Tổng hợp kiến thức tiếng anh thcs

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Tæng hîp KiÕn thøc tiÕng anh THCS A - Tenses ( C¸c th× ) I. Th× hiÖn t¹i ®¬n gi¶n ( The present simple ) 1. DiÔn t¶ hµnh ®éng lÆp ®i lËp l¹i chë thµnh thãi quen. DiÔn t¶ mét sù thËt hiÓn nhiªn. 2. H×nh thøc cña ®éng tõ a. §éng tõ ( To be ): Th×, lµ, ë: Cã 3 d¹ng: am, is, are ( + ) I - am ( - ) I am not ( ? ) Are you…..? + Yes, I am + No, I am not ( + ) She - is ( - ) She is not/isn't He - is It - is 1 tªn riªng ( Lan ) - is ( ? ) Is she…….? + Yes, she is + No, she isn't ( + ) You - are We - are They - are 2 tªn riªng - are ( ? ) Are you/they…..? + Yes, they are + No, they aren't ( - ) You are not/aren't VD1: ( + ) I am a student. ( - ) I am not a student ( ? ) Are you a student? + Yes, I am + No, I am not VD2: ( +) She is a student. ( - )She isn't a student ( ? ) Is she a student? + Yes, she is + No, she isn't VD3: Lan is a student. VD4: ( + ) They are students. ( - ) They aren't students ( ? ) Are they student? + Yes, they are + No, they aren't b. §éng tõ thêng ( V ) S + V- nguyªn víi S: I, You, We, They, 2 tªn riªng VD: I play soccer They play soccer Huy and Hung play soccer S + V-s/es víi S: She, He, It, 1 tªn riªng VD: She plays soccer. He gets up at 6. * C¸c ®éng tõ kÕt thóc b»ng o, x, ch, sh, z ta ph¶i thªm "es" ®èi víi c¸c ng«i sè Ýt. VD: go => goes : §i She goes to school every day. do => does : Lµm watch => watches: Xem He always watches TV. wash => washes: Röa, géi…. 3. C¸c tr¹ng tõ ®i kÌm: - 5 tr¹ng tõ chØ tÇn xuÊt: + Always: Lu«n lu«n + Usually: Lu«n + Opfen: Thêng + Sometimes: thØnh tho¶ng + Never: Kh«ng bao giê - Frequently: Thêng - Constantly: ThØnh tho¶ng - Occasionally: ThØnh tho¶ng - Seldom. Rarely: HiÕm - Every day/ week/month/year..: H»ng…. II- Th× hiÖn t¹i tiÕp diÔn ( The present continuos tense ) 1.DiÔn t¶ hµnh ®éng ®ang diÔn ra t¹i thêi ®iÓm nãi 2. H×nh thøc cña ®éng tõ: S + be + V-ing Be: am, is, are Vd: I am doing my home work. Lan is skipping. - ThÓ phñ ®Þnh: Thªm "not" vµo sau ®éng tõ "to be". Vd: I am not doing my home work. - ThÓ nghi vÊn: §¶o ®éng tõ "to be" lªn ®Çu c©u. 3. C¸c tr¹ng tõ chØ thêi gian: - Now: b©y giê - At the moment - At present * Quy t¾c thªm ®u«i "-ing". - NÕu tËn cïng cña ®éng tõ lµ "e" ta bá "e" tríc khi thªm ®u«i "-ing". Vd: come => coming - NÕu ®éng tõ cã 1 ®Õn 2 ©m tiÕt kÕt thóc lµ mét nguyªn ©m, ë gi÷a lµ hai phô ©m, träng ©m r¬i vµo hai ©m tiÕt cuèi th× ta nh©n ®«i phô ©m cuèi. " + ing". Vd: begin => beginning - NÕu ®éng tõ cã tËn cïng lµ mét phô ©m, tríc ®ã lµ mét nguyªn ©m duy nhÊt=> gÊp ®«i phô ©m cuèi tríc khi thªm ®u«i " ing " Vd: run => running * Ta kh«ng dïng th× hiÖn t¹i tiÕp diÔn víi c¸c ®éng tõ chØ c¶m gi¸c, tri gi¸c, nhËn thøc nh: - To be: th×, lµ, ë - see: nh×n - hear: nghe - understand: hiÓu - know: biÕt - like: thÝch - want: muèn - feel: c¶m thÊy - smell: ngöi - love: yªu - hate: ghÐt - seem: dêng nh - remember: nhí - forget: quªn - beliver: tin tëng…. III - Th× t¬ng lai gÇn ( near future ) ( Th× t¬ng lai dù ®Þnh ) ( Going to ) 1. DiÔn t¶ hµnh ®éng ch¾c ch¾n sÏ xÈy ra trong t¬ng lai 2. H×nh thøc ®éng tõ: S + Be ( am, is, are ) + going to + V-nguyªn 2 Vd1: I'm going to buy a big hous next year. Vd2: She is going to do the home work tonight. 