TRAINING QUALITY MANAGEMENT AT PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN HO CHI MINH CITY BASED ON TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HO CHI MINH CITY UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION NGUYEN LAN PHUONG TRAINING QUALITY MANAGEMENT AT PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN HO CHI MINH CITY BASED ON TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS Specialization: Education Management Code: 62.14.01.14 SUMMARY OF DOCTORATE DISSERTATION HO CHI MINH CITY - 2015 THE RESEARCH IS COMPLETED AT HO CHI MINH CITY UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION Supervisor: ASSOC.PROF.DR. TRAN KHANH DUC DR. NGUYEN THI TU 1st counter-argument by: Prof. Dr. Dang Quoc Bao 2nd counter-argument by: Prof. Dr. Nguyen Loc 3th counter-argument by: Dr. Nguyen Duc Danh The dissertation will be defended in the presence of the School’s Dissertation Assessing Board, meeting at Ho Chi Minh City University of Education On........Am/Pm, date........month........year 2015 This dissertation can be found at: National library of viet nam Library of Ho Chi Minh City University of education 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale for the study University training quality and training quality management at universities in general and private ones in particular have been the main concern of the management and the entire society. However, the training quality management system at universities including private universities has not received adequate attention to ensure the gradual improvement of training quality, meet labor demands and accreditation requirements as stipulated by the Law on Education in our country. In recent years, though there have been many studies and theses on quality management of higher education, there has not been any research thesis on quality management of higher education for Private Universities based on total quality management (TQM) concepts in HCM city. On the basis of inheriting the theoretical studies on training quality management and practical needs, the author has chosen the following theme: "Training quality management at private universities in Ho Chi Minh City based on total quality management concepts" as the subject of study within the framework of a doctoral thesis on education management. 2. Purpose of the study: On the basis of theoretical studies, surveys and assessment of the status of training quality management at private universities in HCM city, this thesis builds a framework of training quality management system measures at private universities based on total quality management (TQM) to gradually ensure and enhance training quality, in order to meet the requirements of training accreditation at the Private Universities in HCM city. 3. Research issue, object and subject 3.1. Research object University training quality management at universities in HCM city. 3.2. Research subject Training quality management measures system at private universities based on total quality management (TQM) in HCM city. 4. Research hypotheses University training quality management at universities in HCM city, despite developments and a certain number of achievements over the years, also has many weaknesses and shortcomings due to the limited perception of management staff and teachers about training quality management; the lack of application of quality management models in modern training quality management; little attention paid to the total management of the training process ... If a step-by-step training quality management measures system is built and implemented based on total quality management (TQM) according to the stages of training operations: from the entrance - the training process - the output, training quality, human resource needs and accreditation requirements for training quality at private universities in HCM city will be gradually ensured and enhanced. 5. Research missions 5.1. To study the rationale for training quality management at universities based on total quality management. 2 5.2. To survey and assess the status of training quality management at private universities in HCM city. 5.3. To build a training quality management measures system at private universities in HCM city based on total quality management. 5.4. Assay of necessity and feasibility of training quality management measures. 5.5. To test a training quality management measures system at Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City. 6. Limits and scope of research - The thesis researches the current status of training quality management at some private universities, mainly focusing on university training systems of private universities in Ho Chi Minh city - The thesis builds a training management measures system based on TQM applied to higher education at private universities in HCM city - The thesis carries out practical applications of university training quality management measures at Nguyen Tat Thanh University in the academic year 2013-2014. 7. The methodology and research methods 7.1. Methodology 7.1.1. The methodology of dialectical materialism Dialectical materialism perspective requires consideration of quality issues and university training quality management in an objective, scientific and dialectical relationship with the interaction and movement, development the training quality management in the development stage of higher education in Vietnam. 7.1.2. System – structure approach The thesis approaches the system perspective to study training quality management based on total quality management (TQM) at the private universities, which considers their elements and the relationship in a structured training quality management system both in and outside private universities. Quality management activities have a close relationship with educational activities and other aspects of education management in private universities. 7.1.3. History-logic approach To learn the process of formation and development of the concepts of quality, training quality management and quality management levels, models of total quality management through the period development and its logic when applied to university level as well as its logic when applied to university training quality management in modern Vietnamese society in general and at private universities in HCM City in particular. 