The State with promotion of internal and external forces in international integration in Vietnam currently

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HO CHI MINH NATIONAL POLITICAL ACADEMY NGUYEN KIM PHUONG THE STATE WITH PROMOTION OF INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL FORCES IN INTERNATIONAL INTEGRATION IN VIETNAM CURRENTLY Major: Dialectical materialism & Historical materialism Code: 62 22 80 05 SUMMARY PHD THESIS IN PHILOSOPHY Scientific instructor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tran Thanh HA NOI - 2014 The work was completed at Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics Supervisor: A.Prof.Dr. Tran Thanh Reviewer 1:…………………………………………………………………………. Reviewer 2:…………………………………………………………………………. Reviewer 3:…………………………………………………………………………. The PhD thesis will be defensed in front of a jury and marked by at Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics At…: On ..... ...... ...... 2014 The PhD thesis is available in National Library and the Library of Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics 1 FOREWORD 1. Necessity of the subject Stepping into the 21st century, the world has had rapid, profound and complex changes with great opportunities and challenges towards each country, especially poor and underdeveloped countries. Although the world may have many complicated changes with intermingled cooperation and struggle, the trend of peace, stability and cooperation for continuous development is the main trend in the world governing international relationships as well as development strategy of each country. International integration to expand international cooperative activity in all fields of life has been being the prominent trend of the age. Any nation wanting to build its country and develop its socio-economy must essentially participate in that trend. In that context, Vietnam must integrate internationally and take advantage of every opportunity to develop. To actively integrate into the world, assure rapid and sustainable development, Vietnam must actively and positively promote and use all resources efficiently including both internal and external forces to develop the socioeconomy, help the country to advance firmly on the way of socialism. Promoting internal forces and external forces helps us expand international exchange and cooperation, acquiring human civilized achievements, promoting all comparative advantages of the nation, shortening the process of industrialization and modernization to develop. Promoting internal forces and external forces becomes the essential requirement and urgent demand for Vietnam in the trend of integration for development of the country currently. Instrument of the 11 th National Delegate Congress of the Party specified: “Promoting internal forces and national strength is the decisive factor and taking advantage of external forces and strength of the age is the important factor for rapid and sustainable development and construction of an independent and self-control economy”. Under leadership of the Party, in recent years, the State has been continuously perfecting policies, laws, creating favourable environment to promote internal forces, preserve political - social stability, national security, develop the economy, and also actively attract many external forces and exploit and use resources more effectively in development taking the country step by step integrate deeply and widely into the world. That achievement shows the great role of the state towards promoting internal forces and external forces for socioeconomic development in our country. However, in managing and operating to promote internal and external forces, roles of the State sometimes are not expressed properly and sufficiently due to diversified and complicated governance of international integration, especially limitations of the State itself such as: unwieldy apparatus, slow adaptation to variations of the world; macro-regulatory and managerial qualification of the State not meeting the requirements of promoting internal and external forces; incomprehensive system of laws and policies; slow innovation in activity of 2 officials; confusion and lack of activeness in organizing and implementing to promote internal forces and external forces, etc. Those limitations of the State place the promotion of internal and external forces in front of many difficulties and challenges without expected efficiency. Particularly: The promotion of internal forces is still under the development ability of the country. The attraction of external forces is more positive but not really active. The exploitation and use of both internal and external forces for socio-economic development of the country is not reasonable and corresponding to potentials and does not promote completely its roles in fostering active international integration in our country. Besides, the promotion of internal and external forces has not really brought about sustainable development for the country. Vietnam economy develops dynamically with good growth rate but the economic efficiency lacks of sustainability, “competitive quality, efficiency and strength is low; structural transition in direction of industrialization and modernization is slow; macrobalance is not firm; distribution regime remains much unreasonableness”. The unreasonable exploitation and use of internal and external forces leads to exhaustion of many natural resources, damage of ecological environment, change of disease model, influence on quality of human resources, etc. On the other hand, the promotion of internal and external forces in the context of international integration with many complicated variations currently places many difficulties and challenges towards the development