Traditional villages for tourism in Thua Thien Hue

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HO CHI MINH NATIONAL ACADEMY OF POLITICS INSTITUTE OF POLITICAL ECONOMICS -------------------- PhD. Student NGUYỄN LÊ THU HIỀN TRADITIONAL CRAFT VILLAGE FOR TOURISM IN THUA THIEN HUE PROVINCE Major : Political Economics Code : 62 31 01 01 SUMMARY OF PhD. THESIS IN ECONOMICS HANOI 6/2014 Works completed in the Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics Supervisor: Ass. Prof. Dr. Nguyen Thi Nhu Ha Opponent 1: Opponent 2: Opponent 3: This thesis shall be defended at the academy-level thesis evaluation council at Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics. At…..o’clock on day…month….2013 This thesis can be seen at: National library and Library of Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics 1 INTRODUCTION 1. The urgency of the thesis In the historical development process of Thua Thien - Hue, since the Nguyen Dynasty Hue was selected as the land for urban settlement, the rural village system of Thuan Hoa - Phu Xuan at that time had some motions together with the advent of the malls, docks ... especially, the demand for commodity exchange created premises to promote the development of handicraft industry; then the formation and development process of handicraft villages was also the narrowing down of agricultural economy and innovating the rural aspect in profession-oriented and craft villages associated with agricultural production activities in the traditional Vietnamese socio-economy. The craft and traditional craft villages have contributed to building cultural identity for the Vietnamese people, contributing an important role in the socio-economic life, particularly in rural and agricultural areas. On the other hand, traditional villages are characteristics that contribute to the labor division in the Vietnamese traditional agricultural economy into three industries, industry - agriculture - trade. This economic structure has actually created for the Vietnam villages to have long-term and steady stability. Even to the late XX century and early XXI century, the impact of scientific and technological advances did not make it change significantly or if any, there would be very slow changes. Therefore, in the growing trend of economic and cultural integration between countries, the preservation and development the cultural characteristics of a region, a country is extremely important as it both preserved and developed traditional values of the nation to "integrate internationally but not dissolved", and contribute to creating a positive impetus to reduce poverty, improve living standards for the residents and innovate the countryside face, promote labor restructuring and rural economic structure towards industrialization and modernization. Today, as the society develops, the need to relax, enjoy and travel of people increases. To meet this demand, many forms of tourism came into being such as ecotourism, cultural tourism, community tourism, spiritual tourism, ... in which the rural tourism form is well developed in domestic and international tourist programs and routes. Rural tourism is the form to develop the harmony in culture, produce, traditional villages ... In Vietnam, craft villages for tourism is increasingly attractive to domestic and foreign tourists, being the general cultural type of tourism, taking 2 tourists to visit, evaluating traditional values and purchasing the typical goods of those traditional villages. This raises an inevitable requirement that is to build and develop a number of traditional villages with characterized, unique traditional values, with a lot of development potential associated with the tourism sector. In Thua Thien Hue province, the system of traditional villages is abundant and diverse, converging several factors suitable to build into traditional villages associated with the tourism sector. This is considered a prominent advantage of Thua Thien Hue province in the process of developing the tourism industry into a key economic sector. However, the restoration and development of the traditional craft villages is still generally spontaneous, based on the nature of the craft villages which are simply of production quality, not conversed to serve tourism. From that it has not timely met the needs of sightseeing, experiencing of visitors as well as failing to meet the market needs for the kinds of tourism products. This practice raises an urgent need for Thua Thien Hue in the socioeconomic development process, being objective, in line with the trend of the times that is to restore and develop the system of traditional craft villages associated with tourism service in a sustainable manner. For this reason, the PhD student has chosen the theme: "Traditional craft villages for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province" as her economic doctoral thesis. 