7.1.4. Practical approach The thesis approaches the practical perspective of private universities for research on training quality management and propose training quality management measures based on total quality management (TQM) at private universities. To create an appropriate training quality management measures system at private universities, there is a need to consider the results of practical research 3 of private universities, in order to use them as the practical basis of the proposed training quality management system and measures to implement the system. 7.1.5. TQM approach Training Quality Management based on total quality management (TQM) is to ensure the gradual improvement the training quality, satisfying human resource needs, maintaining a customeroriented setup, promoting leadership, mobilizing everyone involved, focusing on process, systematic thinking and continuous improvement of learners. The research activities of this thesis are based on these perspectives in order to conduct theoretical studies and assess the situation on training quality management at private universities while also applying these perspectives to build a system of measures aimed at improving the quality and effectiveness of training quality management at private universities in HCM city. 7.2. Research Methods 7.2.1. Theoretical research method group Using the following methods: analysis - synthesis, generalization and systematization, comparison, referencing, modeling, analysis, comparison, generalization and synthesis of research subjects, the guidelines and policies of the Party, the State, the education sector and Management Offices, documents, reference textbooks and official information on the Internet of private universities and key statistics of the Ministry of Education and Training, the General Statistics Office in order to implement the project to clarify the basic concepts, arguments...about training, training management and training quality management according to TQM on which the basis of the thesis is formed. 7.2.2. Practical research methods group 7.2.2.1. Survey method using questionnaires Surveying and assessing of the status of training quality management at private universities in HCM city; the necessity and feasibility of training quality management measures system in view of TQM concepts at private universities; Evaluation of practical application of training quality management measures in view of TQM concepts at Nguyen Tat Thanh University. 7.2.2.2. Typical research method Selection and detailed understanding of the status of training quality management measures at 04 private universities in HCM city including Hoa Sen University; Nguyen Tat Thanh University; Ho Chi Minh city of foreign languages - Information technology, Ho Chi Minh city University of Technology. Comparison and assessment of the situation and training quality management measures implemented at these schools selected for case study. 7.2.2.3. Experimental Methods Thesis using empirical methods to demonstrate that the measures constructed are necessary and feasible, consistent with the rationale and practice of training quality management at private universities in HCM city. In addition, through experiments, these methods aim to elucidate the scientific hypothesis of the thesis that is if a system of training quality management measures in view of TQM is developed and implemented at private universities in HCM city, it will enhance the efficacy of training quality management at private universities in HCM city, thereby contributing to 4 ensuring and gradually improving the quality of higher education in private universities HCM city, meeting the needs for human resources and accreditation requirements of higher education. 7.2.2.4. Mathematical statistics method The thesis processes data in Excel (tables, charts), using mathematical statistical techniques to create a statistical analysis of the data collected via questionnaires and the data and information collected and typical charts needed for surveying and interpretation of research results. 8. Thesis defense and scientific and practical significance of the research 8.1. Thesis defense 1. Total Quality Management (TQM) is a modern approach and is a key rationale for the construction of a theoretical framework for training quality management at private universities. 2. Training quality management at private universities in HCM city has limitations and inadequacies. One of the main reasons is the fact that private universities have not developed and implemented a training quality management system in view of total quality management. 3. Training quality management measures at private universities in HCM city in view of TQM built in this thesis have a scientific basis, while also being practical, necessary and feasible. 8.2. Scientific and practical significance of the research 8.2.1. Scientific significance The research findings for the rationale for training quality management at universities in view of total quality management contributing to the strengthening of training quality management at universities in general and private universities in particular has been a new development trend in training quality management theory. The research, application and development of a system of measures for training quality management in view of total quality management are to ensure and gradually improve the training quality of universities in general and private universities in particular. 8.2.2. Practical significance The survey results and assessment of current situations have highlighted not only the advantages but also the various limitations and shortcomings in training quality management at private universities in HCM that stemmed from many causes, with the main reason being the disinterest of private universities in building and implementing a training quality management system (QMS) inside their institutions. As such, in order to gradually improve and ensure the training quality, there is a need to develop and implement a quality management system (QMS) within institutions in view of total quality management TQM. Research results of the construction of a training quality management system of measures at private universities in HCM city in view of TQM has helped private universities gradually implement and ensure improvements training, meeting the accreditation requirements of higher education in general and of private universities in particular. 9. The structure of the thesis Introduction Chapter 1: Theoretical basis of training quality management at universities based on total quality management. 