of the country. The strong impact of external forces from many sides may narrow impact scope of the State causing insecurity to the national economic, financial and security system; making social unfairness become serious; increasing the gap between the rich and the poor among countries in the world; many sources of aid and technological transfer cooperation with political motivation may lead to the risk of incorrect direction; etc. The global economic crisis places all countries with medium and underdeveloped economy in front of the risk of having damage and crisis in resources for development due to the loss and reduction of aid sources and foreign loan, etc. That situation affects greatly the managerial and operational roles of the State towards development resources of the country, places the country in front of new requirements and tasks. These above limitations and challenges are urgent issues which have been becoming a preventive force for the sustainable development of the country requiring to strengthen macro balancing, regulatory and managerial activities in exploiting and using both internal and external forces reasonably. That real state gives out an urgent requirement to renovate, complete, strengthen roles of the State for maximizing positive impacts and minimizing negative impacts in promoting internal and external forces in order to achieve the target of rapid and sustainable development, assure social fairness and also avoid the reduction of the State’s roles and the risk of incorrect direction in the international integration currently. 3 With desire of contributing to clarify some theoretical and practical issues regarding roles of the State for promoting internal forces and external forces in international integration for the rapid and sustainable development, I select the subject: “The State with promotion of internal forces and external forces in international integration in Vietnam currently” as the subject for my Doctoral dissertation of Philosophy. 2. Research purposes and tasks of the dissertation 2.1. Purposes On the basis of clarifying roles of the State, real situation and given issues towards roles of the State in promoting internal and external forces in internal integration, the dissertation proposes some viewpoints and solutions in order to enhance roles of the State for promotion of internal and external forces assuring sustainable national development in the current context of international integration in our country. 2.2. Tasks The dissertation focuses on solving main tasks below: - Clarifying the necessity of promoting internal and external forces in international integration and roles of the State for that promotion in Vietnam currently. - Evaluating real situation, analyzing some given issues towards roles of the State in promoting internal and external forces in international integration in Vietnam currently. - Proposing some basic viewpoints and solutions for enhancing roles of the State for promotion of internal and external forces assuring sustainable national development in the context of international integration in Vietnam currently. 3. Research object and scope of the dissertation Research object: Roles of the State in promoting internal and external forces in international integration in Vietnam currently. Research scope: The dissertation focuses on researching roles of the State in promoting internal and external forces in the context of international integration. 4. Research methodology The dissertation bases on principles of methodology in dialectical materialism and historical materialism such as objective, comprehensive, developed, historical - particular, practical, logical - historical principles, etc. The dissertation also combines different methods such as analysis and synthesis, inductive method and deductive method, statistics, description, comparativeness, etc. 5. New contributions of the dissertation - The dissertation clarifies under philosophical viewpoint roles of the State in promoting internal and external forces in international integration in Vietnam currently. - Evaluating the real situation and proposing some viewpoints and solutions in order to enhance roles of the State towards the promotion of internal and external forces in the context of international integration in our country currently. 4 6. Theoretical and practical significance of the dissertation 6.1. Theoretical significance The dissertation at the first step clarifies theoretically roles of the State towards the promotion of internal and external forces in international integration in our country currently. The dissertation contributes to practical summary through clarifying the real situation and given issues towards roles of the State in promoting internal and external forces in international integration in our country currently. From that point, this work proposes basic and practical viewpoints and solutions in order to enhance roles of the State towards the promotion of internal and external forces in international integration in our country currently. 