Tính toán phát thải và lắng ướt axit áp dụng cho vùng miền Bắc Việt Nam

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MUC LUC CHl/ONG 1 TONG QUAN CAC VAN OE VE PHAT THAI VA LANG AXIT 1.1. Khai quat thanh phan hoa hoc khong khi 5 1.2. Tien chat 6 nhiem gay axit nude mud 9 1.2.1. Nguon phat thai 1.2.2. Quy Udc Quoctevetien chat gay axit nt/dc mi/a [1] 1.2.3. Chu trinh chuyen hoa nita va iifu huynh trong tang doi luu 9 12 12 1.3. Su hinh thanh thanh phan hoa hoc nude mua 1.3.1. 1.3.2. 18 Chuyen hoa hoa hoc tang doi iifu [11] Van chuyen cac chat 6 nhiSm trong tang doi Iifu 1.3.3. Ldngudt. 1.3.4. L^ngkho 1.3.5. Thanh phan hoahoccCia nude mi/a [4] 1.4. Ketluan 18 21 22 24 26 32 CHUONG 2 PHl/ONG PHAP TINH TOAN PHAT THAI VA LANG LTCJT AXIT 2.1. PhiTdng phap tinh toan phat thai 2.1.1. 2.1.2. Tinh toan li/ang phat thai theo phifOng phap tn/c tiep Tinh toan luang phat thai theo phtrang phap gian tiep 2.2. PhUdng phap tinh toan ling irdt 2.2.1. 2.2.2. 2.2.3. Phi/ang phap phan tich mau nude mUa Quan trac va tinh toan thong /ce tong luang mua thang, nam tai tram quan trie Tinh toan tai iugng ion tUiSng udt 34 34 35 39 40 42 43 CHUONG 3 KET QUA TINH PHAT THAI VA LANG AXIT CHO MIEN BAC VIET NAM NAM 2001 (TLT NINH BINH T R 6 RA) 3.1. Tinh hinh so lieu 3.1.1. 3.1.2. Phat thai L^ngudtaxit 3.2. Ket qua tinh toan nam 2001 3.2.1. 3.2.2. Phat thai L^ngion CHUONG 4 BAN LUAN - KET LUAN 49 49 62 73 73 73 DANH MUC HINH l-iinh 1.1 Chu trinh chuyen hoa cac hap chatchUa Nita 14 l-iinh 1.2 Chu trinh chuyen hoa cac hap chat Luu huynh trong lAI H O C Q U O C G I A - VIEN C O H O C 7 TRUNG TAM HOP TAC DAO TAO VA B(5l DLTONG CO HOC AHSK HHVC AHST AXNM AHOZ AHKH Cdc chd't hat Hat aerosol T HatN03vaS04 T T T T Bo hong /muoi Kim loai nang T G T G Chat phdng xq Nuclit phong xa Nguon: World Health Organization. Tropospheric Chemistry and air pollution. 1982. Geneva, Ghi chu. T- true tiep; G- gian tiep AHSK : anh hicdng den sUc khoe; HHVC : huy hoai vat chat; AHST : anh huong den sinh thdi; AXNM : gay axit hoa nuac mUa; AHOZ : anh huong den tang 3 zon, AHKH : anh hudng den khi hau; Cd hai loai ngudn gay 6 nhidm khong khi ehinh la ngudn 6 nhidm thien nhien va ngudn 6 nhiem do eon ngUdi. Ngudn do eon ngudi ngay eang trd nen tac nhan ehinh gay 6 nhidm moi trudng khong khi. Cac chat 6 nhidm khong khi chu yeu la nhutig hgp chat cua C, S, N, H, O, dd la SO., NO,, O3, C,H^, cac chat hat v.v. Tuy thuge vao ban chat ciia tirng cong nghe dugc su dung, chat lugng thid't bi, nguydn nhien lieu su dung ma eac chft thai dugc san sinh va that thoat bay vao khong khi nhieu hay it. De phue vu cac mue dich nghidn ciJu ma cac nha nghien cuxi moi trudng thudng phan loai cac cha't thai theo cac quan diem de phu hgp vdi cac nghidn euu hoae eac cong nghe phat thai. Bang 1.3 dudi day trinh bay p h ^ loai cac chat thai theo quan diem vat ly va hoa hoc. l.u^n vdn Th^c: sy Tinh toan phat thai va iing ifdt axit - Ap dung cho vung mien Bac Viet Nam DAI HOC QUOC GIA - VI$N CO HQC 8 TRUNG TAM HOP T A C D A O TAO VA B 6 | D U O N G CO HOC Bang 1.3 Phan loai cac chat