5 Chapter 2: Status of training quality management at private universities in Ho Chi Minh City Chapter 3: The training quality management measures at private universities in Ho Chi Minh City based on total quality management Conclusions and Recommendations Scientific research works References Appendix CHAPTER 1: THEORETICAL BASIS OF TRAINING QUALITY MANAGEMENT AT UNIVERSITIES BASED ON TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 1.1. Research topic overview 1.1.1. Studies completed abroad In the 50s of the 20th century, quality management in manufacturing and business were of particular interested by researchers such as Shewhart, Edward Deming, Crosby, etc. derived from the original idea of authors such as Eli Whitney, Winslow Taylor, Karl Friedrich Bens about quality management of each stage of the product. In the last two decades of the twentieth century, many new perspectives on quality management and control first appeared, namely: ISO, QFD, Kaizen, Zero Defect Program, Six Sigma, PDCA, Quality circle, TQM ... In these perspectives, TQM were always considered by scientists in the field of management studies as one of the most effective management methods. Currently, several countries have successfully applied TQM models in production, business and education, especially higher education. In the final years of the twentieth century, many authors like E. stalls (1993) wrote about total quality management (TQM) in education; Harvey and Green (1993) wrote about the present aspect of educational quality such as excellence, perfection, viability and present value; E.Stanley and W. Patrick (1998) wrote about quality assurance in Higher Education in the United States and the United Kingdom; Austin (1985) wrote about the increasing value theory in education and researched on the application of TQM in the education of JM Juran, ... In particular, the continuous improvement phase, also known as total quality management (TQM), is considered the highest level of quality management. 1.1.2. Studies completed in Vietnam In recent times, there have been some studies and monographs by some local authors who have conducted research on education quality management and the quality management model applied in higher education ... like Nguyen Duc Chinh, Tran Khanh Duc, Pham Thanh Nghi, Nguyen Duc Tri; Tran Kiem; Nguyen Loc ... and some PhD theses on education quality management at some public universities. The research results of the aforementioned theses were mainly based on the views and training quality management models according to ISO or TQM in teaching or training quality management at a specific training facility or public university. However, the author has recognized that there has not been any particular work or thesis focusing on research in training quality management at private universities in Ho Chi Minh City in view of total quality management (TQM). 6 1.1.3. The development stages of university training quality management in Vietnam - Quality assurance through input standards - Quality assurance through resources - Quality assurance through meeting standards 1.2. Basic concepts 1.2.1. Quality, training, university training quality Groups of quality concepts: • The first group: Quality is distinction • The second group: Quality is consistent perfection • The third group: Quality is consistency with the ultimate goal. • The fourth group: Quality measured by value for money • The fifth group: Quality is conversion value Although there are many different definitions of quality, in this thesis, the author says: "Quality is to meet the target" is the most relevant in the field of training and education. The thesis takes this concept as the basis for implementing the research content. 1.2.2. Management and university training management In the thesis, the management concept is understood: Management is the process of planning, organizing, leadership and examine the work of the members of a system / unit and the use of appropriate resources to achieve the intended purpose. Training management means making impacts in an organized fashion that aims at the management of the entire training process in order to make the most effective use of resources, maximizing the organization's chances to achieve the training goals it has previously set, bearing in mind both internal and external conditions surrounding the school environment. 1.2.3. Quality management and total training quality management Vietnam standards of quality "ISO-5814-94" (adapted from the International Standardization for Organizations ISO.9000) dictates that "Quality management is a set of activities of general management functions which determine quality policies, purpose and responsibility and implement them through measures such as quality planning, control and quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement within the quality system"[50 ]. The thesis employs this definition as the basis for the study of the thesis contents. Quality management include 3 main levels: quality control, quality assurance and total quality management (TQM). 1.3. Training quality management models 1.3.1. SEAMEO model 1.3.2. ISO 9001 - 2008 model 1.3.3. EFQM model 1.3.4. CIPO model 1.3.5. AUN-QA model 1.3.6. Total quality management (TQM) model 1.3.6.1. The general notion of (TQM) model 7 Total quality management is how to manage an organization focused on quality, based on the participation of all members, in order to achieve long-term success through customer satisfaction and bringing benefits for society and members of the organization. The concept of TQM is very diverse and is represented at many levels from philosophy to systems, processes, methods and tools of quality management which emphasizes the characteristics of the overall management, customer-centeredness and encouragement of the participation and efforts of organization members, continuous improvement and quality culture formation. TQM also imposes requirements on the level of control, maintenance, insurance and improvements of quality according to quality standards In the framework of the thesis, the author considers training quality management based on total quality management (TQM) concepts as: - Quality means reliability, meeting customer requirements, viewing customers as the focus. This is the most important factor of competitiveness and survival of every private university because quality standards go hand in hand with customer satisfaction. As such, quality must be determined by the customer. - A management system is people-centered, a global system operating horizontally in which responsibility for the quality is not only the managers’, but also the responsibility of all members of the organization