2. Objectives and research tasks of the thesis 2.1. Objectives of the study Analysis and evaluation of traditional craft villages for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province to determine the direction and propose some solutions to develop traditional craft villages (TCV) for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province by 2020. 2.2. Research tasks To accomplish this goal, the thesis has the following main tasks: First, codify theoretical issues and practices related to traditional craft villages for tourism. Second, conduct research, surveys, analysis and evaluation of the status of TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province in the 2008-2012 period, pointing out the results, limitations and causes in the process of TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province. Third, the propose directions and feasible solutions to overcome these limitations exist in the development process of TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province. 3 3. Object and research scope of the thesis 3.1. The research object of the thesis The thesis only focuses on studying TCV associated with tourism (TCV for tourism) in Thua Thien Hue Province to build a theoretical framework to have the basis for researching TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue. 3.2. The research scope of the thesis Location: Researching 25 TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province. Duration: Researching TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province period 2008 - 2012, offering recommendations and solutions for developing TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue by 2020. 4. Research methodology of the theme - In the course of the study, the PhD student used the study methods of political economy, that is: the scientific abstracting method, statistical method, analysis method, synthesis method, comparison method. - The thesis uses the research methods of dialectical materialism and historical materialism of Marxism - Leninism to study the problem of TCV in a dialectical relationship with tourist activities and other issues related to that study, set in a specific historical context when Vietnam develops its market economy in socialist-oriented market economy and international economic integration. - In addition, the PhD student also uses the sample selection survey methodology using questionnaires to collect the opinions of visitors, artisans and producers, businessmen in TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province on issues relating to TCV for tourism. Due to limited time and funds, the thesis only surveyed 151 craftsmen, 300 production business units and 245 visitors to TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province. There is also the use of expert method to communicate directly with a number of scientists, producers and businessmen in TCV for tourism to further clarify the theoretical issues and practices related to the thesis. 5. New contributions of the thesis First, the thesis put forward the concept and characteristics, the role of TCV for tourism on the basis of inheriting some of the views of the previous studies of TCV in general and constructing criteria and factors affecting the traditional craft villages for tourism. Second, through researching the experience of developing TCV for tourism in a number of countries and a number of localities, the thesis 4 draws on experience lessons in developing TCV for tourism for Thua Thien Hue province. Third, on the basis of analyzing, evaluating TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province over the reported figures of competent authorities and practices in the survey questionnaire of the PhD student, the PhD student makes assessments on the achievements, constraints and causes of the limitations in the development process of TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province. Fourth, the dissertation proposes directions and solutions to develop TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province by 2020. 6. Significance of the thesis. 6.1. Reasoning meaning The thesis contributes to further elucidate the theory and practice of traditional craft villages for tourism. 6.2. Practical significance The thesis can be used as reference for scientific research and teaching in colleges and universities. The direction and solutions proposed by the thesis may suggest management agencies consult in the development of traditional craft villages for tourism at local level. 7. Structure of the thesis Besides the introduction, conclusion, appendices, references, the thesis includes four chapters and 10 sections. 5 Chapter 1 OVERVIEW OF THE RESEARCH SITUATION RELATED TO THE THEME OF THE THESIS 1.1. PUBLISHED SCIENTIFIC WORKS RELATING TO THE THEME OF THE THESIS. 