HO CHI MINH NATIONAL POLITICS ACADEMY
TRAN THI HONG MINH
Today’s preservation and development of
cultural Heritage IN THUA THIEN HUE
Major: DIALECTICAL MATERIALISM & HISTORICAL
: 62 22 80 05
Summary of phd thesis
hanoi - 2014
The thesis is completed at
Ho Chi Minh National Politics Academy
Scientific supervisor: PROF. DR. NGUYEN HUNG HAU
The thesis will be defended in front of the Thesis Qualification Council at
Academy level at Ho Chi Minh National Politics Academy.
hour on date
The thesis can be found at the National Library
and Ho Chi Minh National Politics Academy
1. Necessity of the theme
TTH is an attractive national and international cultural and tourist
center of which two cultural heritages have been recognized as mankind
heritages by UNESCO. This place stores many physical and nonphysical
cultural heritages inside containing many values symbolizing the mind and
soul of Vietnamese people. Over the past years, with the consideration of
the Communist Party of Vietnam and the Government of Vietnam,
together with the assistance from the international community, especially
the enthusiastic participation by local governments, cadres, Party members
and people of TTH, the restoration, preservation and promotion of cultural
heritages in TTH have gained great changes and achieved many big
achievements, overcome the difficult period and stepped into the stable
development period in a sustainable manner.
However, due to the heavy consequences of wars and destruction by
the acts of God, many cultural monuments in TTH are regularly
threatened. The efforts in the restoration and protection of cultural heritage
have failed to meet the requirements of a complex of large-scaled,
diversified and complicated monuments that cannot match the inherent
cultural potential of TTH. The subject role of TTH people in preserving
and promoting cultural heritage is not confirmed.
What should be done to overcome the above situation so that the
values of cultural heritage of TTH continue to be promoted effectively,
contribute to making TTH a province with firm politics, rich economy and
beautiful culture? Therefore, I choose the theme: “The preservation and
promotion of cultural heritage in Thua Thien Hue at present” for my
2. Objective and task of study of the thesis
Objective of study of the thesis is to clarify theoretical and practical
issues of the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage; analyze,
evaluate the actuality of preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in
TTH at present; on that basis, propose some solutions to enhance
efficiency of preservation and promotion of cultural heritages in this
locality at present.
To realize the above objective, the thesis has two tasks:
- Clarify theoretical basis of the preservation and promotion of
cultural heritage in Vietnam at present. In particular, clarify the concepts
related to the thesis such as culture, cultural heritage, preservation and
promotion of cultural heritage.
- Study experience of some countries in the world on preservation and
promotion of cultural heritage. On that basis, withdraw experience lessons
for Vietnam in general and TTH province in particular.
- Analyze actual condition, some issues arising from the preservation
and promotion of cultural heritage in TTH at present. On that basis, the
thesis puts forth viewpoints as basis and some recommendations to
enhance efficiency of preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in
the locality in the coming time.
3. Object and scope of study of the thesis
3.1. Object of study
The thesis studies the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage
in TTH province from philosophical angle. It mainly studies the actual
preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in TTH based on typical
characteristics associated with the complex of Hue ancient capital
monuments managed by Hue Monuments Conservation Center.
3.2. Scope of study
In terms of space: Through the actual field exploration, inheritance
from study results of the preceding works, the thesis author chooses and
focuses on surveying cultural heritages in TTH associated with Hue
ancient capital monuments complex.
In terms of time: Study the actual preservation and promotion of
values of cultural heritages in TTH with the data limited from 1996 to
2013, solutions for the period to 2020.
4. Theoretical basis and method of study of the thesis
- The thesis bases on theoretical basis of Marxism-Leninism, Ho Chi
Minh ideology and the viewpoints, guidelines and policies of the
Communist Party of Vietnam, the Government of Vietnam on culture,
cultural heritage, preservation and promotion of cultural heritage. Practical
basis of the thesis is to analyze experience of some countries and evaluate
actual preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in TTH province.