and in the spirit of autonomy. Ensuring quality requires the commitment of the members and different departments of the organization; - The importance of focusing on the various levels of management, from management of quantity to management of quality of products or services, management of costs, including supply management and satisfying customer requirements. TQM is understood to include the following issues: knowledge, commitment, organization, measurement (expense), planning, design, system, capacity, control, teamwork, training and enforcement; - Quality means "excel from the start", to prevent risks, avoid errors right from the first stage of the process of making a product or service. Therefore, TQM philosophy means "continuous improvement". This requires that all members are committed to constant quality improvements: it is a regular task, permanently embedded into an organization as its core culture; - TQM requires a change of organizational culture, which is understood to be a change in behavior, relationships, work ethics, management, including the construction and development of customs and habits within the organization and its long-term reputation. - Quality management conducted in a comprehensive manner from input, process to output to meet customer needs and ensure continuous improvement... - Providing a comprehensive management system and prioritize all aspects related to quality. Not imposing rigid processes, management standards like ISO. - Unifying the efforts of all staff, drawing the participation of all members in improving activities and enhancing the quality of a uniform system in order to create rhythmic activity that focuses on quality culture. 8 - Improving reputation, troubleshooting errors and problems that are detected and solving them efficiently, improving employee morale by promoting more responsible work in groups and participation in TQM decisions. 1.3.6.2. The ground rules of the TQM model 1.3.6.3. The management principles of TQM models 1.4. Training quality management model in view of total quality management 1.4.1. Features of training quality management model based on TQM perspective Training quality management model based on TQM perspective is built on the quality assurance (QA) system and oriented to the requirements in view of TQM on customer responsiveness and continuous improvement; to mobilize the participation of the people and focus on quality and organizational culture culture formation. 1.4.2. University training quality management model based on TQM perspective A training quality management model based on TQM perspective is a new quality management model, involving many levels, many parts that carry different functions, but it requires synchronized collaboration within the university. Therefore, the author has proposed an operation system of quality at universities as a training quality management model based on TQM perspective as follows: (MISSION, VISION AND VALUES SYSTEM OF THE UNIVERSITY) Culture, commitment, quality planning, communication and information Organizations & Implementatio(D) Testing & Evaluation (C) output stantards curriculum INPUT MANAGEMET and training PROCESS MANAGEMENT OUTPUT MANAGEMENT SOCIAL NEEDS/ Customers Processes, quality management standards ISO training and AUN & QA Planning Design (P) & QUALITY CULTURE ENVIRONMENT Corrective action Promoting action + Redress action + Processing action (A) THE TQM PERSPECTIVE Figure 1.13: Training quality management model based on TQM perspective 9 1.4.3. Guidelines for implementing the training quality management model based on TQM perspective at university 1.4.4. The effect of applying Training quality management model based on TQM perspective at university CONCLUSION OF CHAPTER 1 Chapter 1 of the thesis has given an overview of the thoughts and views on quality and quality management that have been researched and applied in production - business and in the education quality management in general and higher education in particular, with a view that education is a fundamental service to society. The theoretical framework of the thesis has been formed on the basis of basic concepts of quality systems; training, management and quality management; training quality management and quality management levels. Results collected from analysis of the structure and contents of popular quality management models such as ISO 9001--2008; SEAMEO model; EFQM model; AUN & QA models ... have shown that most of these models have approached the management viewpoint of TQM at different levels and are able to apply quality management in higher education. The characteristics of the total quality management model has been analyzed, interpreted through applying Deming (PCDA) circle for continuous improvement; 5S rules; 3C philosophy and applying TQM principles in university training management..... The research on management and quality assurance of higher education and abroad confirms the relevance and necessity of research and application of total quality management perspectives considering the development trend of quality management of higher education today. Based on the basic theoretical research results on training quality management in general and quality of higher education in particular, the thesis author proposes a Training quality management model based on TQM perspective with the following main elements: - Input management: management of input, objectives, curriculum, training resources including faculty, students, facilities, finance and implementation of university rules and regulations; - Process management: management process of teaching and learning activities, scientific research and management training. - Output management: Honing of virtues, skills, techniques and meeting labor market needs of learners, adult trainers, managers; improving reputation and brand recognition of the university. This process will be carried out based on standards such as quality assurance, AUN mission, vision, values of private universities and the rules of 5S; 3C philosophy of training quality management model based on TQM perspective including Commitment (Quality commitment), Culture (quality culture) and Communication (quality training information) with a customer-oriented focus and training quality outcomes that are appropriate and meet the needs of society. The above model is the basis for deploying further research on the contents detailed in Chapters 2 and 3 of the thesis. 