TỪ VỰNG - NGỮ PHÁP TIẾNG ANH LỚP 10

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Töø vöïng – Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh L.10 UNIT 1: A DAY IN THE LIFE OF … ☺ VOCABULARY A. READING crop (n) muøa vuï fellow (n) baïn peasant (n) (=farmer) noâng daân B. SPEAKING biology (n) sinh hoïc chemistry (n) hoaù hoïc civic education (n) giaùo duïc CD class meeting (n) sinh hoaït lôùp geography (n) ñaïi lyù history (n) lòch söû information technology(n) CN TT C. LISTENING cyclo (n) xe xích-loâ district (n) quaän drop (v) ñeå (ai) xuoáng xe food stall (n) quaày thöïc phaåm immediately (adv) ngay laäp töùc occupation (n) ngheà nghieäp D. WRITING ngheït thôû (khoùi) choke (v) cough (v) ho crowded (adj) ñoâng ñuùc dip (v) lao xuoáng discotheque (n) vuõ tröôøng fire exit (n) loái thoaùt hieåm gain height taêng ñoä cao in danger trong tình traïng nguy hieåm land safely haï caùnh an toaøn E. LANGUAGE FOCUS as soon as (conj) ngay khi bean (n) haït ñaäu plot of land (n) take a rest (v) transplant (v) maûnh ñaát nhoû nghæ ngôi caáy literature (n) vaên hoïc maths (n) toaùn hoïc physical education (n) theå duïc physics (n) vaät lyù tenth-grade student (n) HS lôùp 10 timetable (n) thôøi khoaù bieåu park (v) passenger (n) pedal (v/n) purchase (n) ñaäu xe haønh khaùch ñaïp/baøn ñaïp (xe ñaïp) vaät/haøng hoaù mua ñöôïc seaside (n) serve (v) shake (v) suddenly (adv) vui möøng khoân xieát bôùt caêng thaúng la, heùt trong hoát hoaûng bôø bieån phuïc vuï rung, laéc ñoät nhieân camp fire (n) creep into (v) löûa traïi boø vaøo overjoyed (adj) relieved (adj) scream in panic 1 E 10 flow (v) instead of (prep) leap out of (v) (nöôùc) chaûy thay vì nhaûy ra khoûi haït ñaäu Haø Lan daëp taét döïng leân nhaän ra stream (n) tent (n) waste of time (n) doøng suoái caùi leàu söï laõng phí thôøi gian löôïn, uoán (doøng chaûy) pea (n) wind (its way) (v) put out (v) put up (v) realise (v) ☺ GRAMMAR 1. The present simple a. Caùch thaønh laäp S + V(s/es); S + am/is/are - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + do/does + not + V; S + am/is/are + not - Caâu phuû ñònh Do/Does + S + V?; Am/Is/Are + S? - Caâu hoûi b. Caùch duøng chính Thì hieän taïi ñôn ñöôïc duøng ñeå dieãn taû: - Moät thoùi quen, moät haønh ñoäng ñöôïc laëp ñi laëp laïi thöôøng xuyeân. Trong caâu thöôøng coù caùc traïng töø: always, often, usually, sometimes, seldom, rarely, every day/week/month … Ex: Mary often gets up early in the morning. - Moät söï thaät luùc naøo cuõng ñuùng, moät chaân lyù. Ex: The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. 2. Adverbs of frequency always (luoân luoân), usually (thöôøng thöôøng), sometimes/occasionally (thænh thoaûng, ñoâi khi), often (thöôøng), normally (thoâng thöôøng), as a rule (nhö thöôøng leä), never (khoâng bao giôø) Traïng töø chæ söï thöôøng xuyeân ñöùng TRÖÔÙC ñoäng töø thöôøng, SAU “to be”. Ex: He usually goes to bed at 10 p.m. He is often late for class. * Löu yù: As a rule ñöùng CUOÁI caâu. 3. The past simple a. Caùch thaønh laäp - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + V2/ed; S + was/were - Caâu phuû ñònh S + did + not + V; S + was/were + not - Caâu hoûi Did + S + V?; Was/Were + S? b. Caùch duøng chính 2 E 10 Thì QKÑ duøng ñeå dieãn taû haønh ñoäng ñaõ xaûy ra vaø hoaøn taát trong quaù khöù vôùi thôøi gian ñöôïc xaùc ñònh roõ. Caùc traïng töø thöôøng ñi keøm: yesterday, ago, last week/month/year, in the past, in 1990, … Ex: Uncle Ho passed away in 1969. * Löu yù: Xem laïi ñoäng töø baát qui taéc! UNIT 2: SCHOOL TALKS ☺ VOCABULARY A. READING attitude (n) thaùi ñoä flat (n) caên