- Based on dialectical materialism and historical materialism of
Marxism-Leninism, the thesis uses specific methods: Analysis summarization method, information collection and processing method.
Concurrently, the thesis inherits the study results related to the thesis
5. Scientific contributions by the thesis
- Clarify actual preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in
TTH province with distinctive characteristics of a province in the key
Central economic zone including achievements, limitations, reason and
- Propose some basic solutions in order to enhance efficiency of the
preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in TTH province in the
6. Thesis structure
Apart from the foreword, conclusion and references, the thesis theme
includes 4 chapters and 11 sections.
OVERVIEW ON THE STUDY RELATED TO THE
PRESERVATION AND PROMOTION OF CULTURAL
HERITGAGE IN THUA THIEN HUE AT PRESENT
1.1. OVERALL STUDIES ON CULTURE, CULTURAL HERITAGE AND
PRESERVATION, PROMOTION OF NATIONAL CULTURAL HERITAGE
Culture, cultural heritage and preservation, promotion of national
cultural heritage have been studied by many scientists at various levels
and angles. Culture is clarified from the formation, development and
change in the new condition. Study content is the roles of culture towards
the social life, directive viewpoints by the Communist Party of Vietnam,
policies of the State of Vietnam on the conservation of cultural heritage,
experience of some countries on the conservation of cultural heritage.
Scientific works have clarified the concepts of culture, cultural heritage
and preservation, promotion of national cultural heritage. The approach by
scientific works often goes from the concept of culture and cultural
heritage to discuss the establishment and development of Vietnamese
culture in the new period. The preservation and promotion of Vietnamese
culture have been mentioned by many scientific works. However, for TTH
province, there is no systematic scientific study. The thesis by the author
will inherit tool concepts: Culture, cultural heritage and the preservation,
promotion of national cultural heritage by the above scientific works to
realize the set objective and task.
1.2. DIRECT STUDIES ON THE PRESERVATION AND PROMOTION
OF CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THUA THIEN HUE AT PRESENT
1.2.1. From the historical angle
The studies have provided a more diversified addition to the thesis
author to access concretely and understand more about the architecture,
types of cultural heritage in TTH to put forth some recommendations to
protect, preserve and promote such cultural heritages effectively.
1.2.2. From the cultural study and cultural management angle
The articles have provided the author with an overall vision on the
achievements of the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage of TTH
in the present period.
As such, there are many scientific studies on the preservation and
promotion of cultural heritage with noteworthy achievements. Such
achievements are of reference value thus the author has inherited and
developed to complete the thesis themed: “Preservation and promotion of
cultural heritage in Thua Thien Hue at present”.
Conclusions and recommendations for further study by the thesis
First, over the past time, cultural heritage, preservation and promotion
of cultural heritage is one of the subjects that attract many scientists to study
and achieve noteworthy outcomes. Such outcomes are of reference value for
the thesis author.
Second, based on the inheritance and acquisition of study results from
the preceding scientists, the addition to the gap of unfinished study issues
to complete theoretical and practical issues of the preservation and
promotion of cultural heritage is defined by the thesis as the further study
Third, the thesis argues that there remain some issues to be further
- The thesis should clarify various concepts of culture; cultural
heritage; preservation and promotion of cultural heritage; its position and
role in the present social life.
- The thesis views that the important factor that directly affects the
preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in TTH is the human
- The thesis studies and evaluates the actual preservation and
promotion of cultural heritage in a locality in a long time, thereby seeking
solutions to enhance the efficiency of preservation and promotion of
cultural heritage in TTH at present. This is a quite necessary deed that has
not been studied by many people.
Foregoing are the suggestions for the thesis theme: “Preservation and
promotion of cultural heritage in Thua Thien Hue at present” to choose,
which is not coincident with any of the above scientific work in terms of
content and format.