3. C¸c tr¹ng tõ: - tonight: tèi nay - tomorrow: ngµy mai - Some day: vµi ngµy n÷a - Soon: ch¼ng bao l©u n÷a - Next: tíi IV. Th× t¬ng lai ®¬n: (The simple future) 1. DiÔn t¶ hµnh ®éng sÏ x¶y ra trong t¬ng lai (kh«ng ch¾c ch¾n b»ng th× t¬ng lai gÇn) 2. From: S + Will + V - nguyªn 3. Advs:( Dïng nh c¸c tr¹ng tõ cña th× t¬ng lai gÇn ) - tonight: tèi nay - tomorrow: ngµy mai - Some day: vµi ngµy n÷a - Soon: ch¼ng bao l©u n÷a - Next: tíi * Th× t¬ng lai ®¬n cßn ®îc dïng ®Ó nãi lªn lêi mêi, lêi høa, hoÆc lêi yªu cÇu trong c¸c ng÷ c¶nh kh¸c nhau. Vd: I will be here in some minutÐ. V. Th× qu¸ khø ®¬n: (The simple past) 1. Usage: DiÔn t¶ hµnh ®éng ®· x¶y ra vµ hoµn tÊt trong qu¸ khø. 2. From: a. to be: cã 2 d¹ng was/ were S: she, he, it, 1 tªn riªng + was S: You, We, They, 2 tªn riªng + were b. §éng tõ thêng + §éng tõ cã quy t¾c: S + V-ed Vd: Lan watched T.V last night. + §éng tõ bÊt quy t¾c: S + V(cét 2) Vd: Yesterday, they went to Ha Noi. 3. Adv: - yesterday: h«m qua - last: ®· qua + last night: tèi qua + last week: tuÇn tríc + last month: th¸ng tríc + last year: n¨m ngo¸i + last Sunday: chñ nhËt tríc - ago: tríc ®©y - in + mèc thêi gian trong qu¸ khø ( in 1998 ) * Quy t¾c thªm "ed". - C¸c ®éng tõ kÕt thóc b»ng "e" chØ thªm "d" Vd: die => died: chÕt - C¸c ®éng tõ kÕt thóc b»ng 1 phô ©m tríc ®ã lµ 1 nguyªn ©m duy nhÊt => gÊp ®«i phô ©m cuèi => "ed" Vd:Stop => Stoped: dõng l¹i - NÕu ®éng tõ tËn cïng lµ "y" tríc ®ã lµ phô ©m "y" => "i" + "ed" 3 Vd: study => studied: häc - §éng tõ cã 2 ©m tiÕt, tËn cïng lµ mét nguyªn ©m ë gi÷a. Vd: Permit => permitted: Cho phÐp, thõa nhËn. 2 phô ©m => gÊp ®«i phô ©m cuèi + "ed". - NÕu ®éng tõ cã tËn cïng "l" tríc ®ã lµ 1 nguyªn ©m ®¬n gÊp ®«i "l" + "ed". Vd: Travell => travelled. * C¸ch ph¸t ©m: + Nh÷ng ®éng tõ cã tËn cïng lµ ©m (t) vµ (d) khi thªm "ed" => ®äc (id) Vd: Divie (di ' vaid) => divided (id). + Nh÷ng ®éng tõ cã tËn cïng lµ ©m k, p, f, s, j, tj ®äc lµ (t). Vd: laught => laughted - Ngoµi hai trêng hîp trªn, c¸c ®éng tõ cã quy t¾c cßn l¹i ®äc lµ (d). Vd: Play => Played (d). VI. Th× qu¸ khø tiÕp diÔn ( the past continous ): 1. Usage: - DiÔn t¶ hµnh ®éng ®ang x¶y ra t¹i mét thêi ®iÓm x¸c ®Þnh trong qu¸ khø. Vd: I was doing my home work at 6.pm last Sunday. - DiÔn t¶ hµnh ®éng ®· x¶y ra vµ kÐ dµi trong mét kho¶ng thêi gian trong qu¸ khø. Vd: Yesterday, Mr Huy was working in the office all the afternoon. - Hµnh ®éng ®ang x¶y ra trong qu¸ khø th× cã mét hµnh ®éng kh¸c xen vµo. Vd:Yesterday, when I came he was sleeping + When = as: Khi + While: trong khi Vd: Yesterday,while he was sleeping I came - Hai hµnh ®éng x¶y ra song song cïng mét lóc ë qu¸ khø. + While: trong khi Vd: Yesterday,while he was sleeping I came * Kh«ng dïng ®èi víi c¸c ®éng tõ chØ nhËn thøc, tri gi¸c thay vµo ®ã dïng th× qu¸ khø ®¬n. - to be: th×, lµ, ë - see: nh×n - hear: nghe - understand: hiÓu - know: biÕt - like: thÝch - want: muèn - feel: c¶m thÊy - smell: ngöi - love: yªu - hate: ghÐt - seem: dêng nh - remember: nhí - forget: quªn - beliver: tin tëng…. 