Traditional craft village culture change in Bac Ninh province

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1 INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale * Traditional villages is an integral component of Vietnam villages, it reflects fully of self-sufficiency and closed inherent properties of agricultural villages. Development of villages not directly motivate the creation of jobs, using labor force rationally and efficiently in rural areas but also help preserve, maintain and develop the traditional occupations of the nation, create conditions and opportunities to develop artisans, skilled craftsmen and preserve national culture. Traditional village culture converge fine traditions, village life, community solidarity, professional elite and talented artisans. In recent years, carried out the policy of the Party, traditional villages are gradually restored and developed, products made increasingly diverse, rich and they satisfy domestic demands and export. The village development will be the link between agriculture and industry, between rural and urban, between tradition and modernity. * Bac Ninh is the "Land of civilization" also the place Ly dynasty, a rich country with Quan Ho folk songs, is one of the provinces with many traditional villages. The initial statistics say, in Bac Ninh has 61 villages with famous products like Phu Khe art furniture, Duong O paper, Hoi Quan textiles, Dai Bai bronzes, Dong Ho folk paintings, Phu Lang pottery, Vong Nguyet silk ... In recent years traditional villages have contributed significantly to economic growth and economic restructuring in Bac Ninh. Many products of the villages have been available in international markets contributed 2 an important part to promote traditional culture of VietNam to oversea. * In fact, the process of industrialization and modernization are now making tremendous impacts on the lives of people in rural villages in general or traditional craft villages in Bac Ninh in particular. This process is essentially the process of rural urbanization. Many craft villages are no longer active or extinct due to many different causes, while some other craft villages still exist and develop. To survive, people here always have to change village product design, innovative manufacturing processes, apply advanced technology in a number of stages, seek and expand the market. The process of industrialization and urbanization will create changes in vocational philosophy, change the mode of production from small-scale to large scale, open markets to foreign partners. To help answer these questions and find solutions to regulate the process of cultural change in traditional craft villages in Bac Ninh, the authors have chosen the topic: "Traditional craft village culture change in Bac Ninh province " to study. 2. Purposes, Research assignments 2.1. Research purpose Help to clarify the concept, the characteristics of the craft village culture changes, and show the situation, find expressions of traditional village cultural change in Bac Ninh province today, which proposed some solusions to regulate the process of traditional village cultural change in Bac Ninh province in the coming time. 2.2. Research assignments 3 - Research on the basis of theory and practice of cultural change in traditional craft villages. - Analyze, assess the situation and identify traditional craft village cultural change in Bac Ninh (Through landscape space; monuments, festivals and customs, ancestor worship, social relationships of residents in villages). - Research on cultural change trends in traditional craft villages in Bac Ninh and the present question. 3. Object and scope of studies 3.1. Research object The thesis studies the cultural change in some traditional craft villages in Bac Ninh province, choose some traditional craft villages to investigate, analyze and identify. 3.2. Scope of studies * The scope of the research problem: traditional craft village culture change will take place in many different ways. Thesis focuses the changes of some elements of traditional craft village culture, including landscape space; monuments, festivals and customs; ancestor belief; social relationships of village residents. * The scope of the research space: Bac Ninh province, focusing communes with traditional craft villages such as Dai Bai bronze casting village; Phu Lang pottery village; Phu Khe wood carving village and some other craft villages. * The scope of the research period: study of culture in some craft villages in Bac Ninh province from 1986 to now (with retrospective 4 information survey before 1986), thus generating cultural change of some traditional craft villages. 