PRESERVATION AND PROMOTION OF CULTURAL
HERITAGE IN VIETNAM AT PRESENT - SOME THEORETICAL
AND PRACTICAL ISSUES
2.1. CULTURE, CULTURAL HERITAGE AND PRESERVATION,
PROMOTION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE IN VIETNAM AT PRESENT
2.1.1. Concept of culture and cultural heritage
- Concept of culture
Starting from many approaches, there are various concepts and
explanations on culture. To reach the unanimity in perception, we put forth
the following definition to deal with the issues of the thesis: Culture is all
physical and spiritual values created, accumulated by the human in the
practical and social operation. Such physical and spiritual values form the
social value system which is a key element to create the distinctive identity
of a social community. It can govern the psychological life and all
activities of the people living in such social community.
Concept of cultural heritage
Based on the documents issued by the Communist Party of Vietnam,
the State of Vietnam and the preceding authors on the cultural heritage that
we have generalized, it can be concluded that: Cultural heritage is the
combination of traditional cultural assets including physical culture and
physical culture in its value system, perceived by the subject, thereby
preserving and promoting it in order to meet the demands and needs of the
Cultural heritage contains the following factors: first, cultural heritage
contains experience and living knowledge of the people. Second, cultural
heritage signifies right, good and useful factors and qualities. Third,
cultural heritage expresses cultural phenomena. Forth, historic merit will
provide cultural heritage with time depth and type diversification.
2.1.2. Viewpoints of UNESCO, the Community Party of Vietnam
and the State of Vietnam on the preservation and promotion of
- Viewpoint of UNESCO on the preservation and promotion of
The Former General Director of UNESCO, F. Mayor emphasized that:
Experience of the past two decades shows that in all present societies, in
spite of economic development level or political trend, culture and
development are two interactive sides (…). For any country that sets its
own economic development objective with separation from cultural
environment, there will certainly be serious economic and cultural
imbalances and the creation potential of such country will be impaired a
lot. A true development requires optimizing human resources and financial
resources of each community. Therefore, above all, focuses, driving forces
and objectives of development must be found in the culture (…). From
now onwards, culture should regard itself as a direct addition source for
the development. On the contrary, development should admit that culture
plays a central position and role in social regulation.
In legal aspect, UNESCO has issued many conventions on cultural
heritage protection to call for nations to act to preserve and promote
- Viewpoint by the Communist Party of Vietnam and the State of
Vietnam on preservation and promotion of cultural heritage.
First, the viewpoint by the Communist Party of Vietnam preservation
and promotion of cultural heritage.
The directive viewpoint by the Communist Party of Vietnam over the
past 80 years: Respecting, protecting, inheriting and promoting national
cultural values for the comfortable and happy life, for the people’s
progress. Affirming that: “Cultural heritage is the invaluable asset that
associates the national community, serves as the core of national identity,
the basis to create new values and exchange culture. Extremely respecting
the preservation, inheritance and promotion of traditional cultural values
(scientific and folklore), revolutionary culture, including physical culture
and nonphysical culture”.
Second, the policies by the State of Vietnam on the preservation and
promotion of cultural heritage.
Right after gaining the independence, on 23 November 1945, State
President Ho Chi Minh signed and announced the decree No. 65/SL on the
conservation of ancient monuments all over Vietnam. In this decree, the term
“ancient monuments” is understood in the light of cultural heritage, including
physical culture and nonphysical culture. Since then, many legal documents
have been promulgated. The Constitution 1992 defined the responsibility of
the State, organizations and the people on the protection and promotion of
national cultural heritage.