1.1.1. Published scientific works relating to the theme of the thesis abroad. The PhD student has investigated some scientific works published abroad, namely: 1) the two author G. Michon, F. Mary (1994), Conversion of traditional village gardens and new economic strategies of rural households in the area of Bogor, Indonesia, Agroforestry Systems Journal Vol.25, No.1, Kluwer Academic Publisher, Indonesia, pp.31 - 38. 2) Liu Peilin (1998), To Establish a Protection System for China's Famous Villages of Historic and Cultural Interest, Journal of Peking University No.1, China. 3) The co-authors LU Song, LU Lin (2004), Temporal Characteristics of Tourist Flows to Ancient Villages - A Case Study of Two World Cultural Heritages, Xidi Village and Hongcun Village, Scientia Geographica Sinica Journal No.2, China, pp.21. 4) Kirsty Blackstock (2005), A Critical look at Community Based Tourism, Community Development Journal No.1, Oxford Univ Press, pp.39 - 49. 5) Che Zhenyu, Bao Jigang (2006), Research on Tourism Development of Traditional Villages and the Change of Form, Planners Journal No.6, China, pp.13 etc. 1.1.2. Status of research of issues related to the theme of the dissertation in the country. Related to research issue of the dissertation, in the country there have been a lot of scientists doing research with multiple angles and different approaches, aiming to solve many different goals for traditional villages in general in Vietnam which is divided into groups of scientific works specifically as follows: 1) Group of scientific works researching TCV history including works such as: Nguyen Huu Thong (2004), Hue craft and traditional craft villages", Thuan Hoa Publishing House, Hue; Pham Con Son (2004), Vietnamese traditional craft villages, Ethnic Cultural Publishing House, Hanoi; Author Le Nguyen Luu (2/2013), Hue Traditional Craft Villages, ancient and modern Hue magazine ... 2) Group of scientific works which have codified basic theories relating to TCV such as: Mai The Hon (2000), Developing traditional villages in the process of industrialization and modernization in the environs of Hanoi capital, PhD Economics Thesis, Ho 6 Chi Minh National Academy of Politics; author Tran Minh Yen (2003), Development of traditional villages in rural Vietnam in the process of industrialization and modernization, PhD Economics Thesis, Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics. 3) Group of the scientific works studying the recovery process and the development of TCV of localities and in the world including the works: Vietnam Institute of Social Sciences and Northeast Asia Research Institute (2004), Conservation and development of traditional craft villages in Japan, Ha Noi; Author Bui Van Hung (2006), Chinese Rural Industrialization in reform and opening door periods, Statistical Publishing House, Hanoi; Author Vu Van Dong (2010), Each Village a Product is the solution for sustainable tourism development experiences from other countries and Vietnam, Journal of Development and Integration, No.3, pp.34-37. 4) Group of scientific works toward the goal of proposing systems of solutions to restore and develop TCV in Vietnam countryside including such works as: Vietnam Union of Scientific and Technical Association (2003), Situations and solutions to develop craft villages in Bac Ninh, Proceedings of scientific seminar, Hanoi; Nguyen Tri Dinh et al (2005), Solutions to develop craft villages in some Red River Delta provinces, ministerial level scientific research theme, Hanoi; Nguyen The Thu (2005), lending funds to support traditional craft villages, the right direction contributing to the boost industrialization and modernization of rural Bac Ninh, Journal of Education and Reasoning, Hanoi. 5) Group research projects on tourism development issues associated with TCV in Vietnam including the works: Author Vu The Hiep (2008), Potential for developing craft villages for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province, Journal of Science and Education, Hue University of Pedagogy, No. 4, pp. 120-123; Tran Viet Luc (2011), Problems in the investment and development of tourism products associated with tourism villages and removing solutions, Proceedings of the "Workshop on Craft Festival and traditional villages of Hue" Hue, pp. 32-38; Author Nguyen Thi Ngoc Cam (2013), Research on Sustainable Development of craft village tourism in Thua Thien Hue, Proceedings of the "Workshop on Hue Festival of Craft and traditional craft villages" Hue, pp. 12-16; Nguyen Phuoc Quy Quang (2013), Craft village tourism in the Mekong Delta - A cultural advantage to develop tourism, Integration and Development Journal, No. 10, pp. 62-66; Author Phan Tien Dung (2013), Preserving and promoting traditional villages contribute to promote tourism of Thua Thien Hue Province for sustainable development, Proceedings of the "Workshop on Hue Festival of Craft and traditional craft villages" Hue, pp.05 -11; Author An Van Khanh (2013), Developing