6.2. Practical significance Research results of the dissertation may be used as reference for study, theoretical research, teaching activities at universities, academies, etc. 7. Structure of the dissertation In addition to the foreword, Conclusion, list of references, the dissertation is presented in 4 chapters, 10 sections. Chapter 1 OVERALL SITUATION OF RESEARCHES RELATED TO THE SUBJECT 1.1. Research works related to internal forces, external forces and their roles in the country’s development In the world, long time ago, many scholars did thorough research in internal and external forces and overall resources for development of countries. Adam Smith points that main resources of the society in his living period are capital, manpower and land. David Ricardo considers comparative advantage as prosperous origin of foreign trade and the reason promoting economic growth and social development. Karl Marx points out resources for development of the capitalism such as value of commodity, manpower, capital, technical science, etc. In which, he emphasizes and affirms the value of human resources; human is the subject creating development history of humankind. Nowadays, modern economists analyze resources based on their contributions to the economic development including input material factors (capital, machine, equipment, materials, natural resources, manpower, etc.) and some other factors (organization, policy, administration, technology, technological know-how),etc. In Vietnam, there are many research works related to resources such as: Ministry of Science and Technology, subject KX.04.08/06-10, Resources and motivation for rapid and sustainable development of Vietnam economy in period 2011 - 2020; Prof. PhS. Le Du Phong, editor (2006), Resources and motivation of 5 development in socialism-oriented market economy in Vietnam, Political Theory Publishing House; Ho Ba Tham (2004), Motivation and creation of motivation for social development, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi; Hoang Ngoc Hoa (2005), “Our Party’s awareness of promoting internal forces, taking advantage of external forces, developing a self-control economy and actively integrating into international economy”, Looking back to the renovation of the Party’s theoretical thinking in period 1986 - 2005, Political Theory Publishing House, etc. These above mentioned research works provided some basic theories and scientific backgrounds drawn from the reality about the necessity of promoting internal forces and external forces towards the socio-economic development of the country through periods. That is the suggestion for the author of this dissertation to research and study deeply. 1.2. Research works related to roles of the State and solutions for enhancing roles of the State in promoting internal and external forces in international integration in our country currently In ideological history of humankind, there are many scholars and researchers focusing on natures, functions and roles of the State towards development such as: A. Smith, J.M Keynes, Samuelson, Karl Marx, Engels, Lenin, etc. Nowadays, under the impact of globalization and international integration, all resources move freely in global scope out of control of a State, a nation. Scientists continue mention many different viewpoints about roles of the State towards development. Regarding to this subject, there are some typical research works such as: article “Economic globalization and functions of the State” by Professor Lei Da, Magazine for Social and Political Issues, Ho Chi Minh National Political Academy; article “Process of globalization and the State: the new in economic adjustment in developed countries” by Osadchaja I, Magazine for Social Issues, Ho Chi Minh National Political Academy; the book “Market regime and roles of the State in Vietnam economy” by Prof. Dr. Luong Xuan Quy, Statistics Publishing House, Hanoi, 1994, etc. Besides, authors also research deeply solutions for enhancing roles of the State in promoting internal and external forces in the context of international integration currently which are presented in each field of the social life. Typical works are: Article “Promoting internal forces, building an independent and self-control Vietnam economy and expanding international cooperation” by Assoc. Prof. Dr. Vu Van Phuc, Economy and Forecast Magazine, issue no. 9 in 2005; the book “Impact of the State in order to transit economic structure in the direction of industrialization, modernization in our country currently” by Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nguyen Cuc - editor, National Political Publishing House, 1997; Doctoral dissertation of Philosophy “Role in socialism-orientation of the State towards the development of Vietnam economy currently” by Le Thi Hong, Hanoi, 2001; Doctoral dissertation of Philosophy “Roles of the State in building an independent 6 and self-control Vietnam economy in the current international integration” by Tran Thi Thu Huong, Hanoi, 2011, etc. From research works in the country and in the world, it can be realized that the number of research works regarding “roles of the State” is rich and plentiful. Those research works are valuable materials and scientific background for this postgraduate to acquire and research, develop in the research scope of this dissertation. 1.3. Values of researched works and some orientations to be carried out by the dissertation From overall situation of research, it can be seen that these above mentioned research works have scientific contributions with both theoretical and practical value in researching the promotion of internal and external forces for the development and the enhancement of roles of the State in promoting internal and external forces to build and develop the country in international integration currently. Those contributions are expressed on some following basic aspects: Firstly, it clarifies basic theories about globalization and international integration, impacts of this process on roles of the State in particular and development of each country including Vietnam. Secondly, it step by step clarifies concept of resources, internal forces, external forces and their roles in construction and development of each country. Thirdly, it clarifies the necessity of promoting internal and external forces for development in international integration in Vietnam and also evaluates the real situation of exploiting and using those