2. From: S + Was (Were) + V-ing 3. Adv: Dïng víi c¸c tr¹ng tõ chØ thêi gian cña th× qu¸ khø ®¬n céng thªm phÇn thêi gian x¸c ®Þnh trong qu¸ khø. - yesterday: h«m qua Vd: at 7 p.m last night - last: ®· qua + last night: tèi qua + last week: tuÇn tríc + last month: th¸ng tríc 4 + last year: n¨m ngo¸i + last Sunday: chñ nhËt tríc - ago: tríc ®©y - in + mèc thêi gian trong qu¸ khø ( in 1998 ) VII. Th× hiÖn t¹i hoµn thµnh: (The present perfect) 1. Usage: - DiÔn t¶ hµnh ®éng võa míi x¶y ra vµ kÕt thóc so víi thêi ®iÓm nãi. Vd: I have just finished my homework. - DiÔn t¶ hµnh ®éng b¾t ®Çu tõ trong qu¸ khø, nhng cßn kÐo dµ ®Õn hiÖn t¹i vµ cã kh¶ n¨ng tiÕp tôc kÐo dµi ®Õn t¬ng lai. Vd: I have studied English for 5 years. - DiÔn t¶ hµnh ®éng lÆp ®i, lÆp l¹i nhiÒu lÇn trong qu¸ khø. Dïng víi: several times: vµi lÇn Two/ three… times: hai, ba lÇn… Vd: I have read this book three times. 2. From: S + have/ has + V- cét 3/ V-ed S: I, you, we, they, sè nhiÒu + have S: she, he, it, sè Ýt + has 3. Adv: - just, recently, lately: võa míi - ever: ®· tõng - never: cha tõng - already: råi - yet: cha - since: tõ khi (+ thêi ®iÓm vd: 2001 ) - for: kho¶ng ( + thêi gian vd: 3 years ) - so far = until now = up to now = up to the present:cho ®Õn b©y giê. VII- Th× hiÖn t¹i hoµn thµnh tiÕp diÔn 1. Usage: - DiÔn t¶ hµnh ®éng b¾t ®Çu diÔn ra trong qu¸ khø vÉn ®ang tiÕp tôc ë hiÖn t¹i vµ cßn cã thÓ kÐo dµi tíi t¬ng lai. 2. Form: S + Have/ Has + been + V-ing 3 Advs: Dïng nh c¸c tr¹ng tõ cña th× hiÖn t¹i hoµn thµnh nhng nhÊn m¹nh vÒ thêi gian thùc hiÖn hµnh ®éng. VD: I have been learning English for 5 years. Structures: c¸c cÊu tróc To -V 1. Sau tÝnh tõ (hÇu hÕt) + To V. Vd: She is happy to live here. 2. Cã c¬ héi ®Ó lµm g×. (môc ®Ých). Have a chance + to V 3. Sau c¸c ®éng tõ V + to V V : Gåm c¸c ®éng tõ sau: - Intent: cã ý ®Þnh - want: muèn - like: thÝch - love: yªu - seem: dêng nh -….. 5 Vd: Huy wants to watch T.V V-ing 1.Sau giíi tõ hoÆc côm giíi tõ + V-ing: in, on, at, of,….. Vd: I am interested in leaning English. 2. Sau c¸c ®éng tõ + V-ing V: gåm c¸c ®éng tõ sau: - enjoy: thÝch - like: thÝch - stop: dõng l¹i - finish: kÕt thóc - start: b¾t ®Çu -…… Vd: Minh enjoys playing tennis. V- nguyªn 1. Sau c¸c ®éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu ( ®éng tõ ®Æc biÖt ) §éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu: can, may, must, will, woud, should, have to…+ V-nguyªn. Vd: I can swim 2. CÊu tróc: Let's + V-nguyªn Vd: Let's go swimming Why don't you/we + V-nguyªn Vd: Why don't you go swimming. VI - C¸c cÊu tróc theo tõng ®¬n vÞ bµi häc tõ líp 6 ®Õn líp 9 Kh¸i niÖm tõ lo¹i trong TiÕng Anh: 1. Danh tõ : Lµ c¸c tõ chØ sù vËt, sù viÖc, chØ tªn riªng Vd: c¸i nhµ ( house ), Lan, giã….. 2. §éng tõ: Lµ c¸c tõ chØ hµnh ®éng, ho¹t ®éng cña ngêi vµ vËt. Vd: §i ( go ) ch¬i ( play ), thæi ( flow )…. 3. TÝnh tõ: Lµ c¸c tõ chØ mµu s¾c, chØ tÝnh chÊt cña sù vËt, sù viÖc. Vd: mµu ®á ( red ), xinh ®Ñp ( beautyfull ), ®¾t ®á ( expensive )…. 