thai theo tinh chat vat ly va ban chat hoa hoc Cac cha't hat Cac chat khi Bui Hat suong Cac chat khi Tro Mu, hoi kim loai Cac chat hoi Khdi Cac hat aeroson (son khi) Bd hdng Cac gigt Nguon: World Health Organization. Tropospheric Chemistry and air pollution. Geneva, 1982. Bang 1.4 dudi day trinh bay phan loai cac chat thai theo cac cong nghe san xuat cd phat thai khi. Bang 1A Phan loai cac chat thai theo loai cong nghe cd phat thai khi Loai ngudn Vidu Phan hang Cac chat thai San xuat da xay Cac hgp chat huu co nghiep sinh dung, xay dung, sua va v6 CO bui chua nha ctra v.v. Cong Cong Nghien, dap sang Dot nhidn lieu, khi Nha may nhidt dien SO., NO,, CO, khdi, A, nghiep dot thai giao thong van chay tai, dot phe'thai Cdng Luydn kim Oto cac loai, xe may tro, hoi hiixi co, hat oxy kim loai Luydn kim den, mau. Hoi kim loai (Pb, nghiep san Hoa ch& hoa dau giay, phan As,Zn), F, SO,, H.S, xuat bdn, xi mang hod huu CO, bui... Hoat ddng Phun nong dugc Thudc nong dugc Phot phat huu co. ndng Dot nuong ray nghiep Hgp chat huu co co clo, As, Pb, khdi. tro, bd hdng Dung moi Phun son, muc, Che tao 6t6, noi that. Hydrocacbon va hoi dung moi lam sach cac tac nhan lam sach hiiu CO Nguon: World Health Organization. Tropospheric Chemistry and air pollution. Geneva, 1982. J^u^n van TTip^ sy Tinh toan phat thai va iing ifdt axit - Ap dung cho vung mien Bac Viet Nam DAI HOC QUOC GIA - V I $ N CO HOC TRUNG TAM HOP TAC OAO TAO VA B 6 | DUONG CO HOC 1.2. TIEN CHAT 6 NHIEM GAY AXIT NlTdC Ml/A 1,2,1, NGUON PHATTHAI 1.2.1.1. Nguon thai tir nhien Su tao thanh cac chat 6 nhidm trong tu nhidn rat phiic tap va da dang. Chiing cd the dugc tao thanh do qua trinh phong hoa dat da, phan huy cac chat huu CO, cac chat da cd san trong tu nhidn (bui), cac san pham do hoat dgng ciia niii lua hoae cac chat phdng xa tu nhidn. Cd nhieu eo che' dgng lire dd' dua cac chat 6 nhidm vao moi trudng khong khi nhu cac qua trinh khuydch tan va doi luu. Cac ch^'t hat dugc dua vao moi trudng khong khi do chuyen dgng gid hoae trong qua trinh phun trao eiia niii lua. Phan Idn cac chat d nhidm cd ngudn gdc tu nhidn deu anh hudng den moi trudng xung quanh, tuy nhidn pham vi anh hudng cua chiing thudng khong Idn vi do cao phat thai cua chiing thudng thap, ngoai trii hoat dgng cua niii lua. Cac san phim cua niii lua van chuyen kha xa, trong nhieu trudng hgp chiing cd the vugt xa hang ngan km. 1.2.1.2. Nguon thai nhan tao Trong qua trinh hoat dgng va phat trien, con ngudi da thai vao moi trudng ndi chung va bau khi quyen ndi rieng hang tram loai chat thai khac nhau vdi sd lugng rat Idn. Tdc do phat thai cac chat 6 nhidm nay ngay eang tang. Cung vdi su gia tang dan sd va hoat dgng cong, ndng nghiep, tdc do dd dugc quy dinh bdi su phat trien dan sd va nhu cau trung binh cho mot ea the'. Theo tinh toan ciia cac nha mdi trudng hang nam khi quyen tiep nhan khoang 200.10^ tan luu huynh tu cac ngudn thai, trong dd hon 90% do dot nhien lieu hoa thach (than, dau). [2] J-u^n van TTiiftc: sy Tinh toan phat thai va iang Uift axit - Ap dung cho vung mien Bac Viet Nam DAI HOC