resources and proposes orientations, solutions for using resources efficiently. Fourthly, it clarifies roles of the State, evaluates the real situation and proposes solutions for enhancing roles of the State in socio-economic development and points out impacts of the State on each resource, each aspect, each field of the life. Almost research works point out limitations of the State such as: quality of legal documents, inefficient apparatus, insufficient and poor personnel, etc.; from that point, it proposes solutions to overcome in many aspects from different research viewpoints. With those contributions, research works mentioned above provided basic theoretical foundations and scientific evidences from the reality regarding promotion of internal and external forces, enhancement of roles of the State in promoting resources for development. However, it can be realized that up to now, there has not been any work researching roles of the State in promoting internal and external forces in current international integration in Vietnam systematically under philosophical viewpoint. That urges the author of the dissertation to study and research deeply this matter. On the basis of selective inheritance and addition of research results mentioned above, the dissertation will clarify some more contents: - Clarifying opinion on internal forces, external forces, resources for development of the country in integration period and scientific grounds regarding 7 roles of the State in promoting internal and external forces in international integration in Vietnam currently. - Analyzing the real situation and given issues towards the State in promoting internal and external forces in international integration currently. - Proposing some viewpoints and solutions in order to foster roles of the State for promotion of internal and external forces in current international integration. Chapter 2 NECESSITY AND ROLES OF THE STATE IN PROMOTING INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL FORCES IN INTERNATIONAL INTEGRATION IN VIETNAM CURRENTLY 2.1. Internal forces, external forces and dialectical relationship between internal forces and external forces in international integration in Vietnam 2.1.1. Opinion on internal forces and external forces Based on opinions of some researchers in the past, the dissertation gives out the concept of internal forces and external forces as follows: * Internal forces: Internal forces of our country are the entire internal material and spiritual strength of the nation including core contents such as: strength of the economy, politics, culture - society; strength of manpower in Vietnam; science and technology, natural resources, leadership of the Party and management of the State, etc. To aware properly internal forces, it is needed to agree on some viewpoints below: Firstly, internal force is a wide concept with continuous movement and variation. In fact, many factors have ever been defined as national internal forces, evenly important internal forces but undergoing development, they no longer keep that role and vice versa. Many factors are defined as internal forces in this condition but environment, factor affecting the promotion and internal and external forces in other conditions. Political, economic, cultural and social factors are both considered as national internal forces and environment, condition to promote other internal forces such as technological science and human resources, etc. Secondly, internal forces depend on awareness level of human, especially technological and scientific development level. With increasingly enhanced awareness level, especially technological science level, people have researched and discovered new natural resources to use and also create new materials, new energy to substitute exhaust natural resources. That is the background, condition for each country to research and make the national internal forces become richer and richer. Thirdly, internal forces depend on development requirements of each country. Each country has different development conditions and orientations, accordingly, concept of internal forces is defined with different contents. 8 Therefore, “internal force” is a wide concept which always moves and changes depending on awareness level and development requirements of each country so it is impossible to have a common concept of internal forces for all countries in all circumstances. In the scope of this work, the dissertation has no condition to research and evaluate the entire national internal forces but focuses on clarifying roles of the State in creating conditions, regime, policies, environment for promotion of internal forces through surveying, analysing some internal forces mainly constituting production force in which the first and most important forces are manpower, science - technology resource and capital that we have. These are the most important factors of internal forces currently so that we can develop the country in depth. Political, economic, cultural, social factors, etc. are considered by the dissertation as environment, condition to promote resources. * External forces: External forces are overall external material and spiritual strength of the nation including factors such as capital, technical science, technology, managerial level and skills, etc. Similar to concept of internal forces, concept of external forces is a wide concept which always moves and changes following awareness level, opinion, development requirement and orientation of each country. Under different research viewpoints, in different historical - particular contexts, each scientist may mention different concepts of external forces. Therefore, we cannot have a common concept of external forces for all circumstances, all