4. Research methods * The thesis is based on the views of the Party and State to develop craft villages and preservation of cultural heritage. * Thesis choses cultural anthropology approach, which is to enhance the role and voice of the people of the village, they are people who create, preserve and develop the cultural values of the craft village. Holistic approach to understand the craft village culture. The craft village culture is not the sum of the elements that the cultural elements of villages are in close connection with the organic nature and each element has value in the overall of village culture. * Interdisciplinary research methodology: history, ethnography, sociology, folklore ... * Case study method: to identify accurately, objectively and depthly in the study, in 18 traditional craft villages on a total of 62 traditional craft villages, dissertation focuses some craft villages. Thence, we can make general statements about traditional craft village cultural change in Bac Ninh. * Method of fieldwork in the craft villages, applied skills: observe, participate; interviews; quantitative interviews; analyse and synthesize materials; compare. To obtain an objective assessment materials, in research process we use interview methods with local managers and representatives of the community and the elderly. * Statistical and comparative methods: To clarify the changes of craft villages in each specific research, the thesis uses statistical methods (the craft village, the index of the craft villages, changes of components 5 in cultural craft villages ...). While statistical tabulation, the thesis conducts a comparison between past and present indicators to identify changes. 5. The theoretical and practical meaning of the thesis + Thesis contributes to identify cultural change of traditional craft villages in the current period. This is the background to help policy makers and cultural managers to plan for development and conservation of traditional villages in the process of building new countryside. + Research rationale about craft village cultural changes, while offering conceptions of craft village culture, from which study craft village cultural changes. Acquiring the results of the previous researchs, give a specific scheme to apply to the study of traditional craft village cultural change in Bac Ninh province. + Through research, analysis of the case, the thesis identifies the cultural change in traditional craft village in Bac Ninh province. 6. Structure of the thesis Besides the introduction (06 pages), concludes (page 04), appendix (21 pages), and references (10 pages), the thesis includes 04 chapters: Chapter 1. Overview of research, rationale and traditional craft villages in Bac Ninh (39 pages). Chapter 2. The cultural change in traditional craft villages through the village landscape and the spiritual culture factors (48 pages). Chapter 3. Cultural Change in the craft village in the manufacture and marketing of products (36 pages). Chapter 4. Traditional craft village culture change trends in Bac Ninh in the process of industrialization and modernization and the question now (33 pages). 6 Chapter 1 LITERATURE REVIEW, RATIONALE, TRADITIONAL CRAFT VILLAGES IN BAC NINH 1.1. Literature review In the collection and analysis of research projects related to the subject, the author divides the works into issue groups: 1 / The writings on the craft and craft villages in Bac Ninh in general; 2 / The writings on specific occupational groups; 3 / The writings on craft village culture; 4 / The writings on craft village cultural change. 1.1.1. The writings on traditional craft, craft villages in Bac Ninh 1.1.2. The writings on specific occupational groups 1.1.2.1. The writings on silkworm breeding, pull silk, woven fabric 1.1.2.2. The writings on pottery and Phu Lang pottery village 1.1.2.3. The writings on carpentry - wood carving 1.1.2.4. The writings on the mound and bronze casting craft 1.1.2.5. The writings on painting village 1.1.3. The writings on craft village culture 1.1.4. The writings on craft village cultural changes From the collection and analysis of research projects related to the thesis, may draw the following statements: 1. The writings on the professions and the village are quite rich, diverse, we can understand the whole picture of the history and status of traditional craft villages in Bac Ninh province today. 7 2 / In terms of craft village culture, first of all we can see some the monograph about craft villages: Dong Ho paintings, Phu Khe wood carvings, Phu Lang brown pottery, Dai Bai village. Generally, the material written about cultural change in Bac Ninh craft villages, until now there is no study fully written, and comprehensive system, that is the basic aim of the thesis and also the new contributions of the thesis in the identification of variations of cultural elements and craft village culture in some typical villages in Bac Ninh province. Through evaluation of craft village cultural change, thesis proposes solutions that contribute to the conservation of village culture in the period of industrialization and modernization. 1.2. The rationale of craft village culture 1.2.1. Some concepts 1.2.1.1. The concept of village 1.2.1.2. The concept of craft 1.2.1.3. The concept of craft village 1.2.1.4. The concept of village culture 1.2.1.5. The concept of craft village culture 1.2.2. Cultural change in traditional craft villages 1.2.2.1. Culture change 1.2.2.2. Craft village culture change 1.3. Overview of trational craft villages in Bac Ninh 1.3.1. Overview of Bac Ninh 1.3.1.1. Geographical conditions and transport systems 1.3.1.2. Residential conditions and labor 1.3.1.3. Material conditions 8 1.3.1.4. Other conditions 1.3.2. General information on the craft village in Bac Ninh province 1.3.2.1. Number of villages Table 1.1: Bac Ninh craft villages divided by administrative units (up to first quater I/2015) No District/ city No of No of craft commuties villages 1 Bac Ninh city 19 5 2 Tu Son town 11 18 3 Tiên Du 14 4 4 Yên Phong 14 12 5 