QUdC GIA - VlfN CO HOC TRUNG TAM HOP TAC DAO TAO VA B(5l Dl/ONG CO HOC i Q - Cac nguon phat thai g^y 6 nhidm mdi trudng khdng khi dugc chia thanh bdn nhdm chinh ngudn thai sinh hoat, ngudn thai nong nghiep, ngudn thai cong nghiep va ngudn thai giao thong. Loai chat thai, cudng do thai va tinh chat thai ciia cac nhdm ngudn tren r^'t khac nhau. Nguon tftdi sinit fioqt Chat d nhidm duge tao ra tir nguon thai sinh hoat chu yd'u do qua trinh phan huy cac chat thai sinh hoat nhu phan, rac. Ngoai ra, mot lugng Idn khi thai con dugc sinh ra trong qua trinh su dung than, cui de nau an. Khi thai tu ngudn thai sinh hoat thudng la cac chat khf: CH4, NH3, SO2, NO,.... Nguon tftdi nong nghiep Nong nghiep dua chat thai vao khong khi dudi hai hinh thiic khac nhau: thai khi thai do cac san pham ndng nghiep nhu CO2, CH4 va do su dung phan bdn, thudc tru sau. Khf thai do nong nghiep duge phat thai tren mot vung rong Idn, trong mot muc do nhat dinh, tuong tu nhu phat thai tu nhien. Su khac nhau co ban giua phat thai tu nhidn va phat thai do ndng nghiep la d ch6 phat thai tu nhien khdng the hien tinh chu ky ro ret, eon phat thai ndng nghiep chi tap trung vao cac thdi ky nhat dinh trong nam (cac thdi vu chinh). Nguon tfidi cong ng/iiep Ngay riay, vdi su phat trien san xuat, cac nganh cong nghiep da dua vao moi trudng hang nghin loai ch^'t doc hai khac nhau vdi mot tdc do ngay eang tang. So vdi cac dang ngudn thai khae thi ngudn phat thai cong nghiep la loai ngudn thai quan trong nh^'t vi day la loai ngudn phat thai tap trung cd cudng do Idn hon rat nhieu Idn eac loai ngudn khac. Bdn canh dd, thanh phan chat thai trong cong nghiep cung rat da dang, mdi loai nganh cong nghiep lai thai L-u^n van TTiiftc sy Tinh toan phat thai va Iang ifdt axit - Ap dung cho vung mien Bdc Viet Nam DAI HQC QUOC GIA - VI$N CO HQC 11 TRUNG TAM HOP TAC OAO TAO VA B 6 | DUONG CO HOC ra nhung loai ch^'t thai r^'t khac nhau. Cac ch^'t thai dac trung ciia mot sd nganh cong nghiep dugc trinh bay bang 1.5 dudi day. Bang 1.5 Nhutig chat thai dac truhg cua mot so nganh cong nghiep Nganh edng nghiep Hoa dau Thanh phan ch^'t thai C,Hy, SO., NO, Nhidt didn Dung than Bui, SO2, CO, NO,, CO2 Dung dau Muoi, SO2, CO, NO,, CO2, C,Hy Luydn kim Luydn kim den Bui, SO2, CO, NO,, Pb Luydn kim mau Bui, SO2, CO, NO,, cac kim loai nang Hoa chat San xuat axit Sulfiiric SOx San xuat Superphosphat Bui, H2SiF6, SO3. San xudt xiit CI2 San xua't p h ^ dam NH3 San xuat cao su Bui, SO2, CO, NO,, CO2 Vat lieu xay dung San xuat ximang Bui, SO2, CO, NO,, CO2 San xuat vdi gach Bui, SO2, CO, NO,, CO2 San xu^t sanh sii thuy tinh Bui, SO2, CO, NO,, CO2 Nguon : Vien KTTV - Tong.cue KTTV. Giam sat moi tru&ng khdng khi vd nuac. Ha Noi1995. Tir bang tren cho thay eac hoat ddng cong nghiep da thai vao khdng khf nhieu cha't khac nhau, nhung chii yd'u la bui, SO2, CO, NO,, CO2. Cudng do Lt4^n van Z7i<3c sy Tinh toan phat thai va iing udt axit - Ap dung cho vung mien Bic Viet Nam DAI HOC QUOC GIA - VIEN CO HQC TRUNG TAM HOP TAC OAO TAO VA B(5l Dl/ONG CO HOC i 2 thai phu thudc vao quy trinh