With many objective and subjective factors, the Law on Cultural
Heritage that was passed by the 10th National Assembly, the 9th session on
14/6/2001 is regarded as the most complete document up to now on the
preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in Vietnam. The Law
stipulates main contents such as concept and content of cultural heritage;
scope, object of adjustment of the Law; main policies and measures of the
State in order to protect cultural heritage; responsibility of the State
authority, organization, individual and the whole society in protecting
cultural heritage; explain terms on cultural heritage and protection,
promotion of cultural heritages; define the people’s ownership managed by
the State and other forms of ownership for cultural heritage; objectives of
the utilization and promotion of cultural heritage; prohibitions to protect
2.2. POSITION AND ROLE OF CULTURAL HERITAGE FOR THE
In the present period, we should perceive the position and role of
cultural heritage for the social life which are shown in some aspects as
First, cultural heritage is important part in the cultural environment
of the national communities.
Second, cultural heritage is the basic factor to create national
identity, the basis to choose and create new cultural values, create
favorable condition for the development of national culture in the coming
Third, cultural heritage is a component of the social spiritual
background, of the spiritual driving force of the society.
Forth, cultural heritage is invaluable asset, is the resource for
economic development of the country.
Fifth, cultural heritage is the basis for domestic and international
cultural exchange, which makes the national culture and humankind
culture develop in an increasingly diversified manner.
2.3. EXPERIENCE OFSOME COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD IN THE
PRESERVATION AND PROMOTION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE
Through the experience of some countries such as China, Japan,
Thailand, India and United Kingdom on the preservation and promotion of
cultural heritage, we can withdraw the following comment:
- Cultural heritage in general is the asset of each country, the basis to
form national identity. Depending on the condition of each country, the
preservation and promotion of cultural heritage, apart from the principle
issues, have their distinctive characteristics. However, in whatever manner,
the role of culture subject still has great effect on the success or failure of
the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage of each country.
- In the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage, the key role
of the State should be considered. There should be the appropriate
investment policy from the State. In the investment, it is necessary to take
into consideration the rank and level such as experience of China. There
should be clear classification in the management of cultural heritage such
as the experience of the United Kingdom. At the same time, the State must
pay true attention to planning the conservation of cultural heritage, training
the staff who have good command of culture for this work, regarding
cultural heritage as the national precious asset from the experience of
- It is necessary to carry out the socialization policy in the preservation
of monuments in particular and socialization policy in cultural activities in
general. This is a very valuable experience for Vietnam to bear in mind
because only the socialization of traditional cultural factors can preserve
nonphysical cultural heritages in the “living” form in the whirlwind of the
current strong urbanization and globalization process.
- Enhance the community awareness and responsibility for the
preservation of national heritage based on intensive and extensive
communication among walks of life on the value of cultural heritage.
Through community education, promote the preservation of cultural
heritage in the world integration process.
- Associate the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage with
green tourism development and international cooperation. During the
cultural exchange, it is necessary to try the best to propagate national
cultural heritage, “export” national images to all over the world.
Conclusion of chapter 2
In chapter 2, the thesis cites some definitions of culture and limitation
of concept of culture of the thesis to be solved.
In chapter 2, the thesis analyzed the definitions of cultural heritage
and argued that cultural heritage is the combination of traditional cultural
assets including physical culture and nonphysical culture in its value
system, perceived by the subject, thereby preserving and promoting it in
order to meet the demands and needs of the present life. Cultural heritage
exists as an objective entity because it always associates traditional factor
with present factor. It is the mirror image of the past in the present life. It
always affects the mind and soul of the people. Cultural heritage serves as
a “social genetic code” or “a system of values” with the important factors
that form the national cultural identity.
PRESERVATION AND PROMOTION OF CULTURAL
HERITAGE IN THUA THIEN HUE AT PRESENT: ACTUALITY
AND SOME ISSUES CONCERNED
3.1. FACTORS WITH EFFECT ON THE PRESERVATION AND
PROMOTION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THUA THIEN HUE AT
3.1.1. Natural and social conditions of Thua Thua Hue with effect
on the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage
- Geographical position.
TTH is one of seven provinces in the key Central economic zone.
