Today’s preservation and development of cultural heritage in Thua Thien Hue

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HO CHI MINH NATIONAL POLITICS ACADEMY TRAN THI HONG MINH Today’s preservation and development of cultural Heritage IN THUA THIEN HUE PROVINCE Major: DIALECTICAL MATERIALISM & HISTORICAL MATERIALISM Code : 62 22 80 05 Summary of phd thesis hanoi - 2014 The thesis is completed at Ho Chi Minh National Politics Academy Scientific supervisor: PROF. DR. NGUYEN HUNG HAU Opponent 1: Opponent 2: Opponent 3: The thesis will be defended in front of the Thesis Qualification Council at Academy level at Ho Chi Minh National Politics Academy. At hour on date month year 2014 The thesis can be found at the National Library and Ho Chi Minh National Politics Academy 1 FOREWORD 1. Necessity of the theme TTH is an attractive national and international cultural and tourist center of which two cultural heritages have been recognized as mankind heritages by UNESCO. This place stores many physical and nonphysical cultural heritages inside containing many values symbolizing the mind and soul of Vietnamese people. Over the past years, with the consideration of the Communist Party of Vietnam and the Government of Vietnam, together with the assistance from the international community, especially the enthusiastic participation by local governments, cadres, Party members and people of TTH, the restoration, preservation and promotion of cultural heritages in TTH have gained great changes and achieved many big achievements, overcome the difficult period and stepped into the stable development period in a sustainable manner. However, due to the heavy consequences of wars and destruction by the acts of God, many cultural monuments in TTH are regularly threatened. The efforts in the restoration and protection of cultural heritage have failed to meet the requirements of a complex of large-scaled, diversified and complicated monuments that cannot match the inherent cultural potential of TTH. The subject role of TTH people in preserving and promoting cultural heritage is not confirmed. What should be done to overcome the above situation so that the values of cultural heritage of TTH continue to be promoted effectively, contribute to making TTH a province with firm politics, rich economy and beautiful culture? Therefore, I choose the theme: “The preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in Thua Thien Hue at present” for my doctoral thesis. 2. Objective and task of study of the thesis 2.1. Objective Objective of study of the thesis is to clarify theoretical and practical issues of the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage; analyze, evaluate the actuality of preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in TTH at present; on that basis, propose some solutions to enhance 2 efficiency of preservation and promotion of cultural heritages in this locality at present. 2.2. Task To realize the above objective, the thesis has two tasks: - Clarify theoretical basis of the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in Vietnam at present. In particular, clarify the concepts related to the thesis such as culture, cultural heritage, preservation and promotion of cultural heritage. - Study experience of some countries in the world on preservation and promotion of cultural heritage. On that basis, withdraw experience lessons for Vietnam in general and TTH province in particular. - Analyze actual condition, some issues arising from the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in TTH at present. On that basis, the thesis puts forth viewpoints as basis and some recommendations to enhance efficiency of preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in the locality in the coming time. 3. Object and scope of study of the thesis 3.1. Object of study The thesis studies the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in TTH province from philosophical angle. It mainly studies the actual preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in TTH based on typical characteristics associated with the complex of Hue ancient capital monuments managed by Hue Monuments Conservation Center. 3.2. Scope of study In terms of space: Through the actual field exploration, inheritance from study results of the preceding works, the thesis author chooses and focuses on surveying cultural heritages in TTH associated with Hue ancient capital monuments complex. In terms of time: Study the actual preservation and promotion of values of cultural heritages in TTH with the data limited from 1996 to 2013, solutions for the period to 2020. 4. Theoretical basis and method of study of the thesis - The thesis bases on theoretical basis of Marxism-Leninism, Ho Chi Minh ideology and the viewpoints, guidelines and policies of the 3 Communist Party of Vietnam, the Government of Vietnam on culture, cultural heritage, preservation and promotion of cultural heritage. Practical basis of the thesis is to analyze experience of some countries and evaluate actual preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in TTH province. - Based on dialectical materialism and historical materialism of Marxism-Leninism, the thesis uses specific methods: Analysis summarization method, information collection and processing method. Concurrently, the thesis inherits the study results related to the thesis theme. 