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1 INTRODUCTION TRANSLATION 4 is a basic course book written for the second-year students of the Department of English, College of Foreign Languages, Hue University. It is intended to equip the students with an overview of translating Vietnamese and English economic texts. It also helps the students get familiar with the terms related to economy as well as the typical structures frequently used in economic texts. Since the course book has been written for the students to learn either by themselves or in class with a teacher, there will be a course book and assignments. The course book contains the Vietnamese and English economic texts with notes and suggested translations. The assignments contain the Vietnamese and English economic texts that will be translated into either English or Vietnamese by the students. By the end of the course, the students will be able to: - obtain general knowledge of the Vietnamese and English economic documents. - get familiar with and effectively use scientific and technological terms and typical structures of economic texts in their translations. - accurately translate economic texts into English and Vietnamese. On the completion of this course book, I would like to express my deep gratitude to Dr. Ton Nu Nhu Huong for her encouragement. I would also like to be grateful to Dr. Tran Van Phuoc and other colleagues of the College of Foreign Languages for their kind help. Errors are unavoidable in this course book. Therefore, I appreciate and welcome any criticism on the course book. Hue, November 14th, 2006 Nguyen Van Tuan 2 Chapter 1: Lesson 1: GENERAL ECONOMIC ISSUES REFORESTATION AN UPHILL BATTLE IN MOUNTAINOUS TAY NGUYEN Tay Nguyen- the authorities and people in Tay Nguyen (the Western Highlands) have a battle on their hand to protect and restore forests that have been relentlessly chopped down. Spread over nearly 55,000sq.km, the forests in these regions are the country‟s largest. Actually covering 2.93 million ha, it is 230,000 ha less than five years ago. Of the four Tay Nguyen provinces, Dac Lac is the one with the largest wooded area and also the one losing the most canopy each year an average of 40,000 ha. The reason for losing the provinces‟ “lung” is not hard to find- the inexorable emigration of people to these areas from the rest of the country since 1990. The population growth in these provinces has been a stagering5 to 6 per cent every year. And Dac Lac alone houses 2,200 migrants. With the influx came the usual accompanying problems: pressure on forestland for housing, cultivating and fuel. Another reason has been the creased cultivation of commercial crops like coffee, pepper, and rubber. The total area under these has risen to 567,000 ha- double the 1996 figure. But the government has become aware of the havoc that denudation of the forest cover could wreak. “Tay Nguyen is seen as a common roof for the Central and South-eastern areas, but the region‟s forests is enduring serious damage, illegal wood exploitation remains a headache, and the environment is under great threat,” said Prime Minister Han Van Khaki when speaking about the region‟s development. He exhorted the Taiyo Nguyen provinces to keep a close eye on forest protection and development, and set targets for the next five years to increase the area under forest cover in a bid to ensure sustainable socio-economic development. 3 The provincial authorities too have begun to get their act together. In ADC Lac, for instance, billions of dong has been invested in aforestation activities under Programmes 327 and 661 and the total reforested has reached about 10,000 ha. But the figure is still minuscule when juxtaposed with the more than 200,000 ha that have been felled since 1995. Under the socio- economic development scheme for the 2001-05 period, Tay Nguyen‟s provinces have earmarked over 2.93million ha of existing forest areas for protection while reforesting 500,000 ha, so that the total forest cover would reach 64.3 per cent by 2005, an increase of 10 per cent over the current figure. To reach the goal through, the provinces need to raise awareness among the population, innovate sustainable products and manufacturing methods and improve forest management and protection. The forest plantation and communal forest management departments should be further strengthened while economic sectors and households should be urged to take an active part in protecting and managing forest areas. At the moment some areas in Dac Lac Province have been moving in that direction and local residents have proven willing to protect and develop forest areas to which they are given possession rights. Notes: - battle : trËn chiÕn - to be chopped down : bÞ ®èn, bÞ chÆt - emigration : - commercial crop: di cn«ng s¶n hµng ho¸ - to become aware of : ý thøc ®-îc - sustainable : bÒn v÷ng - to be strengthened : ®-îc t¨ng c-êng Suggested Translation : TRÄÖNG RÆÌNG ÅÍ CAÏC TÈNH MIÃÖN NUÏI TÁY NGUYÃN ÂANG LAÌ MÄÜT VÁÚN ÂÃÖ KHOÏ KHÀN. Táy Nguyãn-Chênh quyãön vaì ngæåìi dán åí Táy Nguyãn gàûp khoï khàn trong viãûc baío vãû vaì taïi taûo nhæîng khu ræìng bë chàût phaï mäüt caïch nghiãm troüng. Våïi diãûn têch hån 50.000 km2, nhæîng khu ræìng åí âaïy laì låïn nháút næåïc,chiãúm 2,93 ha nay chè coìn 230.000 ha, tháúp hån 5 nàm træåïc âáy. 4 Lyï do máút âi “laï phäøi” cuía nhæîng tènh naìy khäng khoï tçm ra, âoï laì do sæû di truï cuía nhæîng ngæåìi dán trong vuìng âãún nhæîng nåi khaïc. Kãø tæì nàm 1999, tyí lãû gia tàng dán säú cuía nhæîng tènh naìy tæì 5 âãún 6% mäùi màm. Âàõc Làõc coï khoaíng 2200 häü dán di truï. Mäüt säú váún âãö khaïc âaî naíy sinh cuìng váún âãö naìy :aïp læûc âäúi våïi âáút ræìng cho viãûc xáy dæûng nhaì cæía, träöng troüt vaì láúy gäù. Mäüt lyï do khaïc laì gia tàng viãûc träöng cáy kinh tãú nhæ : caìfã,tiãu vaì cao su, täøng diãûn tich âaî tàng lãn567.000 ha-gáúp âäi con säú nàm 1990. Nhæng chênh phuí cuîng âaî nháûn thæïc âæåüc váún âãö taìn phaï naìy seî coï thãø coìn tráöm troüng hån. “Táy Nguyãn âæåüc xem nhæ mäüt maïi nhaì chung cho caïc tènh miãön trung vaì âäng nam. Nhæng ræìng åí âáy âang bë taìn phaï tráöm troüng, naûn khai thaïc gäù traïi pheïp váùn laì mäüt váún âãö nhæïc nhäúi, mäi træåìng dæåïi sæû âe doüa nghiãm troüng”.thuí tæåïng chênh phuí Phan Vàn Khaíi âaî noïi khi noïi chuyãûn vãö sæû phaït triãøn cuía nhæîng tènh naìy. Thuí tæåïng kãu goüi caïc tènh Tay Nguyãn haîy xem troüng viãûc baío vãû vaì phaït triãøn ræìng vaì âaût ra kãú hoaûch cho nàm nàm tåïi, âeí coï thãø tàng diãûn tich ræìng âæåüc baío vãû nhàòm duy trç âæåüc sæû phaït triãøn kinh tãú xaî häüi. Chênh quyãön caïc tènh cuîng âaî håüp taïc cuìng nhau. Thæûc tãú laì, haìng tyí âäöng âaî âæåüc Dàõc Làõc âáöu tæ vaìo viãûc träöng ræìng bàòng caïc chæång trçnh 327 vaì 661 vaì täøng diãûn têch ræìng taïi taûo âaî lãn âãún khoaíng10.000 ha. Nhæng con säú váùn coìn ráút nhoí khi so saïnh våïi hån 200.000 ha âaî bë phaï huíy kãø tæì nàm 1995. Dæûa vaìo så âäö phaït triãøn kinh tãú xaî häüi trong giai âoaûn 2001-2005,caïc tènh Táy Nguyãn seî âoïng khung hån 2,93 triãûu ha diãûn têch ræìng âang coìn âãø baío vãû trong khi taïi taûo 500. 000 ha ræìng,âãø täøng diãûn têch ræìng bao phuí coï thãø lãn tåïi 64,3% vaìo nàm 2005, tàng 10% so våïi con säú ban âáöu. Âãø âaût âæåüc kãú hoaûch naìy, chênh quyãön caïc tènh cáön phaíi tàng cæåìng nháûn thæïc cho ngæåìi dán,âäöng thåìi æïng duûng nhæîng phæång tiãûn måïi nhàòm caíi thiãûn cäng taïc quaín lyï vaì baío vãû ræìng. Cäng taïc träöng ræìng cáön phaíi âæåüc quan tám hån. Nghaình kiãøm lám cáön tàng cæåìng cäng taïc baío vãû ræìng. Caïc nghaình kinh tãú vaì caïc häü gia âçnh cáön âoïng mäüt vai troì têch cæûc hån trong viãûc quaín lyï vaì baío vãû ræìng. Hiãûn taûi, mäüt säú vuïng åí tènh Âàõc Làõc âaî vaì âang âi theo hæåïng væìa nãu. Chênh quyãön âëa phæång âaî náng cao nháûn thæïc vãö viãûc baío vãû vaì phaït triãøn nhæîng khu ræìng maì hoü âaî âæåüc giao khoaïn. 5 Lesson 2 : VIETNAM SEEKS ASSISTANCE FOR HIGHLANDS DEVELOPMENTS Hanoi - Vietnam wishes to exchange experiences and co-operate with other countries in making its mountainous regions prosperous and stable, says Hoang Duc Nghi, Minister and Chairman of the Committee for Ethnic Minorities and Mountainous Affairs. Speaking at the World Mountain Forum held in French cities of Paris and Chambery last week, Nghi said that the Vietnamese Government welcomes the UN declaration of 2002 as the International Year of Mountains. Vietnam is facing difficulties and challenges in checking deforestation and degradation of land resources, and is committed to pursuing areas strategy of protecting natural resources through sustainable exploitation, he said. Nghi met with French and other delegates and discussed measures to heighten cooperation in the development of mountainous regions. The forum adopted a resolution calling on 140 countries having forests and mountains in the world to raise awareness of the important role of mountainous regions, define orientations for sustainable development of the areas in coming years, and increase exchange of experiences and co-operation. The seven-day forum, jointly organized by France, the UN, EU, and the World Bank, wrapped up on Monday. Notes: - stable : æn ®Þnh - to face : ®-¬ng ®µu - challenge : th¸ch thøc - orientation : ®Þnh h-íng - sustainable : ph¸t triÓn bÒn v÷ng 6 Suggested Translation : VIÃÛT NAM TÇM KIÃÚM SÆÛ GIUÏP ÂÅÎ CHO VÁÚN ÂÃÖ PHAÏT TRIÃØN MIÃÖN NUÏI Theo äng Hoaìng Âæïc Nghi -Træåíng ban Dán täüc vaì Miãön nuïi,Viãût nam mong muäún âæåüc trao âäøi kinh