TTH covers 503,320.53 ha located on the important traffic axis from the
North to the South, the East - West corridor axis connecting Thailand Laos and Vietnam by the main road. TTH is situated in the neutral position
of the whole country, located between Hanoi city and Ho Chi Minh city
which are two centers of the two main development economic zones of
Vietnam, located in the area with many heritages of the Central Vietnam
with convergence of humankind cultural quintessence and recognized by
UNESCO with the world cultural heritages such as Hue ancient capital
monuments complex and Hue palatial ceremonial music and song.
- Topography and climate
Located in the middle of Vietnam, TTH has the transitional climate
region between the Northern Vietnam climate (North of Hai Van Pass) and
the Southern Vietnam climate, from coastal plain to high mountain. Climate
and hydrology regime in this province are characterized by big changes and
acts of Gods such as storm and flood. The outstanding characteristics of TTH
climate are the highest rainfall of the whole country, a lot of floods in the
narrow plain and difficult prevention of flooding.
In terms of rain regime, the rainfall is about 2500mm/year on average.
The rainy season lasts from September to February of the next year.
November has the highest rainfall that occupies up to 30% of the rainfall
of the whole year. Average humidity in the year is 85% - 86%. Rain
characteristic in TTH is uneven. Rainfall increases from the East to the
West, from the North to the South and focuses on some months with big
rain intensity, thus it is easy to cause flood and erosion. It exerts great
influence on the life and remains a big issue for the preservation and
promotion of cultural heritages in TTH.
- Socioeconomic conditions.
In terms of economic growth rate: With a view to keeping high and
sustainable economic growth, in the periods, economic growth rate of TTH
province is relatively high and stable. Average economic growth rate in the
2006 - 2010 period was 12.1% of which service grew by 12.4%, industry construction grew by 15.7% and agriculture - forestry - fishery grew by
2.1%; in 2011, this rate was 11.1% of which service grew by 12.7%,
industry - construction grew by 11.6% and agriculture - forestry - fishery
grew by 3.3%; in 2012, this rate was 9.7% of which service grew by
12.8%, industry - construction grew by 8.5% and agriculture - forestry fishery grew by 2.2%.
In terms of tourist potential: TTH has diversified tourist potential
including natural and humanity tourist resources. These resources are the
conditions for development of many tourist types such as holiday tourism,
sea tourism, ecotourism, cultural tourism and research tourism. Hue
ancient capital is one of the big cultural centers of Vietnam, currently
storing a grandiose treasure of outstanding and typical physical and
nonphysical cultural resources for Vietnam national culture; the area with
the monument complex recognized by UNESCO as the humankind
cultural heritage with famous palatial architecture and beauty spots; with
Hue palatial ceremonial music and song recognized by UNESCO as the
humankind nonphysical cultural heritage. “Hue is a masterpiece of poetry,
urban architecture, an exclusive city containing invaluable treasures, a
peculiar museum of physical and spiritual culture of Vietnam”
(UNESCO). Besides, TTH also has hundreds pagodas with unique national
architecture and a grandiose treasure of nonphysical culture with types of
religious festivals, folklore festivals and palatial festivals.
Despite great tourist potential in TTH, due to slow economic growth,
low income, limited preferences for cultural heritage and insufficient
human resources for the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in
TTH compared with the demand, cultural heritages of this province fail to
bring into full play.
3.1.2. In terms of perception by the governments at the Central
level and Thua Thien Hue province level on the preservation and
promotion of cultural heritage
Over the past years, the leadership of the Communist Party of
Vietnam, the State of Vietnam has paid special attention to the
preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in TTH. Many projects
have been approved by the Government, which creates a firm legal basis
for the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in TTH.
The Provincial Party Committee and the People’s Committee of TTH
province over the past years have worked out many strategies for the
preservation and promotion of cultural heritages, created favorable
conditions to revitalize all cultural potentials, regarded it as the strong
endogenous resource to promote economic growth and social progress.