hoä household task (n) coâng vieäc nhaø mall (n) khu buoân baùn narrow (adj) heïp B. SPEAKING khuûng khieáp awful (a) backache (n) ñau löng conversation (n) cuoäc hoäi thoaïi C. LISTENING moät mình alone (adv) thoaûi maùi comfortable (adj) thích enjoy yourself D. WRITING chöõ in hoa block capital (n) ngöôøi lao ñoäng employee (n) ngöôøi sd lñoäng employer (n) maãu ghi danh enrolment form (n) (thuoäc) phaùi nöõ female (adj) ñieàn vaøo fill in (v) E. LANGUAGE FOCUS as a result keát quaû laø cousin (n) anh/chò/em hoï guy (n) anh chaøng, gaõ (tieáng loùng) improve (v) caûi thieän opinion (n) safety (n) traffic (n) worry (v) yù kieán söï an toaøn giao thoâng lo laéng headache (n) toothache (n) ñau ñaàu ñau raêng go for a swim plan (v) stay (v) ñi bôi döï ñònh ôû laïi form (n) male (adj) provide (v) somewhere (adv) maãu (thuoäc) phaùi nam cung caáp nôi naøo ñoù in a hurry look for (v) marvellous (adj) memory (n) nervous (adj) voäi vaõ tìm kieám kyø dieäu trí nhôù hoài hoäp 3 E 10 pay attention to post (v) relaxing (adj) star (n) ☺ GRAMMAR chuù yù ñeán gôûi thö thö giaõn ngoâi sao situation (n) target (n) threaten (v) tình huoáng muïc tieâu ñe doaï 1. Wh- questions - Caùc töø ñeå hoûi: who, whom, what, which, where, when, why, how (old/long/far/fast/many/much…) - Vôùi ñoäng töø “to be”: Wh- + be + S (+ …)? Ex: What is the time? – It’s 7. - Vôùi ñoäng töø khieám khuyeát: Wh- + KK + S + V (+ …)? * Ñoäng töø khieám khuyeát: can, could, will, would, shall, should, may, might, must, ought to Ex: How many languages can you speak? – 3. - Vôùi ñoäng töø thöôøng: Wh- + do/does/did + S + V (+ …)? Ex: Where did you go yesterday? – I went to the bookstore. 2. Gerund and to + infinitive a. Gerund (V-ing) - Sau giôùi töø ta duøng V-ing. - Sau nhöõng ñoäng töø/cuïm töø nhö: avoid (traùnh), have trouble (gaëp khoù khaên), practise (thöïc haønh), consider (xem xeùt, tính ñeán), miss (nhôù/boû lôõ), enjoy (thích, thöôûng thöùc), mind (phieàn), suggest (ñeà nghò), go on (tieáp tuïc), prefer … to (thích hôn), keep (giöõ), like (thích), feel like (caûm giaùc nhö), stop (döøng), it’s no use (khoâng lôïi ích gì), … b. V + to V expect (kyø voïng, troâng ñôïi), plan (döï ñònh), decide (quyeát ñònh), hope (hi voïng), threaten (ñe doaï), agree (ñoàng yù), promise (höùa), forget (queân), try (coá gaéng), like (muoán), … * Löu yù: - stop + V-ing: döøng haønh ñoäng ñang laøm Stop making noise, please! - try + V-ing: thöû laøm vieäc gì He tries writing with his left hand. stop + to V: döøng laïi ñeå laøm vieäc khaùc She stopped to talk to him. try + to V: coá gaéng laøm vieäc gì We try to get high marks. 4 E 10 UNIT 3: PEOPLE’S BACKGROUND ☺ VOCABULARY A. READING atomic weight (n) troïng löôïng nguyeân töû award (v) trao giaûi thöôûng thoâng minh, brilliant (adj) saùng daï degree (n) vaên baèng (do tröôøng ÑH caáp) ease (v) xoa dòu ñi vieäc thaønh laäp founding (n) keå töø ñoù from then on general education (n) giaùo duïc phoå thoâng human suffering (n) noãi ñau nhaân loaïi in spite of (prep) maëc duø(=despite) B. SPEAKING appearance (n) veû beà ngoaøi experience (n) kinh nghieäm interview (v) phoûng vaán journalist (n) phoùng vieân C. LISTENING champion (n) nhaø voâ ñòch congratulations (inter) xin chuùc möøng D. WRITING attend (v) tham döï pass (v) (thi) ñaäu tourist guide (n) höôùng daãn vieân du lòch telephonist (n) nhaân vieân ñ.thoaïi E. LANGUAGE FOCUS angry (adj) giaän carpet (n) taám thaûm drop (v) laøm rôùt institute (n) joy (n) obtain (v) position (n) PhD private tutor (n) professor (n) radium (n) receive (v) research (n) specialisation (n) take