craft villages, professions connected with tourism, 7 Proceedings of the "Workshop on Hue Festival of Craft and traditional craft villages”, Hue, pp. 39 – 47, etc. 1.2. RESEARCH RESULTS OF PROJECTS DISCLOSED THAT THE THESIS WILL HAVE INHERITANCE AND GAPS IN RESEARCHING TCV FOR TOURISM THAT THE THESIS WILL CONTINUE. The PhD student draw the results of scientific works that have been published that the thesis can inherit as: - A number of issues related to traditional villages have been clarified such as: the basic theory of traditional villages, the fundamental role of traditional villages in the overall economic development and tourism development in particular; overall assessment of the historical elements of the formation of traditional villages in general, and traditional values of traditional craft villages in Vietnam; identifying the important role of the restoration, preservation and conservation of traditional values in general and traditional values of Vietnam traditional villages in the process of development of economy and tourism. - The idea of developing tourism with many different forms of travel combined with local TCV. The research results of the scientific works published above, on the one hand, has solved many problems of theoretical and practical importance related to the recovery process and development of TCV in the world and in Vietnam; on the other hand, with the trend towards modern development, international integration, it has raises a critical need to continue to study the issues related to TCV in new condition (associated with serving tourism) . Thus, the thesis supposes that there are some issues that need to continue studying as follow: - Clarifying the concept, features, the role of TCV for tourism in new conditions of the country and the world. - Develop assessment criteria and factors affecting traditional craft villages for tourism. - Study and assess the status of traditional craft villages for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province, on that basis propose direction and some solutions to restore and develop traditional craft villages for tourism of the locality by 2020. 8 Chapter 2 THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL BASIS ABOUT TRADITIONAL CRAFT VILLAGES FOR TOURISM 2.1. DEFINITION, CHARACTERISTICS, THE ROLE OF TRADITIONAL CRAFT VILLAGES FOR TOURISM. 2.1.1. The concept of villages, traditional villages and traditional craft villages for tourism. 2.1.1.1. The concept of the craft village and traditional craft villages Craft village is conceived as a residential cluster in a village having one or more jobs which are separated from agriculture for independent production business. Income from those jobs accounts for a high proportion of the total value of products throughout the village. TCV are the villages that have one or more traditional craft separated from agriculture for production business and bring about major source of income for the year. The craft has been passed from one generation to another, often for generations. Along with the challenge of time, these craft villages have become dominant, a traditional, fine craft, with a class of professional or semi-professional craftsmen who dedicate to the production, with certain technological process and live mainly on that. Their products have fine art features and has become a commodity in the market 2.1.1.2. The concept of traditional craft villages for tourism TCV for tourism serves as a "destination" of tourists, they are traditional villages, with one or more of the traditional craft separated from agriculture, developing into specific, outstanding occupations for production business, associated with tourism activities, and providing travel products of TCV for tourism to serve tourists, contributing to increased income for workers in TCV from the sales of those tourist products. 2.1.2. Characteristics of traditional craft villages for tourism. 1) The business production organization operations of TCV for tourism are associated with tourism activities; 2) Develop diversely in size, industrial career structure and other services at TCV for tourism; 3) The tourist products of TCV for tourism is concretized into handicraft products and other forms of tourism services, very rich and diverse, driving to satisfy the needs of visitors; 4) The labor force in the traditional craft villages for tourism include skilled artisans, holding the unique secret of the craft villages and skilled workers, the apprentice; 5) TCV for tourism serve as the crystallization age-old cultural values of the nation. 