Theory and practical application of nominal clauses,

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Website: http://www.docs.vn Email : lienhe@docs.vn Tel : 0918.775.368 National Economics University Faculty of foreign languages Department of business English Sự định nghĩa kiểu: Mục lục 1: Phông: 17 pt, Dừng tab: 16 cm, Phải,Đằng trước: … + Không có tại 15.48 cm Sự định nghĩa kiểu: Mục lục 2: Phông: 16 pt, Không soát chính tả h ngữ pháp, Dừng tab: 16 cm, Phải,Đằng trước: … Sự định nghĩa kiểu: Mục lục 3: Phông: 15 pt, Không Đậm, Dừng tab 16 cm, Phải,Đằng trước: … + Không tại 15.48 cm REPORT: Đã định dạng: Giãn cách dòng: 1. dòng Theory and practical application of nominal clauses, adverbial clauses, direct & indirect speech in finance Supervisor : Pham Thi Thanh Thuy Group members : Truong Thu Hang (CQ503703) Luu Dieu Ly (CQ503742) Pham Thi Kim Chung (CQ503679) _Ha Noi 2010_ Đã định dạng: Dừng tab: 6.98 cm Trái + 7.3 cm, Trái OUTLINE A. Introduction .............................................................................. 1 B. Development .............................................................................. 2 I. Literature review ..........................................................................2 Đã định dạng: Dừng tab: Không có tại 15.98 cm NOMINAL CLAUSES ....................................................................... 2 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES ................................................................... 8 DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH ................................................ 14 III.Practical application .................................................................21 1. Contrast the use of nominal clauses and adverbial clauses in Đã định dạng: Dừng tab: Không có tại 15.98 cm Đã định dạng: Mục lục 3 finance .............................................................................................. 21 3. Contrast the use of direct speech and indirect speech in finance .... 34 C. Conclusion ............................................................................... 46 D. Appendix ................................................................................. 47 I. References ....................................................................................47 Đã định dạng: Dừng tab: Không có tại 15.98 cm II. Discourses ( from Finance Times) ...........................................47 Đã định dạng: Dừng tab: 16 cm, Phải,Đằng trước: … A.Introduction B.Development I.Literature reviews 1.Nominal clauses 2.Adverbial clauses 3.Direct & indirect speech II.Practical application 1.Nominal clauses & adverbial clauses in finance 2.Direct & indirect speech in finance C.Conclusion D.Appendix Đã định dạng: Dấu và số đầu dòng Đã định dạng: Thụt lề: Treo: 4.66 cm, Đánh số + Mức: 1 + Kiểu Đánh I, II, III, … + Bắt đầu từ: 1 + Căn chỉnh: Phải + Căn cách: 3.7 cm + T sau đó: 6.24 cm + Thụt lề: 6.24 cm Dừng tab: Không có tại 6.24 cm Đã định dạng: Thụt lề: Trái: 1.59 cm, Treo: 0.32 cm, Đánh số + Mức: + Kiểu Đánh số: I, II, III, … + Bắt đ từ: 1 + Căn chỉnh: Phải + Căn cách: 3.7 cm + Tab sau đó: 6.24 cm + Th lề: 6.24 cm, Dừng tab: Không có tạ 6.24 cm I. References II. Discourses 1 A. Introduction Đã định dạng: Ở tâm Đã định dạng: Không Đầu trang kh với trang đầu tiên The complex sentence is an important part of English grammar, not only for its popular application but also for its complicated structures. Among knowledge involved in the complex sentence, there are nominal clauses, adverbial clauses, direct and indirect speech. This report looks into these matters by including two main sections. The first section focuses on literature reviews for the definition and usage of nominal clauses, adverbial clauses, direct and indirect speech. The other section deals with practical applications of these theories in finance- an aspect of business. This section contrasts the use of nominal clauses and adverbial clauses, direct and indirect speech in the financial theme by analyzing five financial articles to help you thoroughly understand the theory. Moreover, the report is carried out by some useful research methods such as getting theories from orthodox English grammar books and collecting additional examples from international e-newspapers in the Internet. We do hope that the report will provide readers useful information and practically assist readers in studying and using English. Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn 2 Đã định dạng: Ở tâm B. Development I. Literature review NOMINAL CLAUSES 1.Definition A nominal clause is a subordinate clause that functions as a noun Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn phrase. For example: “What we are talking about today is the complex sentence.” “Do you know whether this shirt costs much or not?” In the above example, what we are talking about today and whether this Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn shirt costs much or not are nominal clauses and they function as noun phrases. In details, what we are talking about today functions as a subject and whether this shirt costs much or not functions as a direct object. 