Many important decisions on guiding this work by the Provincial Party
Committee and the People’s Committee of TTH province were
promulgated and paid attention to the investment in the local budget for
the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage, timely guiding,
assigning various local authorities to coordinate for uniform preservation
and promotion of cultural heritage values. At the same time, fortifying the
international cooperation during the preservation and restoration of
3.1.3. In terms of the perception Thua Thien Hue people in the
preservation and promotion of cultural heritages
Existing in nearly 160 years (1788 - 1945), as the Royal Capital, Phu
Xuan - TTH is the national quintessence convergence that bears traditional
cultural identity of Vietnam, contains distinctive cultural aspects of Thuan
Hoa - Phu Xuan - TTH. Therefore, in the perception of TTH people,
cultural heritages have great importance in their spiritual life. They regard
such heritages as the valuable physical asset that should be handed down
and used as material for national historical education for the future
generations. The physical and spiritual contribution to preserve cultural
heritage is the spiritual support as well as their pride on the history of the
Cultural heritage is not only aimed at satisfying spiritual demand of
the people, contributing to affirming the national pride but also a source to
create jobs for the labors, contributing to socioeconomic development.
As such, natural conditions, socioeconomic conditions and the
perception by the cultural subject have two-way effect on the preservation and
promotion of cultural heritages in TTH province. In the coming time, TTH
province must exploit advantages more effectively, concurrently working out
solution to overcoming difficulties in order to preserve and promote cultural
heritage values to meet the integration and development demands.
3.2. ACTUAL CONDITION OF PRESERVATION AND PROMOTION
OF CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THUA THIEN HUE AT PRESENT
3.2.1. Characteristics of cultural heritages in Thua Thien Hue
Through the study result and limitation of the work, we can point out
typical cultural heritages in TTH in a most general manner as follows:
+ In terms of nonphysical cultural heritage: value of the physical
cultural heritage in TTH is shown obviously in the grandiose, unique
architectural system, especially the scope of Hue monument complex.
- Hue royal citadel
- Hue royal tombs
- Hue pagoda
- Hue temple of literature
- Hue garden house
+ In terms of nonphysical cultural heritage: In the spiritual life of
Vietnamese people, TTH is not only a center but also the high peak of
culture. In spite of few people, TTH is the owner of a quite distinctive
cultural and art tradition, also known as Hue cultural identity.
- In music - entertainment: Hue music is formed from two big sources,
namely professional music and folklore music. A typical example is Hue
royal ceremonial music and song which is one of royal ceremonial music
and song types, regarded as the national music, used in festivals and
ceremonies of the royal court. In terms of Hue folklore music such as
lullaby, chanty, mudguard or religious music ceremonies and traditional
music ceremonies, Hue tune is an art starting from the playing style of
aristocracy and then popularized.
In traditional festivals: Generally speaking, although festivals in TTH
are not as abundant as those in the Northern Vietnam, they are rather
diversified with two types of festivals: royal festivals and folklore
- In cuisine activity: TTH now keeps cuisine art values with nearly 1,700
unique and attractive royal dishes and popular dishes. With Hue people,
cuisine is a trait of culture, an art with distinctive philosophy formed by
many historical - geographical and social factors.
Such cultural heritages exist up to now and keep showing the
following outstanding values:
- First, in the national cultural heritage treasure, TTh is the only place
to retain a historical royal citadel monument complex of the final
feudalism in Vietnam, reflecting relatively honestly the mechanism of
Nguyen dynasty court from economic basis to superstructure. It is the
abundant physical historical material treasure on a historical phase of the
country. It is the architectural works that record lively stamp of most
historical characters, typical celebrities of Vietnam from the late 18th
century to the early 20th century.
Second, associated closely with Hue royal citadel architecture
generality is Vietnam royal court art heritage, traditional art heritage of the
ancient citadel land, Vietnam art center in the 21st century. Value of the
royal court art and folklore art of the ancient citadel is the concentration of
national talent quintessence.