countries but we must be aware of external forces in movement, development, particular circumstance, and in the relationship with internal forces and other resources. Within scope of the dissertation, this work has no condition to research, evaluate roles and impacts of each external force on development of the country but focuses on clarifying roles of the State in promoting, exploiting, using external forces to build and develop our country currently. * Promotion of internal and external forces With opinion on internal forces and external forces as mentioned above, it is possible to generalize the opinion on “promotion of internal forces”, “promotion of external forces”, “promotion of internal and external forces” as follows: Promotion of internal forces is creating favourable conditions to mobilize, exploit, use and develop resources inside the country in order to build and develop the country. Promotion of external forces is creating favourable conditions to attract, exploit, use and develop external resources of the country to support the construction and development of the country. Promotion of internal and external forces is creating favourable conditions to exploit efficiently material and spiritual values of countries all over the world in connection with strength of material and spiritual conditions inside the country to create a general strength for development. 9 The given issue is that promoting internal forces and external forces must assure rapid growth in parallel with sustainable development; this means that rapid growth must connect to maintenance and creation of prerequisites and resources for long-term development of the country. This depends much on roles of the State in regulating, exploiting and using reasonably internal and external forces for development. Therefore, the dissertation will focus on researching roles of the State in creating environment, condition, regime, policy so that internal and external forces can be promoted in the most efficient way assuring rapid and sustainable development. 2.1.2. Dialectical relationship between internal forces and external forces Everything, every phenomenon is governed by internal and external relationships of that thing or phenomenon. Internal relationships play a decisive role in the development of the phenomenon while external relationships play a role of impact which is either promoting or limiting the development of the phenomenon. The development in our country currently is profoundly impacted by internal forces - internal resources of the nation and external forces - external resources of the nation. Internal forces and external forces have a profound dialectical relationship in which internal force is the decisive factor towards external forces and development of the country, while external force plays an important role impacting internal forces; external forces are only efficient through internal forces; it may promote or limit internal forces. Considering roles of internal forces and external forces in development, our Party specifies: “Promoting internal forces and national strength is the decisive factor and taking advantage of external forces and strength of the age is the important factor for rapid and sustainable development and construction of an independent and self-control economy”. In the relationship between internal forces and external forces, internal force is always the decisive factor towards external forces and development of the nation. The movement and development of components constituting internal forces and their mutual impact bring about the movement and development of overall internal forces, promote and decide on the development of the country. Internal forces are decisive towards external forces at the point that the movement and development of internal forces place an objective requirement on attracting external forces at different levels: which main external forces to attract, how the scale and speed of attraction is, etc. In fact, each country bases on its own internal forces and development level of internal forces to establish plan, strategy of attracting necessary external forces for development. In the relationship with internal forces, external forces play an important role in contributing to the development of each country. External forces may impact, assist, supplement and develop internal forces but it may also limit, hold back internal forces and negatively impact the development of the country. 10 External forces are valuable resources; if they are exploited and used reasonably, they will support internal forces creating conditions to mobilize and use domestic resources efficiently and promote the formation of reasonable economic structure in the direction of industrialization and modernization; complete economic growth targets, develop comprehensively cultural and social aspects, orient to the target of rapid and sustainable development. External forces with the nature of resources outside the nation can only uphold their roles towards development of that nation through internal forces. External forces cannot be promoted without using internal forces, external forces cannot promote development of the country if they are not turned into internal forces. Abundant capital sources of powerful countries have no significance towards development of the country if we do not know how to mobilize, exploit and use reasonably. Notwithstanding how advanced the world science and technology are, if we do not have sufficient qualified human resources to acquire and apply, it cannot contribute to the development of the country, etc. However, not all external forces enrich internal forces; there are external forces having potential of weakening internal forces; external forces with