4. Tr¹ng tõ: Lµ c¸c tõ chØ møc ®é cña hµnh ®éng ( c¸c tr¹ng tõ chØ tÇn xuÊt ), c¸c tõ chØ n¬i chèn, chØ thêi gian. Vd: always, Lang S¬n, two months…. Líp 6: 1.There….: Cã….. - There is a + dt sè Ýt Vd: There is a pen on the table. - There are + dt sè nhiÒu Vd: There are pens on the table. 2. This/ that/ these/ those: §©y lµ../ Kia lµ… - This/ that is a + dt sè Ýt: §©y/ kia lµ mét…. Vd: This is a pen - These/ those are + dt sè nhiÒu: §©y/ kia lµ nh÷ng….. Vd: These are pens. 3. C¸c tõ ®Ó hái ( Question words ) - What: C¸i g×/ g×? - When : ë ®©u? ( C©u hái vÒ ®Þa ®iÓm ) - Where: Khi nµo? ( C©u hái vÒ thêi gian ) - Who: ai? - How: bao nhiªu/ nh thÕ nµo? - Which: C¸i nµo? ( c©u hái lùa chän ) - Why : T¹i sao? ( C©u hái lý do- tr¶ lêi b¾t ®Çu b»ng Because…) 4. §¹i tõ nh©n xng, tÝnh tõ së h÷u, ®¹i tõ së h÷u. - §¹i tõ nh©n xng: Lµ nh÷ng tõ ®ãng vai trß lµm chñ ng÷ trong c©u ( xng danh ). Vd: I , Lan…. - TÝnh tõ së h÷u: Lµ c¸c tõ dïng ®Ó nãi së h÷u vËt ®ã cña ai. Thêng ®øng tríc danh tõ. Vd: Her book 6 - §¹i tõ së h÷u: Lµ c¸c tõ dïng ®Ó nãi vËt thuéc quyÒn së h÷u cña ai nhng thêng kh«ng ®i víi danh tõ ®øng tríc mµ dïng Èn danh tõ. Vd: This is her hat and that is mine ( My hat ). §¹i tõ nh©n xng TÝnh tõ së h÷u §¹i tõ së h÷u I: T«i My: Cña t«i Mine You: B¹n Your: Cña b¹n Yours We: Chóng t«i/ta Our: Cña chóng t«i/ta Ours They: Hä Their: Cña hä Theirs She: C« Êy Her: Cña c«/bµ Êy Hers He: Anh Êy His: Cña cËu/anh Êy His It: Nã Its: Cña nã its Tªn riªng: Lan Lan's: Cña Lan 5. C¸c c¸ch chµo th«ng thêng. - Hi / hello - Good morning: Chµo buæi s¸ng - Good afternooon: Chµo buæi chiÒu - Good evening: Chµo buæi tèi - Good night: Chóc ngñ ngon - Good bye/ Bye: Chµo t¹m biÖt. 6. C¸ch hái vÒ thêi gian ( Time ). * C¸ch hái giê: What time is it? - Víi giê ch½n: It is + giê + o' clock Vd: It is six o'clock. - Víi giê lÎ: + Nãi giê tríc phót sau Vd: ( 11h20' ) It is eleven- twenty. + Nãi phót tríc giê sau dïng ( past/ to ) (past: qua/ to: kÐm) Vd: ( 11h 20') It is twenty past eleven. - Chó ý: 15' = fifteen = a quarter 30' = thirty = half past Vd: ( 8h 15 ) It is aquater past eight hoÆc It is fifteen past eight. * C¸h hái giê cña c¸c ho¹t ®éng: What time do you….?- I…..at…… 7. C¸c ngµy trong tuÇn: Dïng gií tõ on + c¸c ngµy trong tuÇn Vd: on Monday Monday Tuesday Wednesay Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Thø 2 Thø 3 Thø 4 Thø 5 Thø 6 Thø 7 Chñ nhËt 8. C¸c th¸ng trong n¨m: Dïng gií tõ in + c¸c th¸ng trong n¨m Vd: in May January February March April May June Th¸ng 1 Th¸ng 2 Th¸ng 3 Th¸ng 4 Th¸ng 5 Th¸ng 6 July August September October November December Th¸ng 7 Th¸ng 8 Th¸ng 9 Th¸ng 10 Th¸ng 11 Th¸ng 12 9. C¸c mïa, thêi tiÕt trong n¨m * C¸c mïa ( Seasons ) * C¸c lo¹i thêi tiÕt - Summer: Mïa hÌ - hot: nãng - Winter: Mïa ®«ng - cold: l¹nh - Spring: Mïa xu©n - warm: Êm ¸p - Fall: Mïa thu - cool: m¸t mÎ 10. C¸c giíi tõ chØ vÞ trÝ: - In: ë trong - On: ë trªn - At: ë t¹i 7 - near: gÇn - next to: kÒ s¸t - in front of: ph¸ tríc - behind: phÝa sau - to the left: bªn tr¸i - to the right: bªn ph¶i - between: ë gi÷a - opposite: ®èi diÖn - in the middle: ë trung t©m - at the back of: phÝa sau - in the corner: trong gãc 11. C¸c tÝnh tõ chØ h×nh d¹ng, vãc d¸ng, mµu s¾c thêng dïng víi danh tõ vµ ®i víi ®éng tõ "to be" Vd: tall - He is tall big - It is a big school 12. a/ an/ some /any * Danh tõ: + DT sè Ýt: lµ danh tõ cã mét Vd: a pen + DT sè nhiÒu: lµ danh tõ cã tõ 2 trë lªn ta thªm s/ es Vd: pens/ couches + Dt ®Õm ®îc: lµ nh÷ng danh tõ cã thÓ dïng sè ®Õm ®Õm ®îcVd: qu¶ cam, ngêi…. + DT kh«ng ®Õm ®îc: lµ nh÷ng danh tõ cÇn ph¶i cã tõ chØ ®¹i lîng ®i kÌm.Vd: g¹o, níc, s÷a, tiÒn….. * a/ an: mét + Danh tõ sè Ýt ®Õm ®îc/ Dïng trong c©u kh¼ng ®Þnh Vd: a pen/ an orange * Some: mét Ýt , mét vµi + danh tõ ®Õm ®îc vµ danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®îc.Dïng trong c©u kh¼ng ®Þnh. Vd1: some bananas/ some rice Vd2: There are some books on the table. * any: nµo c¶ + DT ®Õm ®îc vµ kh«ng ®Õm ®îc. ®îc dïng trong c©u phñ ®Þnh vµ c©u hái nghi vÊn. Vd1: There are not any books on the table. Vd2: Are there any milk in the kitchen? 13. afew, a little, a lot/lots of. - afew: Mét vµi + DT ®Õm ®îc - a little: mét Ýt + DT kh«ng ®Õm ®îc - a lot/lots of: nhiÒu + DT ®Õm ®îc, kh«ng ®Õm ®îc. 14. C¸c ®éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu ( ®éng tõ ®Æc biÖt ) - Can : cã thÓ + V- nguyªn - Must: Ph¶i+ V- nguyªn * Mét sè ®éng tõ thêng gÆp - Need: CÇn + to V - Woud like: thÝch + to V - Want: muèn + to V 15. So s¸nh h¬n vµ so s¸nh h¬n nhÊt víi tÝnh tõ. a. So s¸nh h¬n ( Than ) * §èi víi tÝnh tõ ng¾n ( tall, big…) S1 + be + tÝnh tõ + er + than + S2 Vd; Lan is taller than Hoa * §èi víi tÝnh tõ dµi ( beautyful, expensive…) S1 + be + more + tÝnh tõ dµi + than + S2 Vd: Lan is more beautyful than Hoa. b. So s¸nh h¬n nhÊt ( The ) * §èi víi tÝnh tõ ng¾n S + the + tÝnh tõ ng¾n + est +….. 8 Vd: Huy is the tallest. * §èi víi tÝnh tõ dµi S + the most + tÝnh tõ dµi +… Vd: Hoa is the most beautyful in her class. Líp 7 1. So s¸nh h¬n, kÐm víi danh tõ dïng: - more: nhiÒu h¬n ( + DT ®Õm ®îc, DT kh«ng ®Õm ®îc ) - fewer: Ýt h¬n ( + DT ®Õm ®îc ) - less: Ýt h¬n ( + DT kh«ng ®Õm ®îc ) Vd: He works more hours than you. Vd: Lan has fewer book than Minh Vd: I feel less scared now. 2. C¸ch dïng : So, too, either, neither - so, too: Dïng trong c©u ®ång t×nh kh¼ng ®Þnh. + so: §øng ®Çu c©u ( dïng ®¶o trî ®éng tõ ) + too: §øng cuèi c©u, sau dÊu phÈy. ( dïng ®¶o trî ®éng tõ ) Vd1: I'm in class 7A So am I./ I'm, too. Vd2: I like bananas. So do I./ I do, too. - neither, either: Dïng trong c©u ®ång t×nh phñ ®Þnh + neither: §øng ®Çu c©u ( dïng ®¶o trî ®éng tõ ) + either: §øng cuèi c©u, sau dÊu phÈy. ( dïng ®¶o trî ®éng tõ ) Vd1: I don't like carrots Neither do I./ I don't like, either. 3. C¸ch hái vµ tr¶ lêi vÒ kho¶ng c¸ch gi÷a hai ®Þa ®iÓm. How far is it from …..to……? It is about…..km/m. Vd: How far is it from your house to your school? It is about two km. 4. MÖnh lÖnh kh¼ng ®Þnh, mÖnh lÖnh phñ ®Þnh. Vd : Remember to do your homework. Brush your teeth after every meal. Vd2: Don't be worry. Don't be late. 5. C¸ch thµnh lËp tr¹ng tõ tõ tÝnh tõ, c¸ch dïng. * C¸ch dïng: - TÝnh tõ thêng dïng víi ®éng tõ " to be " hoÆc ®øng tríc danh tõ ®Ó bæ nghÜa cho danh tõ ®ã. Vd1: She is beautiful. Vd2: She is beautiful girl. - Tr¹ng tõ thêng dïng víi ®éng tõ thêng. Vd: She plays tennis slowly. * C¸ch thµnh lËp tÝnh tõ sang tr¹ng tõ: - HÇu hÕt ta thªm ®u«i " ly " vµo tÝnh tõ. Vd: beautiful => beautifully Xinh ®Ñp => mét c¸ch ®Ñp. - Mét sè trêng hîp ®Æc biÖt Vd: good => well. 6. C¸ch dïng Everyone, everybody; no one, nobody; everything, nothing dïng nh chñ ng÷ sè Ýt. 9 - everyone, everybody: Mäi ngêi - no one, nobody: kh«ng ai - everything, nothing: kh«ng c¸i g×. 