edng nghd san xu^'t, nguydn nhidn v^t lidu, trang thie't bi va hieu qua xu ly cua he thong xu ly khf thai. 1,2.2, QUY l/dC QUOC TE VE TIEN CHAT GAY AXIT Nl/6C Ml/A [1] Theo thong Id Qudc te', phan hang cac ch^'t d nhidm khdng khf nhu sau; - Cac tidn ch^'t tao axit: dioxyt luu huynh (SO2), Cac oxyt nito (NO,). - Cac chat tfch tu khdng suy giam; Bui, cac hgp chat trong bui. - Cac ch^'t cd doe tfnh cao; cac hgp cha't trong bui, eac hgp chat huu CO bay hoi. - Cac tien chat dSn den chat oxi hoa; cac oxyt nito, cac hgp chat hiJu CO bay hoi. - Cac chat lam bid'n doi khf hau; dioxyt cacbon (CO-,), cac hgp chat hiru CO bay hoi. Trong cac khf thai thi SO2, va NO, la nhirng tac nhan chfnh gay axit hoa nude mua, do dd luan van nay chi tap trung vao cac van de lien quan de'n qua trinh phat thai vao khong khf va Mng udt hai yd'u to nito va luu huynh. 1,2,3. CHU TRINH CHUYEN HOA NITO VA Ll/U HUYNH TRONG TANG DOI Ll/U 1.2.3.1. Chu trinh chuyen hoa cac chat khi [10] Cdc hap chat chica Nita Hgp chat Nito trong khf quyen dudi dang khf (N2, N2O, NO,, HNO3, NH3), long (N03', NH4''). Bang 1,6 trinh bay dang ton tai va ndng do mot sd hgp eha't chiia nito trong khi quyen. J^u^n van Xh^c: sy Tinh toan phat thai va iing utft axit - Ap dung cho vung mien Bic Viet Nam DAI HOC Q U d c G»A - VI^N CO HOC 13 TRUNG TAM HOP TAC DAO TAO VA B6| DI/ONG CO HOC Bang 1.6 Nong dp mot sohafp chat Nitaf trong khong khi Cdng thiic TSng khf quyen Dang Ndng dd N2 Khf Doi luu 78,1% N2O Khf Ddi luu 0,3 ppmv NO, Khf Khdng khf ndn < Ippbv HNO3- Khf Ddi luu < Ippbv Khdng khf nen < l|ig/m^ Khdng khf vung d nhidm < 4)ag/m^ Nude mua 0 vung ndng thdn xa 5^mol/l Nude mua d vung d nhidm lO-lOO^imol/l Hat N03Long NH3 Khf Khdng khf nen < lOppbv NH4^ Hat, Khdng khf n6n < 3|Lig/m^ Long Nude mua < 10(imol/l Nguon: World Health Organization. Tropospheric Chemistry and air pollution. J 982. Ghi cfiii: Geneva, pp^'^'phan trieu tinh theo the tich; ppbv: phan ty tinh theo the tich. Qua trinh phin huy cac hgp chat Nito trong dat axit, vi sinh vat da chuyen hoa Nito dudi dang hgp chat thanh N2O, khf N2O khi phat tan vao khdng khf phan iing vdi d xi tao thanh NO2. Day la qua trinh chfnh sinh ra NO, cd ngudn gdc thidn nhien. Mat khac, qua trinh dot chay nguydn nhidn hdu do hoat dgng cua con ngudi cung la mdt ngudn phat sinh ra khf NO,. Khf NO, trong khf quyen la mot trong nhiing ngudn sinh ra son khf khf quyen dang hat NH4NO3. Phan Idn cac hgp chat chiia NO, va ion NO3 dugc loai bd Lu4n van Thfi^ sy Tinh toan phat thai va idng Udt axit-Ap dung cho vung mien Bac Viet Nam DAI HOC QUOC GIA - VI^N CO HQC TRUNG TAM H O P TAC DAO TAO VA B 6 I D U O N G CO HOC 14 khdi t&g ddi luu thdng qua qua trinh Iang udt. Chu trinh chuyen hoa cac hgp chat Nito dugc trinh bay trong hinh 1.1. Dinh tang ddi luu Be mat Trai dat va sinh quyen ke ca cac hoat dong cua con nguoi Hinh 1.1 Chu trinh chuyen hoa cac hcfp chat chufa Nitcf (Nguon: E. Meszaros. Atmospheric Chemistry. 