up (v) hoïc vieän nieàm vui ñaït ñöôïc vò trí baèng tieán só gia sö giaùo sö rañi nhaän nghieân cöùu söï chuyeân moân hoaù tieáp tuïc (vieäc boû dôû) primary school (n) tröôøng tieåu hoïc secondary school (n) tröôøng THCS join (v) sports teacher (n) gia nhaäp GV theå duïc travel agency (n) vaên phoøng du lòch laøm vieäc nhö laø work as (v) dry (adj) manage (v) mat (n) khoâ xoay sôû caùi chieáu 5 E 10 mess (n) pan (n) parrot (n) sand (n) thief (n) söï loän xoän caùi chaûo con veït caùt teân troäm torch (n) turn off (v) vase (n) voice (n) ñeøn pin taét (#turn on) loï, chaäu gioïng noùi ☺ GRAMMAR 1. The past perfect a. Caùch thaønh laäp S + had + V3/ed - Caâu khaúng ñònh - Caâu phuû ñònh S + had+ not + V3/ed - Caâu hoûi Had + S + V3/ed? b. Caùch duøng chính Thì QKHT duøng ñeå dieãn taû: - Moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra vaø hoaøn taát tröôùc moät thôøi ñieåm hoaëc moät haønh ñoäng khaùc trong quaù khöù. Ex: We had had dinner before eight o’clock last night. Lucie had learned English before she came to England. - Moät haønh ñoäng ñaõ xaûy ra nhöng chöa hoaøn thaønh, tính ñeán moät thôøi ñieåm naøo ñoù trong quaù khöù. Ex: By the time I left that school, I had taught there for ten years. (Tôùi luùc toâi rôøi ngoâi tröôøng aáy, toâi ñaõ daïy ñöôïc 10 naêm.) 2. The past perfect vs. the past simple Ñeå dieãn taû hai haønh ñoäng xaûy ra tröôùc sau trong quaù khöù, ta duøng HAD + V3/ed cho haønh ñoäng tröôùc, V2/ed cho haønh ñoäng sau. Ex: After Nam had finished his homework, he went to bed. (Sau khi Nam hoaøn thaønh baøi taäp veà nhaø, anh aáy ñi nguû.) 6 E 10 UNIT 4: SPECIAL EDUCATION ☺ VOCABULARY A. READING admiring (adj) ngöôõng moä Braille (n) chöõ Bray(chöõ noåi cho ngöôøi muø) chance (n) cô hoäi describe (v) moâ taû effort (n) noå löïc humorous (adj) haøi höôùc suy ra infer (v) B. SPEAKING hoaït ñoäng activity (n) break (n) giôø giaûi lao class (n) tieát hoïc C. LISTENING veû ñeïp beauty (n) calm … down (v) traán tónh (ai ñoù) camera (n) maùy aûnh comprise (v) goàm coù disability (n) khuyeát taät escape (v) thoaùt khoûi exhibit (v) trieån laõm fascinate (v) cuoán huùt feature (v) laøm noåi baät leân labourer (n) ngöôøi lao ñoäng mute (adj) caâm on display ñöôïc tröng baøy D. WRITING muïc quaûng caùo advertisement (n) air-conditioned (adj) ñöôïc trang bò maùy laïnh complaint (n) söï phaøn naøn contact (v) lieân laïc kid (n) one by one prevent … from (v) proud of (adj) prove (v) suspicious (adj) thanks to (prep) treû con laàn löôït caûn trôû töï haøo veà chöùng minh nghi ngôø nhôø vaøo to be honest (exp) thaønh thaät maø noùi peaceful (adj) photograph (n) wander (v) hoaø bình böùc aûnh (=photo) nhaø nhieáp aûnh (thuoäc) nhieáp aûnh ñôn giaûn chuû ñeà vuøng xung quanh ñi lang thang enclose (v) look forward to (v) quality (n) receipt (n) refund (n) gôûi keøm mong ñôïi chaát löôïng bieân lai söï traû laïi tieàn photographer (n) photographic (adj) simple (adj) subject (n) surroundings (n) 7 E 10 resolution (n) caùch giaûi quyeát E. LANGUAGE FOCUS ambulance (n) xe cöùu thöông delay (v) hoaõn laïi give up (v) töø boû injured (adj) bò thöông offer (v) toû yù muoán ☺ GRAMMAR resolve (v) service (n) giaûi quyeát söï phuïc vuï put … up (v) rarely (adv) rob (v) scene (n) unemployed (adj) cho (ai) troï hieám khi cöôùp hieän tröôøng thaát nghieäp 1. The + adjective Duøng ñeå chæ moät nhoùm ngöôøi. the injured (ngöôøi bò thöông), the poor (ngöôøi ngheøo), the rich (ngöôøi giaøu), the sick (ngöôøi beänh), the unemployed (ngöôøi thaát nghieäp), the young (ngöôøi treû tuoåi), the disabled (ngöôøi khuyeát taät), the