2. Classification According to syntax, nominal clauses can be divided into two main types: finite nominal clauses and non-finite nominal clauses. For the finite nominal clauses, there are four subtypes: that-clause, wh-interrogative clause, yes-no interrogative clause and nominal relative clause. For the non-finite nominal clauses, there are three subtypes: to- infinitive nominal clause, V_ing nominal Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn clause and bare- infinitive nominal clause. 2.1. Finite nominal clauses a. That- clause That- clause is made by the conjunction “that” and a clause. For example, “English is that this course improves.” When the clause performs function of object or complement, or when the clause is brief and uncomplicated, the conjunction “that” can be omitted. In this case, we call it the zero that- clause. For example: I told him (that) he was wrong. Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn 3 However, when the clause is subject, that can not be omitted and is usually expanded to the fact that, except in very formal English. (The fact) that she got mark ten surprised everybody. Also, when the complex sentence is loaded with adverbials and modifications, that is obligated to appear. Mrs Thuy told us, to our regret, that we must take the final exam. In the above, to our regret is an adverbial, and the omission of that will make the sentence unclear. b. Wh- interrogative clause Wh-interrogative clauses resemble wh-question in that they leave a gap of unknown information, represented by the wh-element. For example: We are curious about who will win the miss NEU this year. In the example , who will win the miss NEU this year is a wh- interrogative clause. It concludes the wh- word who, and the whole clause functions as a prepositional complement. An infinitive wh-clause can be formed with all wh-words except why. For example, the sentence “I don‟t know how one must pronounce this word” can be rewritten as “I don‟t know how to pronounce this word.” However, we can not rewrite the sentence “The small child wonders why he ought to brush his teeth before going to bed” as “The small child wonders why to brush his teeth before going to bed”. c. Yes-no interrogative clause The dependent yes-no interrogative clause is formed with if or whether. I don‟t know if/ whether they accept my application. The dependent alternative question has if/ whether ...or: He doesn‟t care whether she loves him or not. I am not sure if it will rain or be sunny. A clause beginning with whether cannot be made negative, except as the second part of an alternative question. For example, we can say “She asked me if Đã định dạng: Ở tâm 4 class grammar 1 doesn‟t have many boys” but we can not say “She asked me whether class grammar 1 doesn‟t have many boys”. However, we can make it more reasonable by changing it into “She asked me whether class grammar 1 has many boys or (whether it does) not”. One more note is that if can not introduce a subject clause. For example, it is untrue to say “if it is expensive or not doesn‟t concern me” because it is expensive or not functions as a subject here. We can use whether instead. d. Nominal relative clause The nominal relative clause is also introduced by a wh-element like whinterrogative clause. However, in fact, the nominal relative clause is much closer to noun phrase status than other nominal clauses are. It can normally be paraphrased by a noun phrase containing a nominal element & a post modifying relative clause. For example: We remember when we first came here. Whoever told you that was not telling the truth. Definitely, the nominal relative clause when we first came here can be paraphrased as the noun phrase the time when we first came here including the nominal element the time and the post modifying relative clause when we first came here. Likewise, in the second example, whoever told you that can also be paraphrased as anyone who told you that. There is a difference between UNIVERSAL and DEFINITE meaning as expressed by the wh-form of a relative clause: universal meaning is made by whword +ever (whoever ,whatever, whenever.....), definite meaning is made by whword(who ,what, when..). Coming back to the two example above, the first is paraphrased in universal term (the time) while the second is paraphrased in definite term (anyone). 2.2. Non- finite nominal clauses a. To- infinitive nominal clause Đã định dạng: Ở tâm 5 For the neighbors to sell their house would be a mistake. Ly‟s dream is to be fatter. In the examples, both for the neighbors to sell their house and to be fatter are toinfinitive clauses that perform the function of noun phrases. The subject of a to-infinitive clause is normally preceded by for (which is perhaps acting here more as a conjunction than as a preposition). For example, “The plan is for us to finish this term next week”. However, when the clause is a direct object, the for is omitted like in “Everyone wants me to talk louder”. b. V_ing nominal clause (also participle clause) The commonest type of participle clause is the participle clauses without subject. Thu is responsible for checking our participation. In the other case, when the participle clause requires a subject ,we use genitive case in formal style or objective case in informal style. For examples: Bau‟s friends are surprised at his changing to new hair