5. Scientific contributions by the thesis - Clarify actual preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in TTH province with distinctive characteristics of a province in the key Central economic zone including achievements, limitations, reason and issues concerned. - Propose some basic solutions in order to enhance efficiency of the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in TTH province in the coming time. 6. Thesis structure Apart from the foreword, conclusion and references, the thesis theme includes 4 chapters and 11 sections. Chapter 1 OVERVIEW ON THE STUDY RELATED TO THE PRESERVATION AND PROMOTION OF CULTURAL HERITGAGE IN THUA THIEN HUE AT PRESENT 1.1. OVERALL STUDIES ON CULTURE, CULTURAL HERITAGE AND PRESERVATION, PROMOTION OF NATIONAL CULTURAL HERITAGE Culture, cultural heritage and preservation, promotion of national cultural heritage have been studied by many scientists at various levels and angles. Culture is clarified from the formation, development and change in the new condition. Study content is the roles of culture towards the social life, directive viewpoints by the Communist Party of Vietnam, policies of the State of Vietnam on the conservation of cultural heritage, 4 experience of some countries on the conservation of cultural heritage. Scientific works have clarified the concepts of culture, cultural heritage and preservation, promotion of national cultural heritage. The approach by scientific works often goes from the concept of culture and cultural heritage to discuss the establishment and development of Vietnamese culture in the new period. The preservation and promotion of Vietnamese culture have been mentioned by many scientific works. However, for TTH province, there is no systematic scientific study. The thesis by the author will inherit tool concepts: Culture, cultural heritage and the preservation, promotion of national cultural heritage by the above scientific works to realize the set objective and task. 1.2. DIRECT STUDIES ON THE PRESERVATION AND PROMOTION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THUA THIEN HUE AT PRESENT 1.2.1. From the historical angle The studies have provided a more diversified addition to the thesis author to access concretely and understand more about the architecture, types of cultural heritage in TTH to put forth some recommendations to protect, preserve and promote such cultural heritages effectively. 1.2.2. From the cultural study and cultural management angle The articles have provided the author with an overall vision on the achievements of the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage of TTH in the present period. As such, there are many scientific studies on the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage with noteworthy achievements. Such achievements are of reference value thus the author has inherited and developed to complete the thesis themed: “Preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in Thua Thien Hue at present”. Conclusions and recommendations for further study by the thesis First, over the past time, cultural heritage, preservation and promotion of cultural heritage is one of the subjects that attract many scientists to study and achieve noteworthy outcomes. Such outcomes are of reference value for the thesis author. Second, based on the inheritance and acquisition of study results from the preceding scientists, the addition to the gap of unfinished study issues 5 to complete theoretical and practical issues of the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage is defined by the thesis as the further study development direction. Third, the thesis argues that there remain some issues to be further studied: - The thesis should clarify various concepts of culture; cultural heritage; preservation and promotion of cultural heritage; its position and role in the present social life. - The thesis views that the important factor that directly affects the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in TTH is the human perception. - The thesis studies and evaluates the actual preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in a locality in a long time, thereby seeking solutions to enhance the efficiency of preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in TTH at present. This is a quite necessary deed that has not been studied by many people. Foregoing are the suggestions for the thesis theme: “Preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in Thua Thien Hue at present” to choose, which is not coincident with any of the above scientific work in terms of content and format. Chapter 2 PRESERVATION AND PROMOTION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE IN VIETNAM AT PRESENT - SOME THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ISSUES 2.1. CULTURE, CULTURAL HERITAGE AND PRESERVATION, PROMOTION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE IN VIETNAM AT PRESENT 2.1.1. Concept of culture and cultural heritage - Concept of culture Starting from many approaches, there are various concepts and explanations on culture. To reach the unanimity in perception, we put forth the following definition to deal with the issues of the thesis: Culture is all physical and spiritual values created, accumulated by the human in the 6 practical and social operation. Such physical and spiritual values form the social value system which is a key element to create the distinctive identity of a social community. It can govern the psychological life and all activities of the people living in such social community. Concept of cultural heritage Based on the documents issued by the Communist Party of Vietnam, the State of Vietnam and the preceding authors on the cultural heritage that we have generalized, it can be concluded that: Cultural heritage is the combination of traditional cultural assets including physical culture and physical culture in its value system, perceived by the subject, thereby preserving and promoting it in order to meet the demands and needs of the present life. Cultural heritage contains the following factors: first, cultural heritage contains experience and living knowledge of the people. Second, cultural heritage signifies right, good and useful factors and qualities. Third, cultural heritage expresses cultural phenomena. Forth, historic merit will provide cultural heritage with time depth and type diversification. 