Third, cultural heritage of TTH is the basis and requisite for enhancing
the enjoyment level of the working people, contributing to establishing
new cultural life. Monument area, traditional craft villages are also the
driving force for production sectors, especially tourism and cultural
3.2.2. Actual condition of preservation and promotion of physical
cultural heritage in Thua Thien Hue at present
Restoration, improvement of historical and cultural monument
system in Thua Thien Hue
Since 2006, TTH province has restored tens monuments. As reported
by the Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism of TTH province from
2006 to 2012, many monuments were restored, including: the souvenir
house of General Nguyen Chi Thanh, the souvenir house of Uncle Ho in
Duong No village, monument at 112 Mai Thuc Loan, Nguyen Tri Phuong
church, Thuy Duong Pagoda, Dang Huy church, Van The village
communal house, Mieu The communal house in Thuong village, Phong
village communal house.
In particular, Hue ancient citadel complex, a masterpiece of cultural
heritage of TTH from 1996 to 2012 with total investment capital for basic
construction, landscape improvement of over 600b billion Vietnam dongs
in which the Central budget is 275,840 billion VND, the local budget and
international financing are 313,678 billon VND. Such capital is used to
restore 132 typical monuments as such as: Ngo Mon, Thai Hoa Temple,
Hien Lam Cac, The Mieu monument cluster, Dien Tho palace, Duyet Thi
Duong, Truong Sanh palace, Truong Lang system (Tu Cam Thanh), Tu
Phuong vo su multi-storied house, Long An court (antiques museum of
Hue royal court), Gia Long mausoleum, Minh Lau, Sung An temple, Huu
Hung Tu, Bi Dinh (Minh Mang mausoleum), Hoa Khiem temple, Minh
Khiem Duong, On Kiem temple, (Tu Duc mausoleum), Thien Dinh palace,
Bi Dinh (Khai Dinh mausoleum), Thien Mu pagoda, 10 royal citadel gates.
At present, Gia Long mausoleum, Dong Khanh mausoleum, Thieu Tri
mausoleum and Tu Duc are also restored with many items after the
restoration projects are approved.
+ Urgent preservation such as leak prevention, collapse prevention,
termite prevention, erosional plant prevention, consolidation and
replacement of aging parts has been developed on a large scale with
hundreds of works. Therefore, in the severity of continuous acts of God,
the monuments are preserved and have prolonged life expectancy.
+ Infrastructure of monument areas such as road and lighting electrical
system in the following areas: Dai Noi, Ngo Mon - Ky Dai Square, road
electrical system to Gia Long, Minh Mang, Tu Duc and Khai Dinh
mausoleums have been invested and upgraded. The garden yard system of
Hung Mieu, The Mieu, Dien Tho palace, An Dinh palace is restored to
meet the demand for tourism.
The preservation and improvement of urban environmental
landscape and nature associated with the monuments are also realized
effectively. Over the past years, most of the main monuments have been
invested, restored and improved such as garden house system, landscape
and additional plants in the buffer zones. In particular, replanting the
green corridor in King Minh Mang mausoleum, restoring and improving
the landscape of Co Ha garden. At the same time, the upgrade of
infrastructure and roads in Hue City has been considered, especially the
roads in the Royal Citadel, the roads to some monuments. In particular,
the justification and improvement on two banks of Huong river,
dredging of Ngu river and restoration of Ho Thanh Hao dyke have
created favorable conditions for developing people’s livelihood and
justifying the urban area. The evacuation of nearly 300 households in
Ben Me area and Ho Thanh Hao area, over 50 households in the
Southern Upper Citadel, tens households in Dan Xa Tac, Vo Mieu,
nearly 100 households along Ngu river with tens of billion Vietnam
dongs partly returns the landscape to the Southern area of Hue Royal
Protective localization planning for historical and cultural monuments
As reported by Hue Monuments Conservation Center, by August 2013,
the quantity of protective localization planning documents for monuments
prepared by the protective localization division achieved some good result as
- Announcing 23 planning panels:
- Preparing 5 protective localization documents (approved in 2006)
- Adjusting protective localization planning for monuments (approved in
- Planting benchmark for region I
- Planting benchmark for region II
International cooperation, application of scientific achievements of
the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage
“During 15 years, Hue Monuments cooperated with more than 25
international organizations, tens of institutions, universities and sectors in
the country to carry out heritage conservation study activities in terms of
physical culture, nonphysical culture and environmental landscape”.