10 CHAPTER 2: STATUS OF TRAINING QUALITY MANAGEMENT AT PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN HO CHI MINH CITY 2.1. Overview of system development and training quality management at private universities in Vietnam 2.1.1. The formation and development process of policies for private universities Since 1987, Vietnam abandon an economic focused planning subsidy model, accept the "market economy under socialist orientation", the non-state sector is recognized, that is the basis for development of nonpublic higher education system. In 1993, the first regulation of private universities has issued by the Prime Minister. Although this regulation still exists, not canceled, but due to objective reasons and subjective, this regulation has not been brought to life. In 1994, the Ministry of Education and Training issued temporary regulations on private universities and Provisional Regulations university charter, and by 2000 it had an official regulation. These documents showed conservative views toward private ownership and profit sharing. Overall, public and private sale model based on collective ownership and there are many factors nonprofit, because state regulation to the difference expenditures for compulsory reserves, investment in infrastructure material; payment of interest and repayment of equity, loans. The turning point for non-public higher education are Education Law 2005 and Decree No. 75 of the Government dated 08/02/2006 guiding the implementation of some articles of the Education Law. According to these documents, two types of semi-public universities and private was abolished, and only one type of private universities are the only private university. In 2005, the Regulation on the organization and operation of private universities issued under Decision 14 dated 01/17/2005. With this regulation, the term "capital contribution", "capital share", "charter capital", "capital with voting rights", "Founders", " the General Assembly of shareholders", "Board of Directors" of capital are concepts associated with the enterprise, the first to be used for education and training sector (Article 3). This clearly reflected the views view private school is a for-profit enterprise. All assets owned by the investors (Article 35). The remaining income after performing obligations and set up funds, allocated to the limited partners in proportion to capital (Article 36). Shareholders are entitled to transfer and withdraw funds. In cases, the school is dissolved, the disposal of financial assets applicable under the provisions of the law on the dissolution of the enterprise. 2.1.2. Some characteristics of private university 2.1.2.1 Private university Private educational institutions by social organizations, socio - professional, economic organizations or individuals to establish when state agencies have jurisdiction allows. institutions are funds outside the state budget.Construction investment infrastructure and ensure operational funding of private educational. According to the Higher Education law in 2013 - Article 3, "Educational institutions and private higher education establishments with foreign investment whose activities are not for profit are tertiary education institutions that share their Net annual interests accumulation as common property without division, in order to reinvest in development of higher education; shareholders or 11 capital contributing members are not entitled to dividends or to enjoy an annual income that exceeds the interest rate of government bonds". Also according to this Law, Article 7, Section 2b states that "the infrastructure and investments for higher education establishments owned by private social organizations, social – professional organizations, private organizations, non-profit associations are the sole responsibility of these parties". 2.1.2.2. The structure of private university The structure of the quality management system of private universities is different from public schools in that private universities are under direct management and the general direction of the Board of Directors and supervision of the school principal and are not eligible for state funds. a) The school board of management: Responsible for review and adoption of development policies and strategies for the university in general and ensure training quality in particular, while also ensuring financial resources, human resources and facilities. Private universities are financially autonomous and are free to seek and secure any financial investment needed for quality assurance activities. b) The principal and the vice principal: Responsible for building, organizing and directing the implementation of quality plans; organizing a board of assistants and advisors that supervise the quality assurance of the school. Develop mechanisms and promulgation of legal documents on quality assurance in schools.... approve the self-evaluation report of the university.. c) Quality assurance center: A specialized unit that helps the principal in directing, counseling and supervising quality assurance of the school. Coordinating with relevant agencies in building standards, processes, methods, tools... and guidelines to ensure the quality (input-process-output). Collecting and processing the feedback on the quality of education from parents, students and employers (enterprises and agencies) d) Department/Board of professional-expertise: Depending on their respective functions, duties, they implement management operations, quality assurance training (entrance quality; develop training programs and teaching staff; ensure the quality of facilities, teaching equipment ...) e) Faculties/specialized centers: Responsible for quality assurance in implementing activities and professional training of the assigned units; in collaboration with the center to ensure the quality of assessment cases in regular and periodic quality assurance operations. 2.1.2.3. Functions and duties of the Board of Directors at private universities According to the Higher Education Law - Article 17, the Board of Directors shall perform the following tasks: 1. The Board of Directors are to be established at private colleges and universities. 2. The Board of Directors is the only organization representing the owners of the school. The Board of Directors is entitled to the following powers: a) To organize the implementation of resolutions of the council of shareholders; b) Make decisions on resolutions, strategy, planning, development plans and regulations on the organization and operation of the school; c) Make decisions on training orientation, science and technology, international cooperation and ensure the education quality; 12 d) Make the decisions regarding issues related to organization, personnel, finance, property investment and development direction of the school; e) Monitoring the implementation of the resolutions of the board, the implementation of democratic regulations in the school operations. 