style. or Bau‟s friends are surprised at him changing to new hair style. However, the genitive is particularly unsuitable when the subject is an inanimate or abstract noun phrase or a „group‟ genitive phrase. For instance, the sentence “She is upset about her marriage‟s ending in a divorce” is not suitable because her marriage is an abstract noun phrase. Another note is that a pronoun in the objective case shouldn‟t be used in subject position. For example, it is very informal to say “Him singing in the shower is an interesting hobby”. c. Bare- infinitive nominal clause When the to of the infinitive is omitted, it is called bare- infinitive. The bare- infinitive nominal clause is used when the infinitive clause supplies a predication corresponding to an use of the proverb do. For example, “The thing parents often do in Tet holiday is (to) buy their children new clothes”. Besides, Đã định dạng: Ở tâm Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn 6 Đã định dạng: Ở tâm another situation in which we use bare- infinitive is that when the infinitive clause is initial. 3. Function According to syntax, nominal clauses can be used in 8 functions: subject (S), direct object (Od), subject complement (Cs), appositive (App), prepositional complement (Cprep), object complement (Co), adjectival complement (Cadj) and indirect object (Oi). However, not all the types of nominal clauses can perform all these functions. In fact, there are some major functions that all types can perform and some minor functions that are restricted to a certain type only. 3.1. Subject (major function) Nominal clauses firstly function as grammatical subjects which perform the action of or act upon the verb. For example, “That „Thi No‟ gave „Chi Pheo‟ a bowl of rice gruel with onions made him fall in love with her”. Easily to see, all the that- clause functions as the subject that performs the action of making him fall in love with her. 3.2. Direct object (major function) Nominal clauses secondly function as direct objects that follow and receive the action of transitive verbs. For example, “Some teachers had been wondering if they chose the right career”. 3.3. Subject complement ( major function) A nominal clause can also perform the function of subject complement in which it follows copular verbs and describes the grammatical subject. For example, “The thief will be whoever has blue ink on their hands”. Here the Wh- interrogative nominal clause functions as the subject complement of the thief. Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn 7 Đã định dạng: Ở tâm 3.4. Appositive (major function) All types of nominal clause can also functions as an apposition means that they identify some subjects. For example, “Her dream, to be a famous singer, Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn was never fulfilled”. In this example, the to- infinitive clause to be a famous singer identifies the subject her dream and makes it clearer. 3.5. Prepositional complement (minor function) Some types of nominal clauses like wh- interrogative, yes-no interrogative , nominal relative, V_ing clauses can perform the function of prepositional complement when directly following a preposition and completing the meaning Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn of a prepositional phrase. For instance, “The students are thinking about what they just learned in class”. Here the prepositional phrase thinking about is modified by the italic wh- interrogative clause. 3.6. Object complement (minor function) Nominal relative clause is the sole type can perform as an object complement when directly follows and describe the direct object. In the sentence “You may call me whatever names you like”, the nominal relative clause describes the direct object me. 3.7. Adjectival complement (minor function) Almost all types of nominal clause, except for nominal relative clause, can function as adjectival complements that complete the meaning of adjectives. For example, “I am glad to welcome you to my house” includes the to- infinitive nominal clause that completes the meaning of the adjective glad. 3.8. Indirect object (minor function) Only the nominal relative clause can perform as an indirect object or meanwhile, it can indicate to or for whom or what the action of a intransitive verb is performed. We can see this function in the example “Have you given how you want to decorate your new room any thought?” Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn Đã định dạng: Ở tâm 8 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES 1. Definition: Adverbial clauses is a dependent clauses which function as adverb phrases Đã định dạng: Thụt lề: Trái: 0 cm, Treo: 0.32 cm, Đánh số + Mức: 1 + Kiểu Đánh số: 1, 2, 3, … + Bắt đầu t 1 + Căn chỉnh: Phải + Căn cách: 0 c + Thụt lề: 0.63 cm indicating time, place, condition, time, and purpose. They appear in positions typical of adverb phrases (initial, medial, and final). ( the definition in Language, grammar, and communication course book ). 2. Classification: According to structural classification, adverbial clauses can be divided into Đã định dạng: Thụt lề: Trái: 0 cm, Treo: 0.32 cm, Đánh số + Mức: 1 + Kiểu Đánh số: 1, 2, 3, … + Bắt đầu t 1 + Căn chỉnh: Phải + Căn cách: 0 c + Thụt lề: 0.63 cm three types. 