7. Sequencing : first, next, then, finally: Thêng ®øng ë ®Çu c©u tríc dÊu phÈy, nãi vÒ quy tr×nh cña mét c«ng viÖc. - first: tríc tiªn - next: tiÕp - then: sau ®ã - finally: cuèi cïng. Líp 8 1. CÊu tróc ®ñ ( kh«ng ®ñ )…. ®Ó lµm g× ( Not ) adjective + enough + to V Vd: He is ( not ) old enough to go to school. 2. Reflexive pronouns ( §¹i tõ ph¶n th©n ) §¹i tõ nh©n xng §¹i tõ ph¶n th©n I: T«i Myself: Tù t«i You: B¹n Yourselves Yourself /: tù b¹n We: Chóng t«i/ta Ourselves: tù chóng t«i/ta They: Hä Theirselves: tù hä She: C« Êy Herself: tù c« Êy He: Anh Êy Himself: tù cËu/anh Êy It: Nã Itselves: Tù nã 3. C©u hái nguyªn nh©n ( why: T¹i sao? - Because: Bëi v×…. ) Vd: Why didn't do you go to school yesterday? Because I was ill. 4.Giíi tõ chØ thêi gian - in + n¨m/ th¸ng n¨m - on + thø/ thø, ngµy, th¸ng - at + giê - after/ before + thêi ®iÓm - between……and…..Gi÷a hai thêi ®iÓm 5. C¸ch nãi vÒ thãi quen trong qu¸ khø ( used to ) S + used to + Vnguyªn Vd: When I was a boy, I used to walk to school. 6. C¸ch nãi nªn lµm g× ( should ) S + should + Vnguyªn Vd: You should learn more. 7. Yªu cÇu, ®Ò nghÞ, khuyªn nhñ trong c¸ch nãi gi¸n tiÕp. * Yªu cÇu : Command, request, advice… Told/asked + somebody + to V Vd: Miss Lan said " please wait for me some minutes " "Miss Lan told/asked me to wait for her some minutes" 8. So s¸nh víi : like, ( not) as….as, ( not) the same as, different from. - like…: Gièng nh.. - ( not ) as….as: Gièng/ kh«ng gièng - ( not ) the same as: Gièng/ kh«ng gièng - different from: Kh¸c víi Vd: The magazin is not as large as the newspaper. Vd: Lipton tea is different from Dimah tea. 9. Th× hiÖn t¹i tiÕp diÔn diÔn t¶ ý t¬ng lai. DiÔn t¶ sù th¨ng tiÕn cµng… cµng…. * DiÔn t¶ ý t¬ng lai Vd: What are you doing tonight? 10 I'm whatching TV * DiÔn t¶ sù th¨ng tiÕn cña mét viÖc hay mét sù viÖc ( Get and come: cµng… cµng… ) Vd: The weather is becoming cold. 10. C¸ch nãi chØ môc ®Ých : in order to, so as to : §Ó lµm…. …in order to/ so as to + Vnguyªn Vd: I always kep the widow open in order to let fresh air in. 11. Lêi mêi, lêi yªu cÇu víi " Would…." * Lêi mêi: Would/ do you mind If + 1 clause Vd: Would/ do you mind If I open the door. * Lêi yªu cÇu ai ®ã lµm g×: Would/ do you mind + V-ing Vd: Would/ do you mind opening the door. 12. Danh tõ ghÐp : Lµ danh tõ ®îc thµnh lËp díi d¹ng hai danh tõ ghÐp nhau hoÆc danh tõ ghÐp víi ®éng tõ, ®îc nèi víi nhau b»ng dÊu c¸ch hoÆc kh«ng cã. Vd: rice- cooking Vd: Lang Son city 13. Question words before + to V Question words (- What - When - Where - Who - How - Which -Why) Vd: Nga told Nhi how to go there. Líp 9 1. C©u íc * C©u íc lo¹i I: ¦íc kh«ng cã thËt ë hiÖn t¹i ( ®éng tõ chÝnh ë th× qu¸ khø ®¬n) - wish, S + V2/ed - wish, S + were Vd: I wish, I were older. Vd: I wish, I lived in Ha Noi. * C©u íc lo¹i II: ¦íc kh«ng cã thùc trong qu¸ khø ( ®éng tõ ë th× qu¸ khø hoµn thµnh) - wish, S + had + V3/ed Vd: Linh wishes, she had wathed TV last night. Vd: He wishes, he had been at home last Sunday. 