2.1.3. Development scale of private universities In recent years, private colleges in Vietnam have continued to face many serious challenges. Although the growth of the higher education sector in the last two decades in terms of quantity is very impressive, the number of private universities that have achieved real success is not high. In the context where public resources for public higher education continues to be restricted, the development of education at non-public Universities (now known as private universities) is the essential route to take in order to meet the needs of education and skills training for sustainable growth. 2.2. Case studies about status of training quality management at private universities in Ho Chi Minh city 2.2.1. Organize case studies To come up with a reliable assessment of the general situation of private universities in HCM city, the author conducted sampling at 4 private schools, including: HCM city University of Foreign Languages - Information technology (HUFLIT); Hoa Sen University; HCM city University of Technology (HUTECH); Nguyen Tat Thanh University. Author summing the official information source of schools through reports and official data in 03 publicly report of 04 school to get information about status of training quality management implementation of such private university. 2.2.2. Status of training quality management at private universities in Ho Chi Minh city 2.2.2.1. HCM city University of Foreign Languages - Information technology (HUFLIT) 2.2.2.2. Hoa Sen University 2.2.2.3. HCM city University of Technology (HUTECH) 2.2.2.4. Nguyen Tat Thanh University 2.2.3. Evaluating the situation of training quality management at a number of private universities in Ho Chi Minh City Through the above information, the thesis has conducted comparative research of indicators of quality management at private universities according to 3 publicly described the provisions of Ministry of Education and Training has been posted publicly on specific webside [55,56,57] studied four private universities in Ho Chi Minh City include HUFLIT, LOTUS, HUTECH, Nguyen Tat Thanh. the authors found that private universities have the following characteristics: Common point: 1. Equal is a multidisciplinary training schools, most students vocational easily choose for themselves a suitable occupations of interest, thereby which preference of the enrollment attracted expect from the school. 2. Along with the investment strategy of human resources oriented to meet the requirements to ensure the quality and the conversion ratio of students to faculty members on the provisions of 13 Circular No. 57/2011 Ministry of Education and Training and Higher Education Act effective from the date of 01.01.2013. 3. Investing in infrastructure is gradually focused to fit the size of school enrollment to meet the teaching and learning needs of the unit. Private Points: 1. Nguyen Tat Thanh University together many deployment tools towards quality assurance to meet the needs and interests of learners through testing deploying external assessment AUN standards - QS with the program creating or providing student services according to ISO: 9001 2008 and total quality management TQM direction. But just stop at the level of ongoing internal evaluation and has not been recognized. 2. Hoa Sen University is a school that has been implementing successfully and becomes one of the leading private universities in Ho Chi Minh City with the quality assurance system according to ISO 9001-2008. 3. HCM city University of Technology (HUTECH) is also a school that implemented to student services quality ensure according to ISO 9001 - 2008 and was evaluated and accredited by QUACERT to 2016. 4. HCM city University of Foreign Languages - Information technology is a chool that implemented quality assurance model towards CDIO approach. CDIO is a methodology to conceive stands - Design - Implement - Operate. Methodology CDIO help answer two questions at the heart of higher education is what Teaching and Learning, how to teach and learn. The answers to this question lies in two output standards of training programs, the content and how to implement the training program. But also new stop level internal implementation which have not been evaluated beyond. In summary though private universities to follow one quality management models vary, but generally the private universities were initially aware of the importance of training quality management and see it as important interest and long-term development goals of private universities. 2.3. Status of training quality management based on TQM basis at private universities in Ho Chi Minh city 2.3.1. Organize baseline study To come up with a reliable assessment of the general situation of private universities in HCM city, the author conducted sampling at 4 private schools, including: + HCM city University of Foreign Languages - Information technology (HUFLIT); + Hoa Sen University; + HCM city University of Technology (HUTECH); + Nguyen Tat Thanh University. Author collect comments of 400 managers and teachers at 4 above private universities, however valid votes collected only 375 votes (representing 93.75%) due to a record number of votes not being or patterns answer invalid. In particular, the number of survey questionnaires were generated as follows: 14 Table 2.5. Scale statistical survey by questionnaire at private universities in HCM city Number 1 2 3 4 Total School names HUFLIT University Hoa Sen University HUTECH University Nguyen Tat Thanh University 04 Universities Number of ballots issued 100 ballots 100 ballots 100 ballots 100 ballots 400 ballots Number of ballots received 95 ballots 93 ballots 95 ballots 97 ballots 380 ballots Number of valid ballots 93 ballots 92 ballots 95 ballots 95 ballots 375 ballots 2.3.2. Status of training quality management based on TQM perspective at private universities in ho chi minh city Training Quality Management based on TQM perspective is actually managing quality objectives include the commitment to the vision, mission, policies, input, output, quality planning and proper implementation of that commitment. Besides, TQM focus on the input and output management, training process in training quality management