nghiãûm vaì håüp taïc våïi caïc næåïc baûn nhàòm taûo sæû phaït triãøn thënh væåüng vaì væîng chàõc åí miãön nuïi. Phaït biãøu taûi diãùn âaìn thãú giåïi vãö miãön nuïi täø chæïc åí thaình phäú Pa-ri vaì Chàm-bå-ri cuía Phaïp tuáön væìa qua, äng Nghi noïi ràõng Chênh phuí Viãût Nam ráút hoan nghãnh cäng bäú cuía Liãn Hiãûp Quäúc coi nàm 2002 laì nàm “Thãú giåïi vç miãön nuïi”. Äng Nghi cuîng nháún maûnh thãm, Viãût nam âang âäúi màût våïi nhiãöu khoï khàn vaì thæí thaïch nhæ naûn phaï ræìng bæìa baîi, tçnh traûng thoaïi hoïa taìi nguyãn âáút, cuîng nhæ viãûc kiãn trç trong chiãún læåüc vaì khai thaïc mäüt caïch håüp lyï caïc nguäön taìi nguyãn thiãn nhiãn. Cuîng trong chuyãún âi naìy, äng Nghi âaî gàûp vaì thaío luáûn våïi phaïi âoaìn Phaïp vaì caïc phaïi âoaìn khaïc nhàòm tçm ra giaíi phaïp tàng cæåìng håüp taïc våïi nhau vç sæû phaït triãøn chung cuía miãön nuïi. Häüi thaío âaî thäúng nháút kãu goüi 140 næåïc trãn thãú giåïi coï ræìng nuïi cáön nháûn thæïc roî vai troì quan troüng cuía miãön nuïi, âäöng thåìi âënh roî hæåïng phaït triãøn cuîng nhæ viãûc tàng cæåìng trao âäøi kinh nghiãûm vaì håüp taïc giæîa caïc næåïc trong nhæîng nàm tåïi. Phaïp, Liãn Hiãûp Quäúc, khäúi Cäüng Âäöng Cháu Áu vaì ngán haìng thãú giåïi âäöng täø chæïc häüi thaío diãùn ra trong 7 ngaìy vaì kãút thuïc vaìo thæï Hai. 7 Lesson 3 : ADB ASSISTANCE TO HELP FIGHT POVERTY, CREATE MORE JOBS Hanoi - Continued assistance from the Asian Development Bank will play an important role in poverty alleviation, especially in creating more employment, says Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung. Receiving visiting ADB executive director Jeung-Hyun Yoon in Hanoi yesterday, Dung lauded the valuable assistance that the Manila-based bank has rendered to the nation‟s economic reforms, rural development, human resource development and environmental protection. The ADB has pledged loans worth US$2 billion since 1993 for 29 projects and preferential loan programmes, of which $76 million is non-refundable, he noted. Dung expressed his hope that the ADB will continue offering effective assistance for the country‟s reform programmes including the ongoing restructuring of State-owned enterprises and renovation of the financial and banking sectors. The ADB official said he was delighted to be visiting Vietnam at a time when its economy was registering strong improvements. He briefed the Deputy Prime Minister on the results of his one- week visit, saying it aimed to strengthen co-operation in lending and borrowing operations through exchange of information and assessment of the bank‟s operations in the country. Yoon also expressed his desire to see further development in Vietnam-ADB relations and pledged to co-ordinate more actively among sponsors in finding investment on preferential terms. Notes: - the Asian Development Bank : Ng©n hµng Ph¸t triÓn Ch©u ¸ - play an important role : ®ãng mét vai trß quan träng - poverty alleviation : xo¸ ®ãi gi¶m nghÌo - executive director : gi¸m ®ãc ®iÒu hµnh - human resource development : ph¸t triÓn nguån nh©n lùc - preferential loan programmes : ch-¬ng tr×nh cho vay -u ®·i -- effective assistance : sù gióp ®ì cã hiÖu qu¶ - reform program: ch-¬ng tr×nh c¶i c¸ch 8 - State-owned enterprise : doanh nghiÖp nhµ n-íc Suggested Translation : SÆÛ TRÅÜ GIUÏP CUÍA ADB SEÎ GIUÏP CHÄÚNG ÂOÏI NGHEÌO VAÌ TAÛO THÃM VIÃÛC LAÌM Trong buäøi tiãúp Giaïm âäúc âiãöu haình Ngán haìng phaït triãøn Cháu AÏ (ADB) Jeung-Hyun Yoon ngaìy häm qua taûi Haì Näüi, Phoï Thuí Tæåïng næåïc ta Nguyãùn Táún Duîng âaî phaït biãøu ràòng sæû tiãúp tuûc tråü giuïp cuía ADB seî âoïng mäüt vai troì quan troüng trong viãûc xoïa âoïi giaím ngheìo, âàûc biãût laì taûo thãm nhiãöu cäng àn viãûc laìm. Phoï Thuí Tæåïng cuîng caïm ån sæû giuïp âåî quyï baïu cuía ADB coï truû såí taûi Manila, Phi-lip-pin trong caíi caïch kinh tãú, phaït triãøn näng thän, phaït triãøn nguäön læûc con ngæåìi vaì baío vãû mäi træåìng. Ngán haìng phaït triãøn Cháu AÏ âaî hæïa cho Viãût Nam vay khoaín vay trë giaï 2 tè âä la Myî tæì nàm 1993 cho 29 dæû aïn vaì caïc chæång trçnh vay æu âaîi trong âoï coï 76 triãûu âä la khäng hoaìn laûi. Phoï Thuí Tæåïng Nguyãùn Táún Duîng baìy toí hy voüng ràòng ADB seî tiãúp tuûc tråü giuïp mäüt caïch coï hiãûu quaí cho caïc chæång trçnh caíi caïch âáút næåïc bao gäöm viãûc caíi täø caïc xê nghiãûp quäúc doanh âang diãùn ra vaì âäøi måïi caïc chi nhaïnh taìi chênh vaì ngán haìng. Äng Jeung-Hyun Yoon âaî phaït biãøu noïi lãn niãöm vui âæåüc âãún thàm Viãût Nam vaìo thåìi âiãøm maì nãön kinh tãú Viãût Nam âaî vaì âang âaût âæåüc nhæîng tiãún bäü maûnh meî. Äng cuîng baïo caïo våïi Phoï Thuí Tæåïng kãút quaí cuía mäüt tuáön viãúng thàm Viãût Nam cuía äng vaì nháún maûnh ràòng âoï laì nhàòm tàng cæåìng håüp taïc trong lénh væûc vay vaì cho vay thäng