2. C©u ®iÒu kiÖn * C©u ®iÒu kiÖn lo¹i I: Nãi ®/k cã thËt ë hiÖn t¹i If + V hiÖn t¹i, will + V Vd: If you learn more, you will get good mark * C©u ®iÒu kiÖn lo¹i II: Nãi ®/k kh«ng cã thùc ë hiÖn t¹i If + Ved/cét2, woud/coud+ V Vd: If I were you, I woudn't love him Vd: If he had lots of money, he coud buy a big house. 3. C©u trùc tiÕp, c©u gi¸n tiÕp. * C¸ch chuyÓn tõ c©u trùc tiÕp sang c©u gi¸n tiÕp. - Bá dÊu ngoÆc kÐp 11 - Thay ®æi chñ ng÷ - Thay ®æi th× cña ®éng tõ ( lïi l¹i mét th× ) - Thay ®æi tÝnh tõ së h÷u - Thay ®æi c¸c tr¹ng tõ chØ thêi gian, n¬i chèn… Tense §éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu Time Direct speech HiÖn t¹i ®¬n HiÖn t¹i tiÕp diÔn Qu¸ khø d¬n Qu¸ khø tiÕp diÔn HiÖn t¹i hoµn thµnh HiÖn t¹i hoµn thµnh tiÕp diÔn Qu¸ khø hoµn thµnh Qu¸ khø hoµn thµnh tiÕp diÔn Reported speech Qu¸ khø ®¬n Qu¸ khø tiÕp diÔn Qu¸ khø hoµn thµnh/ Qu¸ khø ®¬n Qu¸ khø hoµn thµnh tiÕp diÔn/ Qu¸ khø tiÕp diÔn Qu¸ khø hoµn thµnh Qu¸ khø hoµn thµnh tiÕp diÔn Qu¸ khø hoµn thµnh Qu¸ khø hoµn thµnh tiÕp diÔn May Can Must/might/coud/soud/ought to now today tonight tomorrow yesterday last night two days ago here This these Might Coud Must/might/coud/soud/ought to then/ immediately that day that night the next day/ the following day the day before/ the previous day the night before two days before/ two days earlier There That those Place Demostrative heads * Chó ý: - Lêi nãi gi¸n tiÕp lµ têng thuËt l¹i ý cña ngêi nãi - NÕu ®éng tõ cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh ë th× hiÖn t¹i/ hiÖn t¹i hoµn thµnh/ th× t¬ng lai th× trong lêi trÝch dÉn ta chØ thay ®æi phÇn ®¹i tõ ( chñ ng÷ ). Vd: the farmer says " I hope it will rain tomorrow" => the farmer says that he hopes it will rain tomorrow. - NÕu ®éng tõ cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh ë th× qu¸ khø th× trong lêi trÝch dÉn ta ph¶i thay ®æi toµn bé c¸c phÇn cÇn thay ®æi. Vd: Miss Lan said " I will go to Hue tomorrow" => Miss Lan said she woud go to Hue the following day. * C©u hái gi¸n tiÕp a. C©u hái "yes/ no" §éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh lµ: asked, wondered, inquired… Theo sau nã lµ " if / whether" + c©u trÇn thuËt. C¸c phÇn cßn l¹i vÉn ®îc thay ®æi nh quy ®Þnh, bá dÊu hái chÊm. Vd: She asked me " Do you live here ? " => She asked me if I lived there. b. C©u hái " w.h questions" §éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh lµ: asked, wondered, inquired… Theo sau nã lµ " tõ ®Ó hái" + c©u trÇn thuËt. C¸c phÇn cßn l¹i vÉn ®îc thay ®æi nh quy ®Þnh, bá dÊu hái chÊm. Vd: He wondered " what time does the film start?" => He wondered what time the film started. 