conspiracy of opposing, destroying our country, governing the economy, exploiting natural resources exhaustedly, destroying the environment, etc. Currently, the context of international integration creates conditions so that countries have more and more profound mutual influence and dependence. That is an objective prerequisite for the closer and closer dialectical relationship between internal forces and external forces. In international integration, each change of external forces may affect internal forces and vice versa; each development step of internal forces will increase the capacity of exploiting and using external forces efficiently. The strong transition in capital, science and technology, human resource, natural resources, etc. among countries in integration condition makes internal forces and external forces penetrate and transform each other easily that may promote or limit the development. That places a requirement of having policies and measures to promote internal and external forces and limit negative impacts of the integration process towards the development. 2.2. Necessity of promoting internal forces and external forces in international integration in Vietnam currently Promoting internal forces and external forces is one of the important lessons in the development which is summarized and affirmed by our Party many times. That is an objective requirement, decisive factor wards the success of Vietnam in building the country and in active and positive international integration currently. Firstly, promoting internal forces and external forces in international integration is to inherit the lesson of “combining strength of the nation and strength of the age” Secondly, promoting internal forces and external forces is the essential requirement of international integration 11 Thirdly, promoting internal forces and external forces helps Vietnam take advantage of opportunity, overcome challenges in integration period to develop 2.3. Main expressions of roles of the State in promoting internal forces and external forces in international integration in Vietnam currently 2.3.1. The State creates environment and condition to promote internal and external forces A stable and developed economic, political, cultural - social environment is the prerequisite for all resources inside the country to be promoted and also creates attraction of domestic environment for international investment and cooperation to lure external forces. Therefore, building a stable and developed economic, political, cultural - social environment becomes requirement, content, task of the state in promoting internal and external forces. Firstly, the State keeps politics and national security stable to create prerequisite for all resources of the country to develop. Secondly, the State promotes domestic economic strength in conformity with development trend of the international economy. Thirdly, the State develops culture, society creating healthy and advanced environment to promote internal forces. Fourthly, the State establishes legal corridor, renovates administration creating clear and transparent environment to promote all resources. 2.3.2. The State establishes and expands international relationship to actively attract external forces Beside promotion of internal forces, creation of attractive investment environment, the State also plays an important role in establishing and expanding international relationship to actively attract external forces by many policies and measures such as: positively popularizing national internal forces, actively negotiating, signing bilateral and multilateral agreements, implementing international commitments, forming prestige and position of Vietnam in international scope. That role is particularly expressed as follows: Firstly, the State carries out the task of information - foreign affairs to positively informing, popularizing the attractive environment created from internal forces. Secondly, the State carries out international commitments, positively attracts external forces Thirdly, the State gives out policies, measures to promote Vietnamese human resources in foreign countries under many forms and measures such as: raising development funds, appealing, mobilizing compatriots in foreign countries to invest in construction of the home country, etc. 2.3.3. The State exploits and uses the internal and external forces for building and developing the country The exploitation and use of the internal and external forces are significantly meaningful for the country development, it does help us not only to get rapid 12 growth, but only to preserve resources for sustainable development. The State's roles in exploiting and using the internal and external forces are shown that the State promulgates mechanisms, policies, laws and regulations for exploiting and using which internal force or external force; investing such force for which field, giving priority for which field (production, business, capital construction of infrastructure or social issues); allocating resources to each economic zone, each industry and each region and so on. The State's roles in promoting the internal and external forces for the country development are shown at all aspects of the socio-economic life. It is not conditional for this dissertation to review and evaluation the exploitation and use of the internal and external forces in all fields, but to focus on analyzing and evaluating the State's role in using some important resources for development, that are manpower, capital, science and technology in the status of a force of production, which decide the current development of our society and economy and are decisive factors for the country development in depth at present. 