Lương Tài 14 6 6 Gia Bình 14 8 7 Thuận Thành 18 5 8 Quế Võ 21 5 125 62 Sum [Source: Department of Agriculture and Rural Development provided in 2014] 1.3.2.2. Craft village classification in Bac Ninh * Classification of traditional craft villages (16 villages) and new craft villages (46 villages) Table 1.4. List of craft villages by method of production and type of product No Type of craft villages No of craft Rate (%) 9 villages 1 Crafts 12 19,4 2 Arts and crafts 15 24,2 3 Consuming industry 12 19,4 4 Food processing 16 25,7 5 Other method of production 7 11,3 6 Sum 62 100 [Source: Bac Ninh Department of Industry and Trade] * Classification of craft villages under occupation groups that produce a product group + Group 1: weaving and textile villages + Group 2: carpentry villages, wood carving + Group 3: pottery villages in Bac Ninh + Group 4 craft villages have products made of metal + Group 5 food processing, food + Group 6 different village groups 1.3.2.3. Production model in the craft villages * The model of household * The model of cooperative * The model of private enterprises, limited companies Table 1.5: Number of non-agricultural producting and business units per years Production forms Family Cooperative Quater 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 10.496 13.773 18.769 19.113 19.840 20.150 20.174 173 164 147 131 154 172 193 I/2015 10 Doanh nghiệp TN 87 91 113 156 104 153 164 Limited company 159 171 193 254 185 245 267 10.715 14.199 19.222 19.672 20.283 20.735 20.798 Sum [Source: Bureau of Statistics and the Department of Trade and Industry of Bac Ninh] * The model of industrial clusters in craft villages Conclusions of chapter 1 Bac Ninh is an ancient land, the gateway of Thang Long - Hanoi. Bac Ninh is endowed favorable conditions for transportation, topography, climate ... to develop economic - social, including craft village economic. In the overall of study situation, the author has divided the work according to the following fundamental issue groups: 1 / Group of literature on the craft and craft villages in Bac Ninh in general; 2 / The literature on specific occupational groups; 3 / The literature on craft village culture; 4 / The literature on craft village cultural change. Researching thee theoretical basis of the craft village and craft village cultural change. In history as well as today, the village is a unit of a community in the specific space. The theories of cultural transformation of the scholars in the country and abroad have been applied in the study of cultural change in some traditional craft villages in Bac Ninh province. According to current statistics, there are 62 craft villages in Bac Ninh, however the distribution of villages in the area (district / town ...) in the province is uneven. Of the 62 craft villages in Bac Ninh, classification with new craft villages and traditional craft villages there are 16 traditional craft villages and 46 new craft villages and they are broken 11 down by 5 occupation groups that produce a product group. In the organization of production, a production model in the current craft villages includes: a model of household production, a model of the cooperative; a model of private enterprises, a model of limited companies; Industrial cluster model in craft villages. Chapter 2 TRADITIONAL CRAFT CHANGES THROUGH VILLAGE LANDSCAPE AND SPIRIT CULTURAL FACTORS 2.1. Space, landscape, house and public construction changes One type of cluster of people makes typical features of Vietnam's rural villages, including the different types of villages. However, the fundamental problems are village landscape, architecture of houses, economic life, culture - society in the village. The fundamental issues that create village cultural characteristics are always in the flexibility change from many different causes, including the social movement of residents, the process of economic restructuring, especially in stages of industrialization, modernization and international economic integration. One of the factors that can be seen clearly on the study of the village's transformation is the space of the village landscape. Previously craft village space layout in Bac Ninh is evident from the structure: a large road between the village and alleys are connected with this road. Ancient villages are tiled. But alleys and village roads are quite narrow, suitable for small business under the family's craftsmen. To meet the development of the village in terms of population, expansion of production scale, the village roads, alleys are expanded in 12 scale and upgraded quality ... This is demonstrated through specific cases in the traditional craft village in Bac Ninh. 2.1.1. Changes in space, landscape 2.1.2. Changes in housing and public works Table 2.1: Statistics of houses from 2010 – 2015 in Dai Bai village Type of houses Year 2 floors and Flat roof Tile Thatched more house roofed cottage Sum house 2010 500 165 234 01 900 2011 570 190 210 0 970 2012 687 268 175 0 1.130 2013 800 285 115 0 1.200 2014 835 298 103 0 1.236 Quarter 856 304 97 0 1.257 I/2015 [Source: Synthesis of social - economic reports in Dai Bai village since 2010 2013] Table 2.2: Statistics of houses from 2010 – 2015 in Phu Lang village Type of houses Year 2 floors Flat roof Tile Thatched and more house roofed cottage Sum house 2010 35 94 236 0 365 2011 75 107 213 0 395 13 2012 95 125 