2.1.3. The role of traditional craft villages for tourism 9 TCV for tourism has an important role for the development of tourism, economy and society in the localities specifically as follows: First, TCV for tourism contributes to exploiting the resources about tourism resources, investment capital, technical infrastructure and human resources for the tourism development in the locality. Second, TCV for tourism contributes to increasing supply and diversifying tourism products locally. Third, TCV for tourism contributes to create typical tourist destinations, expanding forms of association and cooperation in the development of tourism in the locality. Fourth, TCV for tourism contributes to maintaining national identity in Vietnam. 2.2. THE CRITERIA AND FACTORS AFFECTING TRADITIONAL CRAFT VILLAGES FOR TOURISM. 2.2.1. The criteria for evaluating traditional craft villages for tourism 2.2.1.1. Tourism products of TCV for tourism. 2.2.1.2. The workforce of TCV for tourism 2.2.1.3. Capital resources and financial strength of the business production entity of TCV for tourism 2.2.1.4. The level of application of science and technology in the production process in traditional craft villages for tourism 2.2.1.5. The number of tourists to TCV for tourism. 2.2.2. Factors affecting TCV for tourism. Research the emergence, survival and development of TCV throughout history, we see their growth be influenced by many factors such as nature, economy, society ..., in which TCV for tourism is mainly influenced by two groups of factors as follow: 2.2.2.1. Group external factors influencing the development of TCV for tourism include: 1) The relationship between the TCV for tourism with tourist companies: 2) The amount of demand for goods and services of TCV for tourism in the market; 3) The development of handicrafts and tourism industry in Vietnam; 4) The policy of the Government and local authorities towards TCV for tourism. 2.2.2.2. Group internal factors affecting the development of TCV for tourism include: 1) Funds for the production and business activities of households and enterprises in TCV for tourism; 2) The level of the labor force in the service of TCV for tourism; 3) Uniqueness of the products in TCV for tourism; 4) The scientific and technological level and the application of science and technology in the production process in traditional craft villages 10 for tourism; 5) Conditions for maintaining the production and reproduction process in the TCV for tourism such as: raw materials for the production process in the TCV for tourism, production premises of the production units at TCV for tourism, cultural traditions, customs and production experience of workers in TCV for tourism, infrastructure in TCV for tourism. 2.3. EXPERIENCE FOR DEVELOPING TRADITIONAL CRAFT VILLAGES FOR TOURISM AT HOME AND ABROAD. 2.3.1. Experience for developing TCV for tourism abroad 2.3.1.1. Experience of Oita province, Japan on developing sustainable TCV Oita is a province in southwestern of Japan, about 500 km from Tokyo. The younger generation after graduating from universities, colleges, vocational training schools will not want to return to the rural areas where they were born and grew up, but want to stay in the cities and industrial centers. This situation led to the devastation and severe reduction of the population in rural areas in general and Oita in particular – almost only old people and children in this area. Facing this situation, there are many proposals of a number of initiatives to restore the economy of Oita, including the movement "One Village One Product". A series of legal regulations were created to restore production and career development of traditional handicrafts which were referred to as "traditional occupation law." 2.3.1.2. Thailand's experience in tourism development in close connection with traditional villages In Thailand, the reorganization of the traditional village plays an important role in the socio-economic development of the country, such as contributing to preserving and enhancing skilled artisans, preserving traditional values of the nation, creating jobs in rural areas, preventing migration to large urban centers, creating products for export, tourism products for developing TCV associated with serving tourism. From there, promote the TCV associated with the development of tourism service, the Thai government launched the program "One Tambon, One Product" also known as "Thai Tambon Project" (in Thai language, "Tambon" means "Village"). 2.3.2. Experience of developing TCV for tourism domestically 2.3.2.1. Experience of developing traditional villages associated with tourism service in Hanoi In order to exploit the tourism potential, the services of traditional villages, Hanoi has developed programs to develop tourism-oriented occupational villages with 2020, targets for tourism development. To support 11 the rapid development of the craft villages in a strong and sustainable way, especially exploiting the tourism potential and services, in 2012, the Hanoi Department of Industry and Trade has undertaken activities to support career development and occupational villages, typically as implementing to assess the craft village environment in Nhue, Day river basin. Organizing information collection about the craft villages to publishing books and producing films introducing about the career development and traditional villages potential. 2.3.2.2. Quang Nam's experience in restoring and developing the TCV associated with the trend of modern tourism development. Each region a unique career but no where in Quang Nam there are diverse forms of traditional trades as in Hoi An town. That is why the program, Each day being an old city resident, with a tour of the craft villages and making traditional products by themselves attracts many visitors to participate in, for example, Thanh Ha pottery village, lantern making, vegetable planting in Tra Que, all carry a very own identity. 2.3.3. Lessons learned for Thua Thien Hue province in developing traditional craft villages for tourism include: 1) Development TCV for tourism must be associated with the current development trend of modern tourism; 2) Honoring artisans, and focus on training and retraining of human resources in rural areas at the request of the market and the development of the TCV for tourism; 3) There should be guidance for residents in TCV for tourism how to do tourism business, by doing so can they reach modern markets as well as travelers to visit and experience the TCV, contributing to create the attraction for TCV; 4) Gradually build the product brand for each TCV for tourism under the motto "each village each product" by: - Approving TCV for tourism products accurately to accredit the product brands of those TCV. - In certain periods, there must be guaranteed policies for TCV for tourism products. - Encourage and enhance the creativity of artisans for the construction and development of TCV for tourism products. - Development of TCV for tourism products to meet the requirements of the laws of the market economy. - There are many ways to harmonize tourism activities with TCV for tourism to serve tourism effectively. 12 Chapter 3 STATUS OF TRADITIONAL VILLAGES FOR TOURISM IN THUA THIEN HUE PROVINCE 3.1. POTENTIAL FOR DEVELOPING TRADITIONAL CRAFT VILLAGES FOR TOURISM IN THUA THIEN HUE. 3.1.1. Status of traditional villages in Thua Thien Hue province. In localities in Thua Thien Hue province there are now a total of 88 villages, of which 25 TCV for tourism are divided into 6 TCV groups associated with specific products such as bamboo and rattan products, leaf conical hats, confetti and paper paintings, terracotta pottery, wood carving, bronze casting. 3.1.2. The main resources created to facilitate the development of traditional craft villages for tourism in Thua Thien Hue 3.1.2.1. Cultural, human characteristics in TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province. 3.1.2.2. The tourism potential. 3.1.2.3. Infrastructure. - The transport system - Power supply system - Water supply system - Communication system 3.2. TRADITIONAL CRAFT VILLAGES FOR TOURISM IN THUA THIEN HUE PERIOD 2008-2012. 3.2.1. Tourism products of traditional craft villages for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province. The tourism products of TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue Province are both products of economic value and their own tradition value, reflecting vividly the ethnic and local cultural identity, so attractive for domestic and foreign tourists, including product groups of handicrafts specifically such as bamboo, rattan, conical hats, confetti and paper paintings, terracotta pottery, wood carving, bronze casting and the types of travel services here are as follows: 3.2.1.1. Production and sales of handicrafts products of TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province. 13 Revenue from product sales of TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province in the 2008-2012 period tends to increase, making the local tourism industry tend to grow attached to the TCV for tourism, total sales of TCV for tourism were collected from two sources: revenue from direct product sales channel (including wholesale and retail) and revenue from other tourism activities (guiding, sightseeing, experiencing ...), expressed as follows: Table 3.4: Total revenue of TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue Unit: Billion VND Total revenue of traditional craft villages for tourism In 2008 In 2009 In 2010 In 2011 In 2012 R R R R R P P P P P (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Criteria 1. Revenue from product direct sales channel, in 24.2 99.6 25.4 99.6 which: - Wholesales - Details 17.2 71.1 18.9 74.4 7.0 28.9 6.5 25.6 28.5 99.3 35.5 99.2 42.9 98.8 20.5 71.9 25.8 72.7 30.9 72.0 9.7 27.3 12.0 28.0 0.3 0.8 0.5 1.2 100 35.8 100 43.4 100 8.0 28.1 2. Revenue from other tourism activities (guide, 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.4 0.2 sightseeing, experiencing…) Total 24.3 100 25.5 100 28.7 0.7 (Source: Department of Planning and Investment Hue 