4. C©u bÞ ®éng ( the passive voice ) * C¸ch chuyÓn tõ c©u chñ ®éng sang c©u bÞ ®éng 12 - X¸c ®Þnh t©n ng÷ trong c©u chñ ®éng ( lµ phÇn ®øng ngay sau ®éng tõ chÝnh ) - ®Æt t©n ng÷ lªn lµm chñ ng÷ trong c©u bÞ ®éng. - X¸c ®Þnh th× cña ®éng tõ chÝnh trong c©u chñ ®éng ®Ó chia ®óng th× cña ®éng tõ " to be " trong c©u bÞ ®éng. - §a ®éng tõ chÝnh cña c©u chñ ®éng xuèng lµm ®éng tõ chÝnh trong c©u bÞ ®éng díi h×nh thøc Ved/cét 3. - Dïng " by…" cho c¸c chñ ng÷ x¸c ®Þnh trong c©u chñ ®éng( chuyÓn vÒ thµnh t©n ng÷, ®øng tríc tr¹ng tõ chØ thêi gian vµ sau tr¹ng tõ chØ n¬i chèn ). * H×nh thøc c©u bÞ ®éng S + be + Ved/ cét 3 Vd: They grow rice in tropical countries. => Rice is grown in the tropical countries. * T¬ng øng c¸c th× a. HiÖn t¹i ®¬n S + am/is/are + Ved/ cét3 b. Qu¸ khø ®¬n c. HiÖn t¹i tiÕp diÔn d. Qu¸ khø tiÕp diÔn e. T¬ng lai ®¬n f. T¬ng lai gÇn g. HiÖn t¹i hoµn thµnh S + was/were + Ved/ cét3 S + am/is/are + being + Ved/ cét3 S + was/were + being + Ved/ cét3 S + will + be + Ved/ cét3 S + am/is/are+ be + Ved/ cét3 S + have/has + been + Ved/ cét3 h. Qu¸ khø hoµn thµnh S + had + been + Ved/ cét3 * C©u bÞ ®éng víi ®éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu ( can, coud, may, must,…) S + VkhuyÕt thiÕu + be + Ved/ cét3 Vd: Minh must do this exercise carefully. =>This exercise must be done carefully by Minh. 5. MÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ ( relative pronouns ) Dïng ®Ó nèi hai c©u thµnh mét. Cã mÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ x¸c ®Þnh vµ mÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh. - MÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ x¸c ®Þnh ph¶i cã trong c©u míi lµm râ nghÜa. - MÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ x¸c ®Þnh kh«ng nhÊt thiÕt ph¶i cã trong c©u míi lµm râ nghÜa, thêng ®øng gi÷a hai dÊu phÈy. * MÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ lµm chñ ng÷ + Thay cho ngêi : who + Thay cho vËt : which * MÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ lµm t©n ng÷ + Thay cho ngêi : whom + Thay cho vËt : which * MÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ së h÷u + Thay cho ngêi : whose 13 + Thay cho vËt : whose/ of which Vd: Dïng mÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ ®Ó nèi hai c©u. - That people is a teacher. He stands near my house. => That people who stands near my house is a teacher. - This people is a teacher. Minh is talking with him. => This people whom Minh is talking with is a teacher. 6. C©u hái ®u«i ( tag questions) - Cã hai vÕ: NÕu vÕ ®Çu lµ kh¼ng ®Þnh th× vÕ ®u«i lµ phñ ®Þnh vµ ngîc l¹i. - Chó ý c¸ch dïng tr¹ng tõ ®Ó hái ë ®u«i ph¶i ®óng víi th× ë vÕ ®Çu. Vd: You like watching TV, don't you? You don't like watching TV, do you? Has he read this book, hasn't he? 7. MÖnh ®Ò tr¹ng tõ ( adverb clauses ) * MÖnh ®Ò chØ lý do: Because/ since: bëi v× - Because: §øng ë ®Çu c©u vµ cã dÊu phÈy ë gi÷a - since: §øng ë gi÷a c©u Vd: Because it rained, they didn't walk to school. <=>They didn't walk to school since it rained. * MÖnh ®Ò chØ kÕt qu¶: so : v× vËy Vd: Because it rained, so they didn't walk to school. * MÖnh ®Ò chØ sù nhîng bé : although/ though/even though: mÆc dï - Although: Thêng ®øng ë ®Çu c©u, cã dÊu phÈy. - Though: Thêng ®øng ë vÕ thø hai - even though: Thêng ®øng ë vÕ thø hai 14
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