200 0 420 2013 117 158 180 0 455 2014 135 163 164 0 462 Quý I/2015 142 169 158 0 469 [Source: Synthesis of social - economic reports in Phu Lang village since 2010 - 2015] Table 2.3: Statistics of houses from 2010 – 2013 in Phu Khe village Type of houses Year 2 floors and Flat roof Tile Thatched more house roofed cottage Sum house 2010 170 240 153 0 563 2011 205 306 125 0 636 2012 287 323 75 0 685 2013 394 338 55 0 787 2014 405 356 47 0 808 Quý I/2015 412 363 41 0 816 [Source: Synthesis of social - economic reports in Phu Khe village since 2010 – 2015] 2.1.3. Changes in the relics of some craft villages 2.2. Belief, ritual and custom changes 2.2.1. Belief change: During the existence and development of craft villages, the gods bless, help for job of the people. Therefore, communities have made clear expression of belief life to the worship of 14 the village's tutelary spirit, craft ancestor. Currently, due to residents living on a development, village economic dvelopment, so that people are more interested in religious life to the supreme spiritual beings. The greatest expression of religious transformation of communities in villages in Bac Ninh that is to trust in the providence of the village's tutelary, craft ancestor, so they jointly renovate and rebuild the worship like temples and pagodas, temples. They buy worship items and practice the rites, rituals to clear their sincerity for gods. 2.2.2. Changes in the festival: Society flourished as today is an important reason leading to the change of belief, but the festival is one of the highest expressions of belief from past to present. The old festivals are restored, new issues have been updated and created, change in rituals, games, plays and performing arts in village festivals will involve significant changes in the cultural life of the village community. The change can be seen in the relationship and perceptions between generations; community spirit in the village; reflected the provisions of the policy with the festival and ceremonial practices. The process of transformation of the festival can be identified by examining the specific case of the craft village. Currently, the festival plays an important role in the cultural life of the village community. Here, the thesis author considers the festival variation of the village through the basic structure: change of time held, the festival calendar; on the preparations for the festival, the festival rituals, the games held during the festival, transforms the festival participants and the sense of community. Conclusions of chapter 2 15 Studying the village cultural change, in which tangible and intangible cultural changes include: village landscape space, houses, historical culture relics, customs, festivals ... Besides, the public welfare projects are also renovated and refreshed as: electrical, nom germ schools, culture houses, amusement parks ... to serve the growing needs of resident community in the village. The relics related to religion or belief are specially attended by people of three villages through communities contribute money for renovations, construction works that were severely degraded, as the case Phu Khe Thuong villagers rebuilt village house ... In addition, the intangible cultural elements of villages has also changed dramatically, clearly expressed in hosting and practising festival, the traditions of the village ... there are changes consistent with new life now. Chapter 3 CRAFT VILLAGE CHANGES IN PROCESS OF PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF PRODUCTS 3.1. Changes of the organizational model of production Organization of production in the craft village is one of the key factors determining the labor productivity, product quality, product number, and at a certain angle, the organizational forms also affect progress to create products and prices of products. The very rapid change in the organizational model of production has created favorable conditions for the existence of the craft villages in terms of market economy with strong competition on goods and prices. Stemming from the perception, the author focused survey of three villages in Bac Ninh province, 16 considered the craft cultural change and foremost is change of organizational forms of production. Table 3.1: Organizational model of production in Dai Bai No 1 2 3 Period Before 1945 Since 1945 - 1986 Since 1986 - now Organizational model Family Cooperative Family, Limited company Table 3.2: Organizational model of production in Phù Khê No 1 2 3 Period Before 1945 Since 1945 - 1986 Since 1986 - now Organizational model Family Cooperative Family, Limited company Table 3.3: Organizational model of production in Phù Lãng No 1 2 3 Period Before 1945 Since 1945 - 1986 Since 1986 - now Organizational model Family Cooperative Family, Limited company 3.2. Changes of skills to manipulate For a product of traditional craft villages the most important is technique to create products. Technique or trade secret that each craftsman must learn and accumulate. It is also a decisive factor in the quality of products, the difference between products of producers that consumers are finally appraisers. To create a complete product craftsmens of the village have to spend a lot of effort, dedicated to their craft; spend a lot of time to produce a product. However, under the impact of the market economy and enjoyed the results of the revolution 17 in science and technology, the traditional craft villages have used machines to minimize the labor of workers. They research technical innovations. On the other hand also expressed knowledge of craftsmen, especially artists. Certainly, the existence and development of craft villages depend on the hand and the minds of the people in craft villages. A new creation, a mechanism switch and technique can promote craft village development. 