2.3.4. The State orients sustainable promotion of the internal and external forces to ensure targets of the country development The State on one hand creates environment and conditions for promoting the internal force, enhancing its attractiveness, strengthening international cooperation to attract the external force; exploiting and using the internal and external forces; on other hand apply orientation measures so that promoting the internal and external forces is maintained and gains sustainable output in the next stage, assures to reach targets and strategies for the country development. In order to carry out this role, the State applies effective tools as follows: Firstly, the State orients the promotion of the internal and external forces by strategies, schedules and plans. Secondly, the state orients the promotion of the internal force with macro regulating tools. Sub-conclusion of chapter 2 Promoting the internal and external forces and resources for development is the content that many scientists have researched and discussed at different approach aspects. During the course of the international integration, promotion of the internal and external forces is requirement for development at our country. Thus, in the Chapter 2 of this Dissertation, the author present his perspective on the internal and external forces and their promotion; the necessity of promoting the internal and external forces in the international integration. The international integration is a very complicated course with great opportunities and challenges that influence the promotion of the internal and external forces. In order to develop benefits and diminish negative impacts of the external force toward the internal forces of the nation in the current trends of globalization and the international integration, it is necessary to enhance the State's roles of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in promoting the internal and 13 external forces. This is why in this chapter, the author has focused on learning manifestation of the State's roles in promoting the internal and external forces, that are: the State creates environment and conditions for promoting the internal and external forces; the State establishes and expands the international relation to proactively attract the external force; the State combines the internal force and the external force on the basis of promoting the internal force, and making the external force be the internal force; the state orients sustainable development of the internal and external forces to assure the development targets of our country. Such above mentioned contents are basis for the author to study in depth and to assess the status of the State's roles for the development of the internal and external forces of Vietnam in the international integration at the next chapter. Chapter 3 ROLES OF THE STATE FOR PROMOTING THE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL FORCES IN INTERNATIONAL INTEGRATION IN VIETNAM: REALITY AND SOME PROBLEMS TO BE ADDRESSED 3.1. Status of the State's roles for promoting the internal and external forces in international integration 3.1.1. Status of the State's roles in creating environment and conditions for promoting the internal and external forces In this respect, this dissertation focuses on clarifying status of the State's roles in creating environment and condition for promoting the internal and external forces by surveying and assessing status of the State's role on four basic scales, which are: - Status of the State's role in maintaining political stability and national security for promoting all resources of the country. - Status of the State's role in promoting national economic power properly with the trend of international economic development. - Status of the State's role in cultural and social development, creating internal spirit force of the nation. - Status of the State's role in completing legal framework, administration reform, creating transparent and clear environment. From the assessment of the status of the State's roles in this respect, it can make general assessment on the State's roles in creating environment and conditions for promoting the internal and external forces. In details: After nearly 30 years of renovation, open-door policy and international cooperation, under the Party's leadership, the State shows its great role in creating environment and conditions for promoting internal force of the nation, stimulating development of all potential and strong points at home. With active role of the State, progression has been made in political, economic, cultural, social and legal environments and national administration: politics and national 14 security are ensured; independence, sovereignty, unity and unity and territorial integrity are maintained. Culture and society make progression in various aspects. Economy takes continuous growth in active direction; Institution of socialismoriented market economy is established. Thanks to these, position and strength of the nation are more powerful, the national position is more and more affirmed in the international arena. Vietnam is becoming an attractive destination, safe and effective environment for investment for many countries worldwide. However, such status also shows that the State's roles in creating environment for promotion of the internal and external forces are exposed to certain restrictions and weakness in term of managerial qualification and competence, structural organization and personnel, which form barriers regarding environment and conditions for internal force promotion, reduce attractiveness of domestic environment toward sources of the external force, international investors and friends, influence the existing promotion of the internal and external forces. 