at private universities. To determine the current status of training quality management based on TQM perspective at private universities in HCM city, the author used a survey method using questionnaires at 04 private universities regarding training quality management as follows: 2.3.2.1. On training objectives management 2.3.2.2. On entrance management 2.3.2.3. On training program management 2.3.2.4. On teaching activity management of faculty 2.3.2.5. On faculty management 2.3.2.6. On quality assurance conditions management 2.3.2.7. On output standards management 2.3.2.8. On policies, mechanisms and quality plan 2.3.3. General assessment of the current status of training quality management according to TQM at private universities in HCM city In general, private universities in Ho Chi Minh City have gradually become more interested in the management and insurance of training quality to enhance the position and reputation of their institutions in society and employers’ perception. However, perceptions of management staff and faculties in ensuring the quality of education are not high. Therefore, quality management is currently being carried out passively, simply in order to deal with appraisal requirements of the Ministry of Education and Training: Ho Chi Minh city private universities have not really defined objectives, standards, output standards and the conditions for the implementation of such standards in each school. No specific route for either short or long term to ensure quality work. Quality assurance is a relatively new concept in the field of private higher education and the quality culture and competence have not become rooted deep enough into the thoughts of the majority of the leaders, managers and employees at private universities. 15 Training programs at private universities do not have clear objectives, specific, reasonable structures and a system designed to meet the requirements of standards of knowledge, skills and attitude training meeting the manpower needs of society. Training management programs at private universities currently do not aim to ensure the quality of specific programs and have not been designed and carried out thoroughly with quality and efficiency, given the specific conditions of those respective universities. Training programs at private universities are still not complementary and not periodically adjusted by referencing and learning from advanced international programs, the feedback from employers, graduates, educational institutions and other organizations to ensure the quality. Staff and faculty at private universities do not understand the process involved, and therefore lack incentives, positivity and proactivity. Faculty and staff at private universities are still unable to define the objective of modules described in syllabus in relation with academic scores which should reflect true professional capacity of students while simultaneously reflecting the causes of student assessment issues. Private universities wish students leave school with outstanding degrees to easily apply for good jobs. As such, teachers often give high marks. As a result, scores do not reflect the true quality and requirements of the training objectives. The room/board department at these universities carry out management in an outdated, oldfashioned manner (simple administration) and are not really interested and implement training quality management according to the TQM standpoint. (Comprehensive management and innovation, continuous improvement). Responsible organization for quality assurance at the private universities have not been paid adequate attention and are often combined with governmental inspection and testing departments. For this reason, there is little cohesion between quality and efficiency at private universities. There persists the thinking that investing in quality is costly, wasting time and other resources of private universities. Compared with public universities, private universities generally have limited capital investment in infrastructure, investment is spread into various parts, infrastructure is both lacking and outdated while their practical training curricula fail to meet the needs of business after graduation. This is easily seen through the machinery of practice at schools which is too backward compared with existing machines now. Reality shows that private universities in the city should pay more attention to the application of quality management models in modern training management to enhance the effectiveness of management, operation and quality control of education and training in their units. Quality management at private universities need to manage according to the process as the training process is the main activity of the school together with the equipment purchase process, the exam assessment process, graduation, diploma and certification management, alongside essential elements of private universities such as lecturers and management staff, facilities, equipment and teaching .... Private universities in the city should focus on training quality management through the establishment of a quality management system suitable to the characteristics of each case and apply 16 a quality assurance model meeting regional and international standards such as AUN-QA, ISO, TQM. CONCLUSION OF CHAPTER 2 Results of synthesis and analysis of development policies at private universities in the process of education reformation in recent years have shown the picture of the development of private universities: from the number of institutions; training scale; to the amount and structure of qualified teaching staff ..., thereby reflecting the achievements and at the same time highlighted inadequacies, limitations of private universities in general and those in HCM City in particular. The results of analysis and assessment of the status of the training quality management at the private universities in general and 4 archetypical private universities selected for case study, the management operations of training quality of private universities in the areas of: determining the mission, vision and policy, quality plans; input quality objectives management, program content, enrollment, teaching staff, management staff and ensure conditions for education and training. Quality training management process: the process of teaching and learning process of students. Output standards management: The inspection, evaluation and organization of feedback. Results of comparisons and overall assessment shows that private universities in recent years