qua viãûc trao âäøi thäng tin vaì âaïnh giaï vãö hoaût âäüng cuía caïc ngán haìng Viãût Nam. Äng Yoon baìy toí mong æåïc ràòng mäúi quan hãû giæîa Viãût Nam vaì Ngán haìng phaït triãøn Cháu AÏ seî phaït triãøn hån næîa vaì hæïa seî håüp taïc têch cæûc hån våïi caïc nhaì taìi tråü trong viãûc tçm kiãúm nguäön âáöu tæ vaìo caïc lénh væûc æu tiãn. 9 Lesson 4 : POLITICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE Viet Nam is a socialist republic furnished with a constitution since 1980 and based on a tripartite political structure: the Communist Party of Vietnam, the people and the State. A characteristic feature is the very important place occupied by the Party, which waged the liberation struggles leading to the independence of North Viet Nam in 1954 and then to the reunification of the country in 1975. The Party, whose best known bodies are the Political Bureau, the Secretariat, the Central Committee and the Congress, conducts the affairs of the country. It draws up the lists of candidates for general elections from which delegates to the National Assembly are chosen; the Assembly in turn elects the members of the Council of Ministers which appoints ministers to head the ministries. The party provides the leaders of the very active mass organizations which form the front for the Fatherland and cover all sections of the population: labour, trade unions, Association of Collective Farmers, Union of Women, Union of Youth, Union of Intellectuals, Union of Catholics, and Union of Buddhists. The administrative matters are carried out in four-tiered structure from the central level, down through the 44 provinces, and the 519 districts to the 9,807 communes at the grassroots level. Planning Viet Nam's overall planning system is centralized, but there is flexibility in development planning, investment programming, budgeting, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of sectoral projects. At central level, development policies are determined by the State Council and Council of Ministers with the State Planning Commission providing technical guidance. The State Planning Commission (SPC), as the technical arm of the Council of Ministers, plays the leading role in national planning, investment programming, budget allocation and monitoring of socio-economic development trends and sectoral performance. It coordinates plans for donor assistance and identifies priority programmes for intervention, in collaboration with the line ministries, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, State Committee for Foreign Investment and Cooperation, State Committee for Science, Committee on Aid Reception and the People's Committees. The SPC formulates mid-term and annual investment plans and prepares the relevant budgets for approval by the Council of Ministers. CERFC, the aid co-ordination committee, works closely with SPC to identify government policies, plans and priorities. 10 The General Statistics Office (GSO), also under the Council of Minister is responsible for coordinating population censuses as well as the collection of statistics on socio-economic development and the situation of children and women. The GSO provides information and data support to the SPC for planning and programming purposes. Decentralized development and planning Under recent reforms, planning has been decentralized giving the sectoral implementing ministries and peoples' committees at provincial, district and commune level, the freedom to define their priorities and plans, subject to centrally-issued guidelines. In line with this policy, sectoral planning units were established in the Social Sector ministries. Furthermore, almost all the provinces and districts have established planning units which provide planning and technical support to the Peoples Committees. The local government units are authorized to utilize locally generated revenues and income to finance and implement their planned programmes without relying on central government resources. This initiative can lead to greater participation of the local government units in the delivery of basic services for children and women. The area based development model can be applied to accelerate basic services and enhance capacity in local planning, monitoring and evaluation. At the same time, community interventions which would improve the living condition of women and their families such as low cost appropriate technology, income generation, growth monitoring, etc., can be piloted in specific provinces or districts. However, the professional staff manning the planning units need to be trained to widen their skills in management, planning and monitoring activities. Notes: - political structure : - to be furnished with : - liberation : - reunification : - Political Bureau : - Central