2.1.2. Viewpoints of UNESCO, the Community Party of Vietnam and the State of Vietnam on the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage - Viewpoint of UNESCO on the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage. The Former General Director of UNESCO, F. Mayor emphasized that: Experience of the past two decades shows that in all present societies, in spite of economic development level or political trend, culture and development are two interactive sides (…). For any country that sets its own economic development objective with separation from cultural environment, there will certainly be serious economic and cultural imbalances and the creation potential of such country will be impaired a lot. A true development requires optimizing human resources and financial resources of each community. Therefore, above all, focuses, driving forces and objectives of development must be found in the culture (…). From now onwards, culture should regard itself as a direct addition source for the development. On the contrary, development should admit that culture plays a central position and role in social regulation. 7 In legal aspect, UNESCO has issued many conventions on cultural heritage protection to call for nations to act to preserve and promote cultural heritages. - Viewpoint by the Communist Party of Vietnam and the State of Vietnam on preservation and promotion of cultural heritage. First, the viewpoint by the Communist Party of Vietnam preservation and promotion of cultural heritage. The directive viewpoint by the Communist Party of Vietnam over the past 80 years: Respecting, protecting, inheriting and promoting national cultural values for the comfortable and happy life, for the people’s progress. Affirming that: “Cultural heritage is the invaluable asset that associates the national community, serves as the core of national identity, the basis to create new values and exchange culture. Extremely respecting the preservation, inheritance and promotion of traditional cultural values (scientific and folklore), revolutionary culture, including physical culture and nonphysical culture”. Second, the policies by the State of Vietnam on the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage. Right after gaining the independence, on 23 November 1945, State President Ho Chi Minh signed and announced the decree No. 65/SL on the conservation of ancient monuments all over Vietnam. In this decree, the term “ancient monuments” is understood in the light of cultural heritage, including physical culture and nonphysical culture. Since then, many legal documents have been promulgated. The Constitution 1992 defined the responsibility of the State, organizations and the people on the protection and promotion of national cultural heritage. With many objective and subjective factors, the Law on Cultural Heritage that was passed by the 10th National Assembly, the 9th session on 14/6/2001 is regarded as the most complete document up to now on the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in Vietnam. The Law stipulates main contents such as concept and content of cultural heritage; scope, object of adjustment of the Law; main policies and measures of the State in order to protect cultural heritage; responsibility of the State authority, organization, individual and the whole society in protecting 8 cultural heritage; explain terms on cultural heritage and protection, promotion of cultural heritages; define the people’s ownership managed by the State and other forms of ownership for cultural heritage; objectives of the utilization and promotion of cultural heritage; prohibitions to protect cultural heritage. 2.2. POSITION AND ROLE OF CULTURAL HERITAGE FOR THE SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT In the present period, we should perceive the position and role of cultural heritage for the social life which are shown in some aspects as follows: First, cultural heritage is important part in the cultural environment of the national communities. Second, cultural heritage is the basic factor to create national identity, the basis to choose and create new cultural values, create favorable condition for the development of national culture in the coming period. Third, cultural heritage is a component of the social spiritual background, of the spiritual driving force of the society. Forth, cultural heritage is invaluable asset, is the resource for economic development of the country. Fifth, cultural heritage is the basis for domestic and international cultural exchange, which makes the national culture and humankind culture develop in an increasingly diversified manner. 