1981.) Ghi chu: • Phat thdi vd tieu huy thien nhien ^ Phat thdi vd tieu huy nhan tao • I Chuyen hod hod hoc I Luu tri/ khi quyen } bieu thi bang 10^ tan/nam bieu thi bang 10^ tan Nguon NHj tit gia siic dugc xem nhu nguon sinh hoc, khong tinh do con ngu&i Cdc hap chat luu huynh Trong khdng khf tang ddi liru va tang binh luu cac chat hat (son khf) deu c&n tao tir hat sunfat amoni hoae axft Sunfuric. Trong khf quyen, khi eac hat son khf sunfat gia tang se lam anh hudng dd'n can can buc xa he thdng Trai dat - Khf quyen, de'n tfnh cha't quang hoc va kha nang tao giang thuy cua khdng khf. Lu^n van TTi^a^ sy Tinh toan phat thai va iang ifdt axit - Ap dung cho vung mien Bic Viet Nam DAI HQC QUdC GIA - VI$N CO HQC TRUNG TAM HOP TAC OAO TAO VA B 6 | DUONG CO HOC 15 Nguon gdc luu huynh trong khong khi Luu huynh cd mat trong khdng khf khf quy^n do su ph^n huy cac hgp cha't huu CO, dot chay cac nhien lidu hda thach, do phat tan cac hat mudi bien va su hoat ddng cua nui lua. Nhu v^y, ea sinh quyen ISn con ngudi ddu thai ra cac hgp chat luu huynh. Bang 1.7 dudi d^y trinh bay kd't qua tfnh toan lugng va ty Id phat thai SO2 do cac hoat ddng ciia con ngudi trdn toan thd' gidi. Bang 1.7 Phat thai SO2 do hoat dgng ciia con nguofi tren the gidi Nguon phat thai SO2 - S Luang phat thai 10^ ta'n/nam Ty le (%) D6't than 45,5 70,0 Dot dSu 5,5 8,4 Cong nghiep (luyen va dau mo) 13,6 21,0 Giao thong van tai 0,4 0,6 T6ng cong 64,9 100 Nguon: E. Meszaros. Atmospheric Chemistry. 1981. Ngoai khf SO2, trong khf quyen con cd cac dang hgp chat khac chiia luu huynh nhu H2S (hydrosunfua), DMS (dimethinsunfua), CS2 (disunfua cacbon), DMDS (dimethindisunfua),... Ca che chuyen hod luu huynh trong khi quyen Trong khdng khf sach, luu huynh dugc tim thay dudi dang hat sunfat. Chuyen hoa luu huynh trong khf quyen la su chuyen hoa cac hgp chat luu huynh cd hda tri thap sang luu huynh cd hoa tri cao ( SO4 luu huynh cd hoa tri 6). Lu4»^ van TTipc sy Tinh toan phat thai va iang Udt axit - Ap dung cho vung mien Bic Viet Nam DAI HQC QUd'c GIA - VI^N CO HQC 16 TRUNG TAM HOP TAC D A O TAO VA B(5l Dl/CfNG CO HOC Ngoai trijf DMDS, chuyen hoa cac hgp chat luu huynh da dugc Kellogg (1972) tong kd't bang so dd dudi day: (O, O2, O3) (hv, O, O2, O3, aldphin) X X(thudng la NH3) H,S + > SO2 + --> SO3 + H2O —> H2SO4 + X —> XSO4 Gid Gid hoae ngay (*) giay (*): nhanh hon ne'u xay ra tren bd mat chat hat hoae trong dung dich \ 0.05 Dinh tang doiluu 7 . ? 20 | S-- (Imi huynh khu) = 0.1 23 SO2-S r- i 42(39) i SO,-S 0.8 ^ 0.045 \ i Nui lua ^ Mat bien; Uot kho 0 i • r Be mat Tr^ii dat va sin h quyen ke ca cac hoat dgng cua con ngudi Hinh 1.2 Chu trinh chuyen hoa cac hdp chat Luu huynh trong khong khi (Nguon: E. Meszaros. Atmospheric Chemistry. 1981.) 1.2.3.2. Phat thai chat hat - thanh phan hoa hoc chat hat [1] Cac son khi la mot phiJc hgp gdm cac hat r^n hoae long lo lung trong khdng khf. Cac son khi rat khac nhau ve tinh ch^'t vat ly ciing nhu hoa hoc, do vay ma qua trinh chuyen hoa, loai bd va thdi gian ton luu cua chiing cung r^'t khac nhau. LtA^n van Tiy^a sy Tinh toan phat thai va iing Udt axit - Ap dung cho vung mien Bic Viet Nam
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