Committee : Trung ¦¬ng thÓ chÕ chÝnh trÞ ®-îc trang bÞ sù gi¶i phãng sù thèng nhÊt Bé ChÝnh TrÞ Uû Ban Trung - general election : tæng tuyÓn cö - National Assembly : Quèc Héi - Council of Ministers : ¦¬ng, Héi §ång Bé Tr-ëng - the Front for the Fatherland : MÆt TrËn Tæ Quèc - Association of Collective Farmers : Héi N«ng D©n TËp ThÓ - to be centralized : - State Planning Commission : Ban tËp trung Uû Ban KÕ Ho¹ch Nhµ N-íc BÝ Th- 11 - budget allocation : viÖc ph©n bæ ng©n s¸ch - priority programme : ch-¬ng tr×nh -u tiªn - in collaboration with : cã liªn quan ®Õn - State Commitee for Science : Uû Ban Khoa Häc Nhµ N-íc - Committee on Aid Reception : Ban TiÕp NhËn ViÖn Trî - The General Statistics Office : Côc Thèng Kª - locally generated revenue : ng©n s¸ch ®Þa ph-¬ng - to be challenged : bÞ thö th¸ch, bÞ th¸ch thøc - data deficiency : thiÕu hôt sè liÖu Lesson 5 : THE ECONOMY, AGRICULTURE & FOOD PRODUCTION The Vietnamese economy is challenged by a number of development issues including population growth, employment and wage levels, balance of payment deficits and inflation. However, analysis of economic development in Viet Nam is constrained by the lack of official statistics. Many are out of date by the time they are published. An attempt to remedy this data deficiency has been under way for some time, and has recently resulted in the publication of preliminary census estimates in April 1990. The State Planning Commission and General Statistics Office in collaboration with the relevant ministries have been trying to update the socio-economic data related to the development of the vulnerable groups and the country's economic situation in general. Trends in economic development and policy reforms The economic and social development of Viet Nam has to be viewed in the context of the long period of war which has caused great damage to people's lives and property as well as to public facilities and resources. The war consequences and subsequent period of reconstruction full of diff iculties has clearly been an overriding constraint to the development of children and other vulnerable groups. In the transition period after reunification, the nation endeavoured to develop with its own limited resources. An agricultural collective programme was set up throughout the country. Private trade and commerce were terminated and taken over by government-run entities. Collective small handicrafts programmes were introduced. In the manufacturing sector, strong emphasis was put on the development of heavy industries. However, the country's 12 economy did not prosper. Food shortages, coupled with deficient basic services were felt nation-wide. Children and mothers bore the consequences and the malnutrition prevalence was high. Despite attempts at economic reform in the early 1980s, Vietnam continued to buy agricultural products abroad as the agricultural sector production declined. The few consumer goods produced in the country were not sufficient to meet requirements as the manufacturing sector was inefficient and constrained by inadequate infrastructure. Government revenues dried up, eroding the State's ability to subsidize staples and the provision of basic services to the public. The Government was forced to issue more banknotes, augmenting money supply. The result was high inflation which in turn caused the economy to deteriorate further. In December 1986, the Sixth Party Congress convened and set in motion a new policy advocating "Doi moi", or renovation of the domestic economy. A five-year development plan (1986-1990) was adopted with three major priorities, namely: to increase agricultural production and attain self-sufficiency in food; to increase the availability and production of consumer goods and to increase exports. These core economic reforms were addressed comprehensively at different levels of production, processing, distribution and consumption. A new investment law was passed to attract foreign investment. The economic liberalization programme represented an attempt to solve constraints on a broad range of fronts, and was accompanied by changes in various areas of country's social life. The policy changes had some stimulating effects on production. In the farm sector, the weather happened to be favourable in 1989, enabling grain production to recover, while the manufacturing sector was on the mend. Industrial policy encouraged the development of small industries while the agriculture sector remains a priority. The multiple pricing system was gradually done away with, in favour of a single market price. Trade in other products has been liberalized. The economic situation improved to some extent in 1989. Inflation cooled substantially (see figure 11.1), although the commodity retail price increase rate was