2.1. The first type is finite adverbial clauses. In terms of meaning (or semantic classification of these), there exists eleven types namely: 1. Clauses of time. 2. Clauses of place. 3. Clauses of condition. 4. Clauses of concession. 5. Conditional consessive clauses 6. Clauses of reason or cause. 7. Clauses of circumstance. 8. Clauses of manner 9. Clauses of comparison. 10. Clauses of result. 11. Clauses of proportion and preference. Now we go to the big more detail: Subclassification Surbodinators and Examples joining words Clause of time After, before, since, When I last saw until, when, while, as Chung, she looked soon/long as, whenever more beautiful than Đã định dạng Đã định dạng: Ở tâm 9 Clauses of place and so on now. Where / wherever Where I am study Grammar lesson I see many intelligent students. Clauses of condition If(positive condition), a) Real condition: ( state the dependence of unless(negative leaves unsolved one circumstance or set of condition), on the question of circumstances on other) condition that, the fulfilment or provided (providing) non fulfilment of that, as long as, so long the condition, as and so the truth of the proposition expressed by the main clause. If I am rich, I will buy a Mescedes car.  Unless clause often lays stress on the escluded positive option. Unless the weather is wonderful, I will not go to school. b) Unreal condition: is clearly expected Đã định dạng Đã định dạng: Ở tâm 10 that the condition will not be fulfilled. If I were 6 years old, I would receive a lot of money. (unreal in present). If we had not passed the examination, we would not have sit here now. (unreal in the past).  Unless clauses are not usually unreal condition  If only is to express a wish: If only I were beautiful, I became a Miss World. Clauses of concession. Although, though, even Although I am not ( show contrast between if, even though, while, intelligent, I am two circumstances) whereas hardworking. Conditional and concessive Whether...or, clauses wherever, whatever, conditional whoever, no matter concessive how clause: a) Alternative Đã định dạng: Ở tâm 11 Whether we satisfy Ms.Thuy or not, we will feel pleased. b) Universal conditional concessive clause: No matter how hard I try, I can not be as high as Hang. Clauses of reason or cause As, because, since Hang is very proud because she is very high. Clauses of circumstance Because, since, now Seeing that students that, seeing, that are so sleepy, I need talk more attractively. Clauses of manner (Exactly) as, just as Please pay attention as our presentation is very interesting. Clauses of comparison As if, as though He treats me as if he had never met me again. Clauses of result So that, in order that I stand here so that every students can see me clearly. Clause of proportion and As...so, the more/the The more careful I preference. less... the more/ the prepare, the more ( show the equivalence or less confident I feel. Đã định dạng 12 degree between two circumstance) 2.2. Non-finite adverbial clauses a. To-infinitive clauses: often introduced by (in order) to, so as to. infinitives thus used often function as A purpose: I come early to prepare for our presentation. Sometimes, to infinitive can act as A result: This topic is too difficult to understand. b. V-ing participle clauses: -ing participle clauses are very common with subordinator such as while, without, when, etc. in the following: A time: some students take notes when listening to our presentation. A circumstance: the asmosphere having improved, I feel better. A manner: she entered the room without greeting anyone inside. A reason: being a student, I have to go to school on time. A preference: rather than talking so much, I preferred to sing a song. A condition and concession: whether singing or not, I am still pleased. c. V-ed participle clauses: A time: once promised, I never forget. A place: wherever possible, such facts have been reported A condition: these books will cause great harms to young students unless forbidden. d. Bare infinitive clauses A preference: rather than read books, you should listen to our presentation. 2.3. Verbless adverbial clauses: They include: a. Adjectival contingent clauses (without or with subordinator): Đã định dạng: Ở tâm 13 Đã định dạng: Ở tâm A circumstance: I went home dead tired. A reason: Chung, surprising at her mark, shouting loudly A concession: though very poor, I am extremely generous A condition: if necessary, I will sing a song. A time: when rich, I will travel all over the world. b. Other clauses: often with subordinator When in Rome, do as Rome does. While in London, he enjoyed himself greatly. These verbless clauses are often considered as reduced finite clauses with ellipted subject and verb. Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn 14 Đã định dạng: Ở tâm DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH 1. Definition Direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech) says exactly what someone Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn has said. Especially, in our writing, what a person says appears within quotation marks ("...") and should be word for word. For example: Ly said: “ Today‟s lesson is about the complex sentence”. Or it can be written: “ Today‟s lesson is about the complex sentence” She said. In the example above, “Today‟s lesson is about the complex sentence” is direct speech because it is appeared within quoted mark and it says exactly what Ly has said. Indirect speech (also referred to as 'reported speech') refers to a sentence reporting what someone has said. It is almost always used in spoken English. For example: Lan said that that day‟s lesson was about the complex sentence. As you can see, the clause after “That” is indirect speech because it is reported what Lan has said. Therefore, the tense has been changed to be suitable with the moment of speaking. In detail, in this context, the moment of seaking is in the past, so the tense must be changed from the present tense is to past tense was. 2. Methods of changing from Direct to Indirect speech There are three main steps of changing from direct to indirect speech: Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn Change of the verb forms, Change pronouns and pointer word, Clause status. a. Change the verb forms: When the reporting verb is in the present tense, there is not any change in the suborndinate clause in Indirect speech as compared to the independent clause in Direct speech in terms of tense and aspects form. You can see it clearly in those examples: The first example: He says “ my mother is cooking dinner” He says his mother is cooking dinner. Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn 15 Đã định dạng: Ở tâm The second example: He says “ I drew this picture in the night” He says he drew that picture in the night. When the reporting verb is in the past tense (asked/ thought/ wonder…), reporting speech the tense usually changes. This is because when we use reported speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too. As a rule when you report something someone has said you go back a Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn tense, called back-shift (the tense on the left changes to the tense on the right): Đã định dạng present simple past simple I'm a teacher. He said he was a teacher Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn past continuous. Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn present continuous I'm having lunch with my parents. present perfect simple I've been to France three times. present perfect continuous I've been working very hard. past simple I bought a new car. past continuous It was raining earlier. Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn He said he was having lunch with his parents. past perfect simple Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn He said he had been to France three times. past perfect continuous Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn He said he had been working very hard. past perfect Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn He said he had bought a new car. past perfect continuous Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn He said it had been raining earlier. 16 Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn past perfect past perfect The play had started when I Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn NO CHANGE POSSIBLE arrived. Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn past perfect continuous I'd already been living in London for five years. Đã định dạng: Ở tâm past perfect continuous Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn NO CHANGE POSSIBLE Note: The tenses will not change if the statement is still relevant or if it is a Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn universal truth. We can often choose whether to keep the original tenses or change them. For example: The teacher said: “ The earth goes around the sun” The teacher said that the earth goes around the sun. Other verb forms also sometimes change: will I'll come and see you soon. would Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn He said he would come and see me soon. can could I can swim under water for He said he could swim under water two minutes. for two minutes. must had to Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn All tickets must be bought in He said that all tickets had to be advance. bought in advance. shall should What shall we do about it? He asked what we should do about it. may might May I smoke? He asked if he might smoke. Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn 17 Đã định dạng: Ở tâm You should remember that there is no change to: could, would, should, might and ought to. b. Change pronouns and pointer word: Đã định dạng: Màu phông: Tự độn Pronoun in indirect speech should be changed in accordance with the relationship between them and those of the reporting clause subject. For example: He said, “ I do not believe you” He said to me that he didn‟t believe me. “We didn‟t agree with his decision” She said to him She told him that they didn‟t agree with his decision. Adverbial of time and place and determiners should also change as follow: now then today that day here there this that this week that week the following day tomorrow the next day the day after the following week next week the next week the week after yesterday last week the previous day the day before the previous week the week before Đã định dạng
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