2.3. EXPERIENCE OFSOME COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD IN THE PRESERVATION AND PROMOTION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE Through the experience of some countries such as China, Japan, Thailand, India and United Kingdom on the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage, we can withdraw the following comment: - Cultural heritage in general is the asset of each country, the basis to form national identity. Depending on the condition of each country, the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage, apart from the principle issues, have their distinctive characteristics. However, in whatever manner, the role of culture subject still has great effect on the success or failure of the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage of each country. 9 - In the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage, the key role of the State should be considered. There should be the appropriate investment policy from the State. In the investment, it is necessary to take into consideration the rank and level such as experience of China. There should be clear classification in the management of cultural heritage such as the experience of the United Kingdom. At the same time, the State must pay true attention to planning the conservation of cultural heritage, training the staff who have good command of culture for this work, regarding cultural heritage as the national precious asset from the experience of Japan. - It is necessary to carry out the socialization policy in the preservation of monuments in particular and socialization policy in cultural activities in general. This is a very valuable experience for Vietnam to bear in mind because only the socialization of traditional cultural factors can preserve nonphysical cultural heritages in the “living” form in the whirlwind of the current strong urbanization and globalization process. - Enhance the community awareness and responsibility for the preservation of national heritage based on intensive and extensive communication among walks of life on the value of cultural heritage. Through community education, promote the preservation of cultural heritage in the world integration process. - Associate the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage with green tourism development and international cooperation. During the cultural exchange, it is necessary to try the best to propagate national cultural heritage, “export” national images to all over the world. Conclusion of chapter 2 In chapter 2, the thesis cites some definitions of culture and limitation of concept of culture of the thesis to be solved. In chapter 2, the thesis analyzed the definitions of cultural heritage and argued that cultural heritage is the combination of traditional cultural assets including physical culture and nonphysical culture in its value system, perceived by the subject, thereby preserving and promoting it in order to meet the demands and needs of the present life. Cultural heritage exists as an objective entity because it always associates traditional factor 10 with present factor. It is the mirror image of the past in the present life. It always affects the mind and soul of the people. Cultural heritage serves as a “social genetic code” or “a system of values” with the important factors that form the national cultural identity. Chapter 3 PRESERVATION AND PROMOTION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THUA THIEN HUE AT PRESENT: ACTUALITY AND SOME ISSUES CONCERNED 3.1. FACTORS WITH EFFECT ON THE PRESERVATION AND PROMOTION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THUA THIEN HUE AT PRESENT 3.1.1. Natural and social conditions of Thua Thua Hue with effect on the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage - Geographical position. TTH is one of seven provinces in the key Central economic zone. TTH covers 503,320.53 ha located on the important traffic axis from the North to the South, the East - West corridor axis connecting Thailand Laos and Vietnam by the main road. TTH is situated in the neutral position of the whole country, located between Hanoi city and Ho Chi Minh city which are two centers of the two main development economic zones of Vietnam, located in the area with many heritages of the Central Vietnam with convergence of humankind cultural quintessence and recognized by UNESCO with the world cultural heritages such as Hue ancient capital monuments complex and Hue palatial ceremonial music and song. - Topography and climate Located in the middle of Vietnam, TTH has the transitional climate region between the Northern Vietnam climate (North of Hai Van Pass) and the Southern Vietnam climate, from coastal plain to high mountain. Climate and hydrology regime in this province are characterized by big changes and acts of Gods such as storm and flood. The outstanding characteristics of TTH climate are the highest rainfall of the whole country, a lot of floods in the narrow plain and difficult prevention of flooding. 