still around 3-4 percent a month. Rice export earnings partly solved the foreign exchange crisis and food shortages were reduced. Domestic trade and commerce activities speeded up. In certain sector foreign investment operations in the country started. Priority has been given to foreign investment projects which will benefit the three major areas of development as well as improve the infrastructure and institutional development. Notes: - wage level : møc l-¬ng - out of date : lçi thêi - relevant ministry : bé cã liªn quan - socio-economic data : sè liÖu vÒ kinh tÕ x· héi 13 - to cause damage to : g©y thiÖt h¹i - context of war : hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh - transition period : thêi kú qu¸ ®é - to be taken over : ®-îc tiÕp qu¶n - manufacturing sector : bé phËn s¶n xuÊt - food shortage : sù thiÕu hôt l-¬ng thùc - malnutrition : suy dinh d-ìng - economic reform : c¶i c¸ch kinh tÕ - consumer goods : hµng tiªu dïng - to subsidize : bao cÊp - to issue : ph¸t hµnh - Congress : §¹i Héi - self-sufficiency : tù cung tù cÊp - core : chñ yÕu, quan träng - to attract : thu hót - multiple pricing system : hÖ thèng nhiÒu gi¸ Lesson 6 : ECONOMIC STRUCTURE Gross Material Product (GMP) An important feature in the development of the Vietnamese economy has been the changing ratio of state and private ownership. Between 1976 and 1987, the state and co -operative sector's share in the GMP rose from 58.9 to 75.0 per cent. This expansion was mainly due to the drive for collectivization in the South. As a result, the private sector share fell from 41 to 25 per cent during the period. With the new economic policy on greater participation of th e private sector, particularly in manufacturing, trade and transport, the private sector share rose to 28 percent and the state and co-operative contribution declined from 75 to 72 per cent in 1988. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) The GDP average growth rate was 3.4 per cent from 1984 to 1988. In 1989 with the economic reforms, plus surplus food production and a slight increase of output in industry, trade and commerce, a more positive economic growth of 5.7 per cent was attained. It is expected to reach 8 per cent in 1990. Per capita income is still low, having increased from US$1 14.00 in 1985 to approximately US$150200 in 1989. 14 The 1988 GDP sectoral shares were agriculture 39.2 percent, industry 27.4 per cent, commerce 11.8 per cent, transportation and communication and construction 2.0 per cent each and other services 11.0 per cent. Under the economic reform process, agricultural sector development is the main core of the programme. It provides a livelihood for two thirds of the total labour force, and accounts for 30 per cent of export earnings. Official data indicates that 53 per cent of agriculture output is produced by individual farmers, 45 per cent by co-operatives, and 2 per cent by state farms. Industrial output is produced by state enterprises (more than 50 per cent), co-operatives (more than 25 per cent) and by individuals (16 percent). There are 700 state enterprises, engaged mainly in heavy industry. The provincial and district authorities control 2,300 light industries. Co-operatives are dominant in small scale industries and individuals in handicrafts. Overall industrial output grew at an average annual rate of 10 per cent between 1984 and 1988, but heavy industry only recorded a 6 per cent annual rise, reflecting mixed development initiatives. Light industry increased over 10 per cent annually with high production rates of tea, salt, sugar, porcelain, and some export goods. However, some locally produced goods (i.e. beer, matches, and cigarettes) could hardly compete with imports which increased following the reduction in bordertensions and the introduction of more liberal trading policies. Vietnam is endowed with rich sources of energy, the major ones being the Quang Ninh coal mine area, off-shore oil and gas fields in the south. In addition, the Mekong and Red rivers have high potential for hydro-electric development. At present hydro-electric power accounts for 25.7 per cent of the total power generated in the country (1988), and it has now increased with the development of the Hoa Binh hydro-electric power plant which provides rural electricity. The forest resources need to be developed and studied as they could be a good source of energy in the future. Firewood currently constitutes the main source of fuel for households in rural areas. Coal production is around 6-7 million tons per year and has been growing gradually during the decade. The average yearly production of electricity was almost 7 million KWh., 66 per cent thermo-electric. The per capita energy consumption is fairly low at 109.1 KWh of electricity and 108.3 kilogrammes of coal (1988 figures). The transport, communication and construction share in GDP has been insignificant. This is a reflection of the low investment and monopoly by the state enterprises and cooperatives. Under utilization of roads, railways, airports and harbours is also due to poor maintenance and management. 