2012) 3.2.1.2. The quantity and quality of tourism services of TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province. A survey of 245 visitors with nationalities of Vietnam, Britain and France to visit TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province location on the types of consumption of travel services of TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue is shown in Table 3.5 below: Table 3.5: Status of various types of consumption of travel services in TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province Tourist service forms of TCV for tourism 1. Travel 2. Accommodation 3. Food and drinks 4. Sightseeing, shopping for souvenirs 5. Experiencing at TCV for tourism Consumer tourists (visits) 153 30 245 245 80 (Source: Survey of the PhD student in 2012) Ratio % 62.4 12.2 100 100 32.7 14 Table 3.7: Degree of satisfaction of tourists about the tourism service quality of TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province Selecting Visitors Ratio (%) 125 51.0 Unsatisfied 95 38.8 Satisfied 20 8.2 Very satisfied 5 2.0 Difficult to answer Total 245 100 (Source: Survey of the PhD student in 2012) 3.2.2. Workforce of TCV for DL serving in Thua Thien Hue province. In Thua Thien Hue province there are 2,380 production facilities operating in 25 different TCV for DL, with 4,920 employees participating in as regular employees and 2,760 employees participated as seasonal, mainly distributed mostly in 3 districts in Quang Dien, Huong Thuy and Phu Vang with the corresponding percentage of 32.3%, 22.5% and 28.2%. And in Phong Dien, Huong Tra district and Hue City, the number of craft villages are allocated fewer, with the corresponding ratio of 6.2%, 7.1% and 3.7%. At TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province, the number of artisans, skilled workers accounted for a too low rate of approximately 1.32% (67 people), 6.28% were artisans apprentice, equivalent to about 309 people, the remaining was 92.4% of skilled workers, including about 4,544 employees, representing specifically in table 3.9 as follows: Table 3.9: Classification of labor by age and skill levels Of TCV of DL in Thua Thien Hue province Artisans Age group Ratio on total Q (ppl) laborer (%) Highly skilled Skilled workers Apprentice workers Ratio Ratio on Ratio on total on total Q (ppl) total Q (ppl) Q (ppl) laborer laborer laborer (%) (%) (%) 65+ 1 0.02 10 0.2 18 0.4 0 0 50 – 64 0 0 31 0.6 27 0.5 30 0.60 18-49 0 0 25 0.5 3,590 73 199 4.05 15-18 0 0 0 0 909 18.5 80 1.63 Total 1 0.02 66 1.3 4,544 92.4 309 6.28 (Source: Thua Thien Hue Province Department of Planning and Investment in 2012) 15 The average income of employees serving in TCV for tourism is divided into two distinct groups: Firstly, the group of workers at TCV for tourism with high average income: including wood carving and bronze casting product groups, because this is the group of products with largescale investment, creating high-value products, and require the sophistication and traditional secret of artisans and skilled workers. Secondly, a group of workers at TCV for tourism with low-income average: including TCV for tourism producing bamboo and rattan products, leaf conical hats, confetti and paper paintings, and terracotta pottery. A survey of 151 artisans in TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province, including artisans, skilled workers, skilled craftsmen and artisans apprentice in TCV for tourism in the Thua Thien Hue province, the attachment level and the wish to transfer traditional craft to the next generation is different, which is shown in Table 3.11 below: Table 3:11: The level of commitment and wish to transfer traditional craft of the laborers at TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue Criteria Degree of engagement and wish to transfer traditional craft Want very No. Not want Want a little Normal much observed No. No. No. (person) No. Odv R Odv R (%) Odv R (%) Odv R (%) (ppl) (%) (ppl) (ppl) (ppl) 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 100 50 3 6.0 7 14.0 10 20.0 30 60.0 Skilled workers 50 3 6.0 8 16.0 9 18.0 20 40.0 Apprentice 50 10 20.0 13 26.0 12 24.0 15 30.0 Artisans Highly workers skilled (Source: Survey of the PhD student in 2012) 3.2.3. Funds for developing TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue Investment funds of the entity engaged in production in TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province have tended to increase over the years with an average growth rate of capital investment for these TCV from 2008 to 2012 fluctuated in the range of 0.50% - 17%, in which capital investment for business travel of TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province in the period 2008-2012 was as follows: Table 3:12: Investment capital for travel business of TCV for tourism 16 in Thua Thien Hue Unit: million dongs Names of product groups of TCV for