11 In terms of rain regime, the rainfall is about 2500mm/year on average. The rainy season lasts from September to February of the next year. November has the highest rainfall that occupies up to 30% of the rainfall of the whole year. Average humidity in the year is 85% - 86%. Rain characteristic in TTH is uneven. Rainfall increases from the East to the West, from the North to the South and focuses on some months with big rain intensity, thus it is easy to cause flood and erosion. It exerts great influence on the life and remains a big issue for the preservation and promotion of cultural heritages in TTH. - Socioeconomic conditions. In terms of economic growth rate: With a view to keeping high and sustainable economic growth, in the periods, economic growth rate of TTH province is relatively high and stable. Average economic growth rate in the 2006 - 2010 period was 12.1% of which service grew by 12.4%, industry construction grew by 15.7% and agriculture - forestry - fishery grew by 2.1%; in 2011, this rate was 11.1% of which service grew by 12.7%, industry - construction grew by 11.6% and agriculture - forestry - fishery grew by 3.3%; in 2012, this rate was 9.7% of which service grew by 12.8%, industry - construction grew by 8.5% and agriculture - forestry fishery grew by 2.2%. In terms of tourist potential: TTH has diversified tourist potential including natural and humanity tourist resources. These resources are the conditions for development of many tourist types such as holiday tourism, sea tourism, ecotourism, cultural tourism and research tourism. Hue ancient capital is one of the big cultural centers of Vietnam, currently storing a grandiose treasure of outstanding and typical physical and nonphysical cultural resources for Vietnam national culture; the area with the monument complex recognized by UNESCO as the humankind cultural heritage with famous palatial architecture and beauty spots; with Hue palatial ceremonial music and song recognized by UNESCO as the humankind nonphysical cultural heritage. “Hue is a masterpiece of poetry, urban architecture, an exclusive city containing invaluable treasures, a peculiar museum of physical and spiritual culture of Vietnam” (UNESCO). Besides, TTH also has hundreds pagodas with unique national 12 architecture and a grandiose treasure of nonphysical culture with types of religious festivals, folklore festivals and palatial festivals. Despite great tourist potential in TTH, due to slow economic growth, low income, limited preferences for cultural heritage and insufficient human resources for the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in TTH compared with the demand, cultural heritages of this province fail to bring into full play. 3.1.2. In terms of perception by the governments at the Central level and Thua Thien Hue province level on the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage Over the past years, the leadership of the Communist Party of Vietnam, the State of Vietnam has paid special attention to the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in TTH. Many projects have been approved by the Government, which creates a firm legal basis for the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in TTH. The Provincial Party Committee and the People’s Committee of TTH province over the past years have worked out many strategies for the preservation and promotion of cultural heritages, created favorable conditions to revitalize all cultural potentials, regarded it as the strong endogenous resource to promote economic growth and social progress. Many important decisions on guiding this work by the Provincial Party Committee and the People’s Committee of TTH province were promulgated and paid attention to the investment in the local budget for the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage, timely guiding, assigning various local authorities to coordinate for uniform preservation and promotion of cultural heritage values. At the same time, fortifying the international cooperation during the preservation and restoration of monuments. 3.1.3. In terms of the perception Thua Thien Hue people in the preservation and promotion of cultural heritages Existing in nearly 160 years (1788 - 1945), as the Royal Capital, Phu Xuan - TTH is the national quintessence convergence that bears traditional cultural identity of Vietnam, contains distinctive cultural aspects of Thuan Hoa - Phu Xuan - TTH. Therefore, in the perception of TTH people, 13 cultural heritages have great importance in their spiritual life. They regard such heritages as the valuable physical asset that should be handed down and used as material for national historical education for the future generations. The physical and spiritual contribution to preserve cultural heritage is the spiritual support as well as their pride on the history of the ancestors. Cultural heritage is not only aimed at satisfying spiritual demand of the people, contributing to affirming the national pride but also a source to create jobs for the labors, contributing to socioeconomic development. As such, natural conditions, socioeconomic conditions and the perception by the cultural subject have two-way effect on the preservation and promotion of cultural heritages in TTH province. In the coming time, TTH province must exploit advantages more effectively, concurrently working out solution to overcoming difficulties in order to preserve and promote cultural heritage values to meet the integration and development demands. 