With international organizations, Hue Monuments Conservation Center
cooperated with Unesco, Japan (Toyota Fund, Japan Foundation, Nihon
University, etc.), Poland, Canada, France, UK, USA, Federal Republic of
Germany, Thailand and South Korea to carry out tens of significant cultural
heritage restoration, study and conservation projects. In particular, the project
for cooperation in Hue traditional architectural study and restoration of Can
Chanh palace (in cooperation with Waseda University) was implemented for
nearly 19 years (1994-2013) with increasingly big investment capital and
initially achieved many good results.
In the preservation of nonphysical cultural heritage, international
cooperation has helped TTH carry out such projects and programs such as
the national action plan on Vietnamese royal ceremonial music and song
conservation funded by Unesco (with the contribution by Japan Trust
Foundation) in the 2005-2009 period, the project for study and restoration
of some ceremonial music and song instruments (Bien chung Bien khanh,
Bac chung Dac khanh) jointly funded by the Ministry of Culture, Sports
and Tourism of South Korea and the General Department of National
Cultural Heritage of South Korea.
In the population and promotion of cultural heritage value of Hue,
there have been some films and pictorials on Hue and cultural heritage
jointly organized by Hue Monuments Conservation Center or funded by
many organizations such as Unesco, ACCU, which helped international
friends understand more clearly about the values of Hue cultural heritage.
Hue Monuments Conservation Center received the project for producing
film on introducing the restoration of Hue Royal Citadel with digital
technology and 3D film on Ho Quyen monument funded by the General
Department of National Cultural Heritage of South Korea.
At the same time, Hue Monuments Conservation Center completed
procedures for the artists of Hue Royal Citadel Art Theater to perform
ceremonial music and song in Thailand, Austria, Germany and South
3.2.3. Actual condition of preservation of nonphysical cultural
heritage values in Thua Thien Hue at present
Collection, study of nonphysical cultural heritages
Hue Monuments Conservation Center has organized over 10
international and national workshops and conferences on the study and
preservation of nonphysical cultural heritages. Besides, Hue Monuments
Conservation Center organized study, application, collection and
preservation of tens of important royal music works. Successfully
collected, studied and stage 15 typical royal dance figures.
Restoration of royal art types and festivals
More than 100 folklore festivals, traditional and modern festivals have
been restored and promoted by the localities in TTH. Through Hue
Festival held every two years in even years and Hue Traditional Craft
Festival held every two years in odd years, these cultural activities have
become an impressive, outstanding cultural and festival symbol that
creates the unicity for the land with many cultural heritages.
3.2.4. Actual condition of effective promotion of cultural heritage
in Thua Thien Hue
The result gained by TTH tourism sector likely has the great
contribution from local cultural heritages. At monuments, the number of
tourists, according to the statistics of Hue Monuments Conservation Center
from 1996 to 2011, shows that from only 730 thousand arrivals per year
(1996), up to now, it achieves appropriately 2 million arrivals per year.
Therefore, the income from sightseeing tickets of Hue Monuments
Conservation Center increased for many times, if total revenue was just
about 16 billion VND (1996), it kept increasing later on, by 2011, it
achieved over 80 billion VND (see diagram 3.1). In 2012, more than 2
million arrivals of tourists visited Hue monument area with 1,792,539
arrivals of tourists buying tickets and over 200 thousand arrivals of tourists
being exempted from tickets. Total income from service in 2012 of the
Center achieved about 10 billion VND, the revenue from sightseeing