tourism Investment capital for tourist business of traditional craft village for tourism In 2008 Q In 2009 R (%) Q In 2010 R (%) Q In 2011 R (%) Q In 2012 R (%) Q R (%) 1. Rattanware - Total investment level - Investment capital for tourism business 1,647.7 100 1,865.5 100 1,763.5 247.2 15 317.1 17 352.7 100 1,853.5 20 389.2 100 1,864.3 100 21 410.1 22 2. Leaf hat - Total investment level - Investment capital for tourism business 1,710.8 100 1,712.5 100 1,793.4 171.1 10 205.5 100 1,861.9 100 1906.6 100 12 233.1 13 279.3 15 232.0 100 269.6 100 246.2 100 16.2 6 17.2 7 343.2 18 3. Paper pictures and paper flowers - Total investment level - Investment capital for tourism business 230.5 100 6.9 3 11.6 5 261.6 100 23.5 9 4. Heated chinaware - Total investment level - Investment capital for tourism business 1,600.0 100 1,570.0 100 1,607.0 112 7 141.3 9 16.07 100 1,532.0 10 168.5 100 1,630.0 100 11 244.5 15 5. Fineart carpentry - Total investment level - Investment capital for tourism business 1,466.7 100 1,710.0 100 1,774.3 117.3 8 171 10 195.2 100 1,804.0 11 216.5 100 1,774.0 100 12 248.4 14 6. Bronze casting - Total investment level - Investment capital for tourism business 3,580.5 100 3,380.0 100 3,450.9 179 5 202.8 6 276.6 100 3,547.0 8 283.8 100 3,728.9 100 8 335.6 9 (Source: Department of Trade and Industry Hue 2012) 3.2.4. The level of scientific and technological application in the production process in TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province. Common characteristics of TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue is the manufacturing facilities are associated with housing, primarily using manual labor. Except for some industries such as bronze casting, wood carving, the owners can produce using some machinery, with an addition 17 of building part of the premises for production but not great, just temporary housing. From the above characteristics, the level of scientific and technological application in the production process in the TCV for tourism is divided as per product groups in Thua Thien Hue has marked difference, as shown in Table 3:15 below: Table 3:15: The level of scientific and technological application in TCV for tourism by product groups in Thua Thien Hue Unit:% Name of product goods of TCV for tourism 1. Rattenware 2. Leaf hats 3. Paper pictures and paper flowers 4. Heated chinaware 5. Finearts carpentry 6. Bronze casting Handmade Semimechanical Mechanical 92 95 96 58 56 14 8 5 4 32 34 28 0 0 0 10 10 58 (Source: Thua Thien Hue Province Department of Planning and Investment in 2012) The application of modern production technology in the production process in the traditional craft villages for tourism in Thua Thien Hue has another very big difference, depending on the specific job, as indicated in the following chart: Chart 3.3: The proportions of scientific and technological application in TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue A survey of 300 manufacturing unit holders in TCV for tourism in evaluating the preservation of uniqueness of craft production technology, about the guidance for visitors during experience, about the 18 appropriateness of the application of modern science and technology in the manufacturing process as well as efficiency and enjoyment for the organization of experiencing activities during the time the tourists visit, listening to the instructions and are directly involved in producing handicraft products in TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue is expressed as follows: Table 3:16: Assessment of business production subjects towards the traditional production technology in TCV for tourism in Thua Thien Hue Criteria Degree of keeping the peculiar uniqueness of the traditional production technology. Selection 140 46,7 Satisfied 100 33,3 50 16,7 10 3,3 Total 300 100 Not satisfied 130 43,3 Satisfied 110 36,7 40 13,3 20 6,7 Total 300 100 Not satisfied 100 33,3 Satisfied 140 46,7 50 16,7 10 3,3 Total 300 100 Not satisfied 125 41,6 Satisfied 95 31,7 Very satisfied 60 20,0 20 6,7 300 100 Very satisfied to Very satisfied Difficult answer Degree of efficiency and excitement of the combination between traditional production technology and modern production technology. to Very satisfied Difficult answer Showing tourists to see directly how finearts handicraft products are produced of TCV for tourism. R% Not satisfied Difficult answer Suitability of applying modern production technology in production process. Quantity Difficult answer Total to to (Source: Survey of the PhD student in 2012) 3.2.5. No. of visitors to traditional craft villages for tourism in Thua Thien Hue province. In the period 2008 - 2012, Thua Thien Hue province has many large festivals taking place thus it attracted a significant number of tourists at home and abroad to visit, as indicated in tourist arrivals to Thua Thien Hue
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