3.2. ACTUAL CONDITION OF PRESERVATION AND PROMOTION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THUA THIEN HUE AT PRESENT 3.2.1. Characteristics of cultural heritages in Thua Thien Hue Through the study result and limitation of the work, we can point out typical cultural heritages in TTH in a most general manner as follows: + In terms of nonphysical cultural heritage: value of the physical cultural heritage in TTH is shown obviously in the grandiose, unique architectural system, especially the scope of Hue monument complex. - Hue royal citadel - Hue royal tombs - Hue pagoda - Hue temple of literature - Hue garden house + In terms of nonphysical cultural heritage: In the spiritual life of Vietnamese people, TTH is not only a center but also the high peak of culture. In spite of few people, TTH is the owner of a quite distinctive cultural and art tradition, also known as Hue cultural identity. - In music - entertainment: Hue music is formed from two big sources, namely professional music and folklore music. A typical example is Hue 14 royal ceremonial music and song which is one of royal ceremonial music and song types, regarded as the national music, used in festivals and ceremonies of the royal court. In terms of Hue folklore music such as lullaby, chanty, mudguard or religious music ceremonies and traditional music ceremonies, Hue tune is an art starting from the playing style of aristocracy and then popularized. In traditional festivals: Generally speaking, although festivals in TTH are not as abundant as those in the Northern Vietnam, they are rather diversified with two types of festivals: royal festivals and folklore festivals. - In cuisine activity: TTH now keeps cuisine art values with nearly 1,700 unique and attractive royal dishes and popular dishes. With Hue people, cuisine is a trait of culture, an art with distinctive philosophy formed by many historical - geographical and social factors. Such cultural heritages exist up to now and keep showing the following outstanding values: - First, in the national cultural heritage treasure, TTh is the only place to retain a historical royal citadel monument complex of the final feudalism in Vietnam, reflecting relatively honestly the mechanism of Nguyen dynasty court from economic basis to superstructure. It is the abundant physical historical material treasure on a historical phase of the country. It is the architectural works that record lively stamp of most historical characters, typical celebrities of Vietnam from the late 18th century to the early 20th century. Second, associated closely with Hue royal citadel architecture generality is Vietnam royal court art heritage, traditional art heritage of the ancient citadel land, Vietnam art center in the 21st century. Value of the royal court art and folklore art of the ancient citadel is the concentration of national talent quintessence. Third, cultural heritage of TTH is the basis and requisite for enhancing the enjoyment level of the working people, contributing to establishing new cultural life. Monument area, traditional craft villages are also the driving force for production sectors, especially tourism and cultural exchange. 15 3.2.2. Actual condition of preservation and promotion of physical cultural heritage in Thua Thien Hue at present Restoration, improvement of historical and cultural monument system in Thua Thien Hue Since 2006, TTH province has restored tens monuments. As reported by the Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism of TTH province from 2006 to 2012, many monuments were restored, including: the souvenir house of General Nguyen Chi Thanh, the souvenir house of Uncle Ho in Duong No village, monument at 112 Mai Thuc Loan, Nguyen Tri Phuong church, Thuy Duong Pagoda, Dang Huy church, Van The village communal house, Mieu The communal house in Thuong village, Phong village communal house. In particular, Hue ancient citadel complex, a masterpiece of cultural heritage of TTH from 1996 to 2012 with total investment capital for basic construction, landscape improvement of over 600b billion Vietnam dongs in which the Central budget is 275,840 billion VND, the local budget and international financing are 313,678 billon VND. Such capital is used to restore 132 typical monuments as such as: Ngo Mon, Thai Hoa Temple, Hien Lam Cac, The Mieu monument cluster, Dien Tho palace, Duyet Thi Duong, Truong Sanh palace, Truong Lang system (Tu Cam Thanh), Tu Phuong vo su multi-storied house, Long An court (antiques museum of Hue royal court), Gia Long mausoleum, Minh Lau, Sung An temple, Huu Hung Tu, Bi Dinh (Minh Mang mausoleum), Hoa Khiem temple, Minh Khiem Duong, On Kiem temple, (Tu Duc mausoleum), Thien Dinh palace, Bi Dinh (Khai Dinh mausoleum), Thien Mu pagoda, 10 royal citadel gates. At present, Gia Long mausoleum, Dong Khanh mausoleum, Thieu Tri mausoleum and Tu Duc are also restored with many items after the restoration projects are approved. + Urgent preservation such as leak prevention, collapse prevention, termite prevention, erosional plant prevention, consolidation and replacement of aging parts has been developed on a large scale with hundreds of works. Therefore, in the severity of continuous acts of God, the monuments are preserved and have prolonged life expectancy. + Infrastructure of monument areas such as road and lighting electrical 16 system in the following areas: Dai Noi, Ngo Mon - Ky Dai Square, road electrical system to Gia Long, Minh Mang, Tu Duc and Khai Dinh mausoleums have been invested and upgraded. The garden yard system of Hung Mieu, The Mieu, Dien Tho palace, An Dinh palace is restored to meet the demand for tourism. The preservation and improvement of urban environmental landscape and nature associated with the monuments are also realized effectively. Over the past years, most of the main monuments have been invested, restored and improved such as garden house system, landscape and additional plants in the buffer zones. In particular, replanting the green corridor in King Minh Mang mausoleum, restoring and improving the landscape of Co Ha garden. At the same time, the upgrade of infrastructure and roads in Hue City has been considered, especially the roads in the Royal Citadel, the roads to some monuments. In particular, the justification and improvement on two