15 Commerce accounts for about 12 per cent of GDP, with 60 per cent coming from sales of agricultural products, the remainder being industrial and handicraft goods. In 1987 one quarter of retail sales were estimated to be through the free market. 16 Notes: - private ownership : quyÒn së h÷u t- nh©n - Gross Domestic Product : Tæng s¶n phÈm quèc néi - per capita : tÝnh theo ®Çu ng-êi - commerce : th-¬ng m¹i - to compete with : c¹nh tranh víi - to be endowed with : ®-îc -u ®·i - potential : tiÒm n¨ng - thermo-electric : nhiÖt ®iÖn - monopoly : ®éc quyÒn - retail sale : b¸n lÎ Lesson 7 : INVESTMENT As the economy declined from 1984 to 1987, investment activities were greatly affected. Total public investment declined from 12.7 per cent of GDP in 1984 to 5.1 per cent in 1989. This reduction was partly caused by the government budgetary deficits and the desire to further trim down the budget to reduce hyperinflation. In addition, foreign investment entering the country was almost nil. However, with the economic reforms, the situation started to improve from 1989 onwards. Foreign Aid The past development of Viet Nam has to some extent relied on assistance provided by bilateral, multilateral and NGO donors. During 1987, development assistance totalled US$148.3 million. The funds sources were : bilateral agencies (63 per cent) with the German Democratic Republic, Finland and Sweden as the biggest donors; multilateral agencies (31 per cent) with UNDP, WFP and UNICEF playing leading roles; and NGOs (6 per cent). Out of the total aid, 13 per cent went to health, 9 per cent to education, 26 per cent to population planning, 14 per cent to humanitarian assistance, 4 per cent to science and technology and 2 per cent for social welfare. The remainder was utilized for agriculture, natural resources, industry, transport and communication. 17 In 1988, 72 per cent of the total labour force was working in the agricultural sector, 90 per cent of them in co-operatives. The state sector (Government and state enterprises) employed 4.3 mill ion people (15 per cent of the total labour force). The central government had about 330,000 staff on its payroll, while local government services absorbed over 1.2 million. The private sector employed 3.6 million people or 12.5 per cent of the national labour force. In the 1980s Vietnam sent 220,000 workers overseas, 210,000 to socialist countri es, and 10,000 to Africa and the Middle East. These numbers are expected to substantially decline due to recent changes in Eastern Europe, thus increasing further the unemployment problems. Wage trends and policies: In the past, the incomes of civil servants and state enterprises employees included subsidized prices for rationed goods, subsidised housing, health, transportation and use of otherpublic utilities. Individual contributions for pensions and social security were minimal, as most of these expenses were financed from the national budget. In January 1989, the Government implemented a comprehensive restructuring of the wages of government workers with a consolidation of consumer subsidies into the nominal wage structure. Though the minimum wage increased from 5,497 dong to 22,500 dong per month (equivalent US$5.35), real salaries have declined substantially as a result of high inflation between 1985-1988. Pricing In 1981, the Government introduced a number of measures to bring the administrativ e prices in the North closer to the free market prices. During 1985, another price reform was initiated to reduce price distortions and do away with subsidies at all levels of the economy. The system of differentiated consumer prices was abolished, but the rationing system for essential consumer goods (rice, sugar, kerosene, soap, fish sauce, and pork) was retained. The effect was a ten fold increase in the price of rice between 1987 and 1990. The current price of rice is 800-1,000 dongs per kilogramme depending on quality. However, social benefit items such as electricity, water, house rent, medicines and paper are still subsidized by the Government. Currently the pricing of agricultural and industrial goods fairly reflects actual market prices. Inflation rate Between 1985 and 1988, the average annual inflation rate was almost 300 per cent. In 1986 it reached 487 per cent. The effect of government fiscal monetary reform was to bring down the monthly inflation rate to an average of 14.5 per cent in 1988 and only 2.3 per cent in 1989 18 