3.3. Changes of products Table 3.4: Division of Dai Bai bronze casting and curving No 1 2 3 Type Household commodities Curving products Saucepan, pot, bucket, alcohol pot, tray, basin, pen point. Worshipping Altar, cuốn thư, objects horizontal lacquered board, parallel sentences, ancestral table, Votive table, gong, thanh ban, mã la, cymbals, lệnh, não cái, não đục, tiu, cảnh… Decorative Art paintings, ẻngaving objects paintings Casting products Screw, electric wire, lock. Thuribles, cauldron, bell, musical stone, candlestick, lọ cắm hương, statue, historical person statues, crane. Paintings, statues, badge. art relief, Bảng 3.5: Division and statistics of products in Phu Khe village No Type Before 1986 (Before) After 1986 (Now) 1 Worshipping Eight weapons, long Horizontal lacquered objects ngai, ancestral table, board, parallel sentences, horizontal lacquered statue of Buddha, altar, board, parallel hương án, lọ hoa, ống 18 2 3 4 Decorative objects sentences, eight pole palanquin, altar, statue of Buddha… The four supernatural cretures, four seasons, eight fairies, Lý ngư vọng nguyệt, Bát mã truy phong… Tea chest, pagoda chest, Euro - Asia chest, bed, three rooms chest, settee… cắm hương… Art statues; Animal statues. Gỗ Lũa nghệ thuật. Art paintings: beside old topics, they create new topics Household Minh quốc chair, short commodities Minh chairs, Minh đế chair, Minh trọc chair… sập, wall chest, bed, tea table, ash- tray, flower jar… Architectural House, residence communal, pagoda, works building, communal, temple, and other needs pagoda, temple, shrine…. Architectural decorating pieces. Bảng 3.6: Division of Phu Lang traditional craft village before and now No Type Before Now 1 Household Bowl, plates, big jar, pot, Table, jar, flower jar, commodities basin, steamer, vò, ấm, earthenware, pot, big jar, cauldron, ang, liễn, âu, vò, chõ, ấm sắc thuốc, thạp, mortar, feeding mortar, flowerpot, terratrough, bát điếu, spitoon, cotta. lime - pot. 2 Worshipping Alcohol tray, thurible, đỉnh, Lamp, pot, jar, large objects censer, pot, jar, ống cắm wooden compote, statue hương, four supernatural ceatures 19 3 4 Decorative objects Flower pot, tub, terra-cotta, animal statues: tiger, lion, elephant, buffalo, dog… Architectural Brick, tile, sewer. works Big flower-vase, pottery paintings with many topics Brick, tile, oblong earthenware container used for reburrial 3.4. Changes in product markets product consumer market is considered to be one of the basic factors determining the survival of the craft village. Therefore, the craft village people are always looking the consumer market, in this respect there can be seen quite clearly change in the craft village. From product consumer market is the rural market in the village and surrounding areas came to expansion market on a national scale and may seek foreign market. In general, the output of products are critical to the survival of the craft villages. Conclusions of chapter 3 Researching career cultural changes, focus on understanding the basic elements of ocational culture including change of organizational forms of produce; Changes in product manufacturing techniques. Also, in terms of culture, there are many elements also in the trend of change, namely the behavior between workers together, people's perceptions of professional villages, village culture, social relationships between the old residents with a section of people to the village to learn and develop your career ... the job cultural change has created opportunities for the craft villages to adapt to new conditions and that is the most favorable conditions make the craft village exist in the market economy today. 20 Chương 4 CHANGE TRENDS OF BAC NINH TRADITIONAL CRAFT VILLAGE CULTURE IN THE PROCESS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION, MODERNIZATION AND THE CURRENT PROBLEMS 4.1. Assess the cultural transformation of traditional craft villages in Bac Ninh In fact, craft villages and craft village culture in Bac Ninh always change according to different levels, some craft villages change rapidly, but some villages also change slowly. The process of change has created positive results, but there are also negative results, affect the operation of the craft villages, some village are even more at risk to disappear. Based on surveys, studies those expressions, author has drawn the following general assessment. 4.1.1. The positive change 4.1.2. The negative change 4.2. The situation of industrialization and modernization in Bac Ninh current and craft village development orients 4.2.1. The situation of industrialization, modernization today in Bac Ninh 4.2.2. Orienting development of craft villages in Bac Ninh 4.2.2.1. Consolidating the existing villages 4.2.2.2. Developing new industries 4.2.2.3. Orienting formation and development of the primary industry subregion
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