banks of Huong river, dredging of Ngu river and restoration of Ho Thanh Hao dyke have created favorable conditions for developing people’s livelihood and justifying the urban area. The evacuation of nearly 300 households in Ben Me area and Ho Thanh Hao area, over 50 households in the Southern Upper Citadel, tens households in Dan Xa Tac, Vo Mieu, nearly 100 households along Ngu river with tens of billion Vietnam dongs partly returns the landscape to the Southern area of Hue Royal Citadel. Protective localization planning for historical and cultural monuments As reported by Hue Monuments Conservation Center, by August 2013, the quantity of protective localization planning documents for monuments prepared by the protective localization division achieved some good result as follows: - Announcing 23 planning panels: - Preparing 5 protective localization documents (approved in 2006) - Adjusting protective localization planning for monuments (approved in 2009) - Planting benchmark for region I - Planting benchmark for region II 17 International cooperation, application of scientific achievements of the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage “During 15 years, Hue Monuments cooperated with more than 25 international organizations, tens of institutions, universities and sectors in the country to carry out heritage conservation study activities in terms of physical culture, nonphysical culture and environmental landscape”. With international organizations, Hue Monuments Conservation Center cooperated with Unesco, Japan (Toyota Fund, Japan Foundation, Nihon University, etc.), Poland, Canada, France, UK, USA, Federal Republic of Germany, Thailand and South Korea to carry out tens of significant cultural heritage restoration, study and conservation projects. In particular, the project for cooperation in Hue traditional architectural study and restoration of Can Chanh palace (in cooperation with Waseda University) was implemented for nearly 19 years (1994-2013) with increasingly big investment capital and initially achieved many good results. In the preservation of nonphysical cultural heritage, international cooperation has helped TTH carry out such projects and programs such as the national action plan on Vietnamese royal ceremonial music and song conservation funded by Unesco (with the contribution by Japan Trust Foundation) in the 2005-2009 period, the project for study and restoration of some ceremonial music and song instruments (Bien chung Bien khanh, Bac chung Dac khanh) jointly funded by the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism of South Korea and the General Department of National Cultural Heritage of South Korea. In the population and promotion of cultural heritage value of Hue, there have been some films and pictorials on Hue and cultural heritage jointly organized by Hue Monuments Conservation Center or funded by many organizations such as Unesco, ACCU, which helped international friends understand more clearly about the values of Hue cultural heritage. Hue Monuments Conservation Center received the project for producing film on introducing the restoration of Hue Royal Citadel with digital technology and 3D film on Ho Quyen monument funded by the General Department of National Cultural Heritage of South Korea. At the same time, Hue Monuments Conservation Center completed 18 procedures for the artists of Hue Royal Citadel Art Theater to perform ceremonial music and song in Thailand, Austria, Germany and South Korea. 3.2.3. Actual condition of preservation of nonphysical cultural heritage values in Thua Thien Hue at present Collection, study of nonphysical cultural heritages Hue Monuments Conservation Center has organized over 10 international and national workshops and conferences on the study and preservation of nonphysical cultural heritages. Besides, Hue Monuments Conservation Center organized study, application, collection and preservation of tens of important royal music works. Successfully collected, studied and stage 15 typical royal dance figures. Restoration of royal art types and festivals More than 100 folklore festivals, traditional and modern festivals have been restored and promoted by the localities in TTH. Through Hue Festival held every two years in even years and Hue Traditional Craft Festival held every two years in odd years, these cultural activities have become an impressive, outstanding cultural and festival symbol that creates the unicity for the land with many cultural heritages. 3.2.4. Actual condition of effective promotion of cultural heritage in Thua Thien Hue The result gained by TTH tourism sector likely has the great contribution from local cultural heritages. At monuments, the number of tourists, according to the statistics of Hue Monuments Conservation Center from 1996 to 2011, shows that from only 730 thousand arrivals per year (1996), up to now, it achieves appropriately 2 million arrivals per year. Therefore, the income from sightseeing tickets of Hue Monuments Conservation Center increased for many times, if total revenue was just about 16 billion VND (1996), it kept increasing later on, by 2011, it achieved over 80 billion VND (see diagram 3.1). In 2012, more than 2 million arrivals of tourists visited Hue monument area with 1,792,539 arrivals of tourists buying tickets and over 200 thousand arrivals of tourists being exempted from tickets. Total income from service in 2012 of the Center achieved about 10 billion VND, the revenue from sightseeing
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