Fiscal development Government revenues generated from all sources are inadequate to support the recurrent and capital expenditures for development. Although the Government has introduced several economic, fiscal and monetary measures, it cannot move ahead with its plans because of the limited finance available. In 1984, the budget deficit amounted to 18 per cent of total expenditure in 1984 and 42 per cent in 1989. To resolve the situation and carry out the planned expenditures, financial assistance was obtained through foreign loans and grants, state banks and bonds. A decade before 1988, the impact of the banking system on macro-economic management and development was minimal. To encourage the system to play a more construct ive role, the Government introduced new measures including; re-organization of the banking system; introduction of restrictive credit policies; a new interest rate policy; and the liberalized trading of gold in the market. Under the pressures of a high domestic imbalance, overvalued currency, and budget deficits, the balance of payments eroded continuously between 1984 and 1988. During 1988, the outstanding external debt reached US$9,703 million. Of this total, 67 per cent was in non-convertible currencies, 33 per cent in convertible currencies. More than 20 per cent of the external debt in non-convertible currencies, and 61 per cent in the convertible currencies, is in arrears. Notes: - budgetary deficit : sù th©m hôt ng©n s¸ch - multilateral : ®a ph-¬ng - bilateral : song ph-¬ng - social welfare : phóc lîi x· héi - comprehensive : toµn diÖn - administrative price : gi¸ c¶ do nhµ n-íc qu¶n lý - to be abolished : bÞ b·i bá - to be initiated : ®-îc khëi x-íng - annual inflation rate : tû lÖ l¹m ph¸t h»ng n¨m - revenue : nguån thu - foreign loans and grants : n-íc ngoµi c¸c - fiscal : thuéc vÒ tµi chÝnh - macro-economic management : sù qu¶n lý kinh tÕ vÜ m« - restrictive credit policy : chÝnh s¸ch tÝn dông h¹n ®Þnh - under the pressure : d-íi ¸p lùc kho¶n vay vµ viÖn trî 19 sù mÊt c©n ®èi trong n-íc - domestic imbalance : chÝnh s¸ch vÒ l·i suÊt - interest rate policy : - non-convertible : ®æi Lesson 8: kh«ng thÓ chuyÓn AGRICULTURE Economic role of agriculture The agricultural sector accounted for 38 per cent of the country's total output value, 49 per cent of national income and 42 per cent of total exports in 1987. In 1989 agricultural exports included food as well as industrial crops.That year, Vietnam held third place on the world rice export market with 10-15 per cent of the total. The agricultural exports enable the delta to procure inputs (fertilizers, pesticides, etc.) in order to maintain and increase yield and be competitive on the international market. Agricultural Food Production Systems Food is produced in Viet Nam by three different, but complementary farming systems: the state, the collective and the family. The state farms are mainly involved in cash crop production and the development of new technologies. The collective farms are responsible for national foodstuff production, particularly paddy. Families farm plots of land (from 300 to 1,000 square metres, depending on the region) around the house, growing a variety of grains, fruits and vegetables and raising livestock and fish. In 1983, the Government began encouraging distribution of land to individual farm families for production under a contract system and the December 1986 Party Congress confirmed the importance of family farming for food self-sufficiency. Family farming is now recognized as the main basis for development. Families are free to sell more of their produce at negotiated or market prices and they have become the main source of livestock, fish, fruit and vegetables. The co-operatives have started to allocate larger plots of land to families. However, the co-operatives remain the focal points for distribution of inputs and services, and the collection of taxes and fees. It is generally admitted that these new initiatives have been an incentive to food production and the appearance of more food in the markets. Land use About a fifth of Viet Nam's total land area of some 33 million hectares is arable: of this only 20 percent is now cultivated. About four fifths of the land cultivated is devoted to rice paddy, particularly in the delta areas. However, yields are low: two thirds of the Mekong delta produce only one crop a year. Half of the cultivated land lies in the long and narrow coastal strip and the highland. This region, which covers 89 per cent of the country's total land area and contains 58 per cent of the population, has great potential for further agricultural expansion but investment costs would be high as the infrastructure is currently weak. 20
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