES FOR THE LABOR QUALITY OF THE HIGHER
EDUCATION INTELLIGENTSIA IN VIETNAM
3.2.1. The risk of lagging on the qualification and capacity of the higher
education intelligentsia before the international integration requirements
In fact, the higher education intelligentsia in Vietnam has a lot of
shortcomings and inadequacies on the professional qualifications and
capacitybefore the career requirements, the requirement of the country's
development and international integration.
Compared with the developed countries having the advanced higher
educationbackground, the professional qualifications of our higher education
intelligentsia tend to have more noticeable lagging. Notably, the rate of
lecturers having a doctoral degree or scientific titles, such as Professor,
Associate Professor in our country is very low. The number of intellectual
elites and talented people is very little; the number of leading experts lacks
seriously and the next generation is in short fall; andthere is very little strong
scientific group with a reputation to compete on the global scale. Not only the
foreign language proficiency is weak, but also higher education intelligentsia in
our country lacks a creative capacity at the necessary level to create the
product, the scientific work that can compete on equal terms with international
3.2.2. The structural imbalances in labor quality of higher education
intelligentsia in Vietnam
Building the consensus of higher education intelligentsia requires creating
the continuity and the same dimensional effects to learners from trainers being
different from age, seniority, qualifications, capacity, degree and title, even
teachers in the various training majors and more broadly, in the regions of the
country. Unfortunately, the actual labor quality of the higher education
intelligentsia shows the clear shortcomings before the request to create this
consensus. It is the structural imbalance on the qualifications and capacity in
the labor results of the higher education intelligentsia between the industries
and education sectors; and the feeling of uncertainty about the next generation
with highly qualification.
3.2.3. Higher education intelligentsia should combine teaching activity
and scientific research while the trend of overlooking the scientific
research occurs in many places
According to sociological surveys, 61.1 % have suggested that most
lecturers only concentrate on teaching activities. This data is consistent with
the assessment of the Ministry of Education and Training: "There are up to 50
- 60 % of lecturers not spending or spending very little time doing scientific
research." Many lecturers choose the way to increase their income by
teaching, even teach in another time due to the lack of time of the scientific
research not because of the passion to the study. This is an alarming
manifestation of the current state of higher education intelligentsia in our
country in the process of implementing the training programs combining
research and teaching, linking theory with practice, training under the social
needs and career orientation.
The separation of teaching and research makes the learning of students and
even the teaching of the lecturers not be placed in the research environment the environment of creative thinking methods, of the reasoning and judgment.
This reduces the value, potential ability, intelligence and creativity of higher
education intelligentsia that it should have been respected and promoted.
3.2.4. Conflicts between the requirements of liberating creative energy,
the dedication of higher education intelligentsia and the barriers in
thinking, mechanisms, policies and conditions to ensure quality
Introduction to thoroughly liberating the creative energy and dedication to the
career of higher education intelligentsia is derived from the demands of teaching
science rather than uphold the role of creativity and outrageous enthusiasm.
However, the slowly thinking innovation, the lack of the necessary conditions to
ensure the development of creative energy are the barriers that make a part of
educators not focus the energy on teaching and the scientific research, education
management and organization not really stick, servefor ideals of enhancing
knowledge, personnel training and talent fostering.
The biggest barrier is that the limitation in investment policy, incentive
mechanisms with lack of innovation thinking and the weaknesses of
professional qualifications of many lecturers that hinders the opening of the
relation between scientific research and practical teaching and production, does
not create strong potential power to promote the creativity in working of higher
On the other hand, while macro-management methods to professional
employees of the higher education intelligentsia have not broken with the
subsidy administrative mechanism, not required the strict autonomy, selfresponsibility of every lecturer, the negative impact of the wrong side of the
market mechanism coupled with the psychology respecting the degree and
payroll mechanism under the degree, seniority is not small hurdles before
actually learning requirements to achieve the real power, real talent, real
intellectual contribution of higher education intelligentsia.
3.2.5. Labor quality of higher education intelligentsia has been ensured
by lecturers’ responsibility but the mechanisms of inspecting, supervising
and assessing have been properlyrespected yet
Professional qualifications and research capacity are the determining factors
of the labor quality of higher education intelligentsia, but also a sense of
responsibility is an important requirement that each lecturer need to meet,
especially, in the present context, the market mechanism governs human life
and leaves a lot of the negative impacts and social consequences. The current
inadequate problem beingthe criteria for accreditation of education has not
been constructed in accordance with the specific characteristics of each
university; external assessment activities, especially the participation of
assessing the education quality of objects using the products of higher
education has not been properly respected. The evaluation, inspection and
monitoring to professional activities of rectors and managerial staffshave not
been implemented; so the quality of the organization, leadership, education
management of the higher education intelligentsia in our country have not
beenexamined and assessed generally. Mechanism to discharge weak lecturers
has not become the fundamental elements in the cultural and scientific
leadership and education management. This explains why higher
educationintelligentsia has not found real pressure from the responsibilities and
duties of a teacher and a scientist before the practical requirements as well as
expectations of the society.
VIEW-POINT AND SOLUTION ON IMPROVING THE LABOR
QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION INTELLIGENTSIA IN
4.1. BASIC VIEWPOINTS ON IMPROVING THE LABOR QUALITY OF
HIGHER EDUCATION INTELLIGENTSIA VIETNAM TODAY
4.1.1. Improving the labor quality of the higher education intelligentsia
must be associated with the country's development needs
To meet the demand for qualified human resources for the process of
industrialization, modernization and development of the knowledge economy,
positive and proactive international integration, the labor of higher education
intelligentsia should aim to supply human resources being able to meet the
requirements of the market. They will be leaders, workers, officials, high-level
technical workers, businessman desiring dedicating to the country, elite