blind (ngöôøi khieám thò), the dead (ngöôøi cheát), … Ex: The rich should help the poor. 2. Used to + infinitive (ñaõ töøng/thöôøng) Dieãn taû thoùi quen trong quaù khöù, ñaõ chaám döùt ôû hieän taïi. Ex: His father used to smoke 20 cigarettes a day. Now he gives up smoking. (Cha cuûa anh aáy töøng huùt 20 ñieáu thuoác moät ngaøy. Baây giôø baùc aáy ñaõ boû thuoác roài.) 3. Which as a connector Duøng ñeå thay theá moät meänh ñeà ñöôïc noùi tröôùc ñoù. Ex: Sheila couldn’t come to the party, which was a pity. (Sheila khoâng theå ñeán döï tieäc, ñoù laø ñieàu ñaùng tieác.) 8 E 10 UNIT 5: TECHNOLOGY AND YOU ☺ VOCABULARY A. READING accuracy (n) calculate (v) calculation (n) capable (adj) daily life (n) söï chính xaùc tính toaùn pheùp tính coù khaû naêng cuoäc soáng haøng ngaøy döõ lieäu thieát bò,duïng cuï ñieän töû giaûi trí data (n) device (n) electronic (adj) entertainment (n) B. SPEAKING maùy laïnh air conditioner (n) amount (n) soá löôïng cell phone (n) ÑT di ñoäng fax machine (n) maùy fax long distance meeting(n)cuoäc hoïp töø xa C. LISTENING make an excuse ngoû lôøi xin loãi refuse (v) töø choái secretary (n) thö kyù D. WRITING ñieàu chænh adjust (v) connector (n) töø keát noái instruction (n) höôùng daãn lift (v) nhaác leân make a call thöïc hieän cuoäc goïi make sure (v) ñaûm baûo operate (v) ñieàu khieån E. LANGUAGE FOCUS destroy (v) tieâu huyû dry (v) laøm khoâ interact (v) keát noái magical (adj) kyø dieäu memo (n) baûn ghi nhôù relax (v) thö giaõn request for leave (n) ñôn xin nghæ pheùp speaker (n) loa storage (n) söï löu tröõ typewriter (n) maùy ñaùnh chöõ participant (n) process (v) store (v) transmit (v) ngöôøi tham döï shy (adj) since then (adv) still (adv) maéc côõ, ngaïi keå töø ñoù vaãn coøn xöû lyù (döõ lieäu) löu tröõ truyeàn, phaùt phone card (n) theû ñieän thoaïi pip (n) tieáng píp (ÑT) plug in (v) caém ñieän vaøo public telephone (n) ÑT coâng coäng receiver (n) oáng nghe (ÑT) remote control (n) maùy ñieàu khieån töø xa slot (n) raõnh, khe earthquake (n) forest fire (n) traän ñoäng ñaát chaùy röøng 9 E 10 fridge (n) in the West ink (n) instrument (n) lay/laid/laid (v) look after (v) man-made (adj) ☺ GRAMMAR tuû laïnh ôû phöông Taây möïc duïng cuï ñaët, ñeå chaêm soùc nhaân taïo patient (n) satellite (n) save (v) show (v) spill (v) towel (n) beänh nhaân veä tinh cöùu soáng trình chieáu, chæ, höôùng daãn traøn, chaûy ra khaên lau 1. The present perfect a. Caùch thaønh laäp S + have/has+ V3/ed - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + have/has + not + V3/ed - Caâu phuû ñònh Have/Has + S + V3/ed? - Caâu hoûi b. Caùch duøng chính (xem theâm Unit 7) Thì HTHT duøng ñeå dieãn taû: - Moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra trong quaù khöù khoâng xaùc ñònh roõ thôøi ñieåm. Ex: Have you had breakfast? – No, I haven’t. 2. The present perfect passive a. Chuû ñoäng (Active) (xem caùch thaønh laäp thì HTHT.) b. Bò ñoäng (Passive) - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + have/has + been + V3/ed - Caâu phuû ñònh S + have/has + not + been + V3/ed - Caâu hoûi Have/Has + S + been + V3/ed? Ex: (A) They have built a new bridge across the river. (P) A new bridge has been built across the river. * Löu yù: - Caâu bò ñoäng thì HTHT luoân coù BEEN + V3/ed! 3. Who, which, that DANH TÖØ CHUÛ TÖØ TUÙC TÖØ Ngöôøi WHO/THAT WHO(M)/THAT Vaät/Ñ.vaät WHICH/THAT WHICH/THAT Ex: - The woman who/that is standing over there is my sister. - I know the boy who(m)/that you met yesterday. - She works for a company which/that produces cars. 10
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