have implemented numerous training quality management systems according to the international standards ISO 9001-2008; The AUN QA & QA criteria, and built self-evaluation reports according to the standards of the Ministry of Education and Training to participate in accreditation. However, due to objective and subjective reasons, training quality management at private universities have not been implemented continuously, consistently and in synchronization, which shows the need to study the proposed new model about training quality management according to TQM standpoint in order to implement it for the continuous improvement of training quality at private universities. Besides, as most private university management boards are still traditional, they are not used to manage specific processes where education and training process is the main activity of the university alongside the purchase of equipment, assessment process, graduation and degree-level certification, while simultaneously managing such elements of the university as staff management, training content management, facilities, teaching equipment ... The management of the above factors often rely on circulars, directives and regulations of the state that are mostly outdated and unsuitable for quality management in the present time, following international standards such as AUN-QA, ISO, TQM. Although private universities do establish a mechanism of testing, evaluation and supervision of leaders and individuals to comply with duties, powers, responsibilities assigned, most of this mechanism takes place at the end of the process, semester or school year so it tends to underestimate the training quality of students. The above findings are a factual basis for reference in order to construct a training quality management system and measures proposed for this system to be implemented at private universities in general and experimental measures at Nguyen Tat Thanh University in particular. 17 CHAPTER 3: TRAINING QUALITY MANAGEMENT MEASURES AT PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN HO CHI MINH CITY BASED ON TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 3.1. Orienting undergraduate training quality management until 2020 According to Resolution 29 on innovation and comprehensive basic education in Vietnam: "Improving the system of education quality assessment, periodic accreditation of education and training institutions and training programs; publicizing testing results, focus on testing, assessing, controlling the education and training quality for non-public institutions and establishments using foreign elements, constructing assessment and inspection guidelines in accordance with the different types of education communities". 3.2. Principle proposed measures of training quality management system 3.2.1. Viability 3.2.2. Inheritability 3.2.3. Effectiveness 3.2.4. Synchronism 3.3. The system of measures for training quality management according to TQM at private universities in HCM city 3.3.1. Training quality management system according to TQM at private universities in HCM city The author proposes a quality management system in view of TQM for Private Universities as follows: (See Figure 3.1). Quality management systems at private universities are managed and directed generally by the Board of Directors and management systems at private universities consisting of the following: Board of Directors of the school; Principals and vice-principals; quality assurance centers; Room/board of professional-expertise; The Faculties/specialized centers. In particular, the school's board of Directors manage the organization and day-to-day running of the private university, representing the owners of the school. The managing Board is responsible for deciding on the direction for operations and mobilizing resources for the school, to supervise activities and decide on organizational matters, personnel, finance, production and investment and development direction of the school as stipulated in association with the school community and society, and ensure the implementation of education objectives and the autonomy and self-responsibility of the school under the provisions of law. The Board of Directors and the principal appointed by the Board of Directors are subject to the highest responsibility for the operational aspects of the school including training quality management. The training quality management system based on TQM perspective is built on the quality assurance (QA) system and is oriented towards TQM views on customer responsiveness, continuous improvement; to mobilize the participation of the people and focus on quality and organizational culture formation… Systems take mission, vision and commitment of each school as the guideline for the training and development strategy of each private university. This process will be carried out based on standards 18 such as ISO quality assurance, AUN & QA ... and according to 5S rules; 3C philosophy of training quality management model based on TQM perspective include Commitment (Quality commitment), Culture (quality culture) and Communication (training quality information) with a customeroriented focus and appropriate training quality that meets the needs of society. BOARD OF DIRECTORS PRINCIPAL FACULTIES/ SPECIALIZED CENTERS QUALITY ASSURANCE CENTER DEPARTMENTS MANAGEMENT/ OPERATIONS Mission, vision, commitment, culture, and communicationvinformation Organizations & Implementatio(D) output stantards curriculum INPUT MANAGEMET and Testing & Evaluation (C) training PROCESS MANAGEMEN T OUTPUT MÂNGEME NT SOCIAL NEEDS/ Customers Processes, quality management standards ISO training and AUN & QA Planning Design (P) & QUALITY CULTURE ENVIRONMENT Corrective action Promoting action + Redress action + Processing action (A) THE TQM PERSPECTIVE Figure 3.1: Training quality management model based on TQM perspective Each training quality management activity is organized as a 4-step process consisting of planning and design - Implementing - Testing and assessment – adjustment, promotion and operation, to ensure the implementation quality of training programs and outputs standards that are consistent with what the school has committed to students, parents, teachers and society through communication channels while also appropriate to the school culture. The training quality management model based on TQM perspective is a method of quality management of the different elements of education and training, namely quality management of
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