3.1.2. Status of the State's roles in developing and expanding international relationship for actively attracting external force. Firstly, in the current background of international integration, in order to expand international relationship, to boost up international cooperation, external activities in general and external information in particular are taken attention by the State for the purpose of information, promotion, introduction with images and attractive environment for investment of the nation to international friends. The State unceasingly perfects policies, laws and external information mechanism; it is constantly proactive to promote the national image in many forms and manners. With performance of external information, proactive promotion on internal force of the country by the State, majority of international friends have known about a dynamic Vietnam who is rising powerfully, is peaceful, sustainable and developing, a responsible member of the international community, safe and effective environment for investment, attractive destination of partners worldwide. From being besieged and embargoed so far, now Vietnam has diplomatic relations with 180/193 member states of the United Nations; has trade relations with nearly 230 countries and territories; is an active member of more than 70 regional and international organizations. We have 98 representative agencies in countries and territories across five continents in the world. Beside such achievements, there are still some restrictions in external work in general and external information work in particular that are necessary for remedy: delay in thinking renovation on some international issues; not actually proactive and keen in information treatment and promotion; poor form of promotion, not available methodical projects for information communication; restricted forecast of situation of the world, the region and strategies of big countries; unclose coordination mechanisms among public agencies and press agencies. Such reality makes information of promoting the national internal force 15 not actually proactive. Some countries in the world even misunderstand and know insufficiently about Vietnam, about politics, society, religion and human right, etc. This is why some investors are still hesitant to invest in our country. It reduces efficiency of external work in general and external information in particular in our country. Secondly, to proactively attract external force, the State have implemented international commitments to create the national prestige and legal conditions to attract attention and investment from international partners. In the past years, the State has performed various commitments, agreements with international and regional countries and organizations, which focus on trade, taxation, grants for development and banking. Vietnam do not only sign commitments and treaties with socialist countries and those who have traditional relation, but also increasingly expand her relations in the world; commit not only with nations but also with regions, international organizations; commit not only with aspects of the national development but also with addressing global problems. In addition, the State also has various active policies for overseasVietnamese people to promote such precious resources for the national development, for instance: caring and protecting Vietnamese communities in foreign countries; motivating overseas compatriots to return to homeland for investing to build the homeland, fundraising for the poor, Orange Agent victims, and support of socio-economic development of the nation... Nevertheless, the State's roles in implementing international commitments, manners for promoting resources of overseas-Vietnamese people still show certain restrictions that are barrier against attractive and opening feature of our environment for investment, make attraction of external force not proactive. In term of awareness, not less public agencies and enterprises lack understanding about content of commitments, steps, roadmaps for commitment performance and international integration. Actually, developing an overall strategy, preparing conditions for all aspects such as law, economy, manpower training, etc. to take the initiative and to be ready for adapting with international commitments are still delay as compared with requirements. The State lacks complete legal mechanism and policies for fostering enterprises and other components to enhance competence to meet requirements for performing international commitments. In addition, fostering works to be done under roadmap of bilateral or multilateral commitments by majority of agencies and enterprises is still delayed and not reliable, and so on. Foreign investment attraction gains good results but it is not sustainable, stable because of impacts of economic situation in each stage in the world. Without consistent strategies, policies and longterm vision, investment and development will be passive, influencing assurance of the independent and self-controlled economy. 3.1.3. Status of the State's roles in exploiting and using the internal and external forces From analysis and assessment of status of the State's roles in exploiting and using manpower, capital, sciences and technologies, that are the most important 16 resources for the national in-deep development, it can generalize and evaluate the State's role in exploiting and using the internal and external forces as below: Generally, the State have had many active mechanisms, policies and manners for exploiting and using the internal and external forces, for better results of socio-economic development. Resources for developments are mobilized more and more increasingly to meet better requirements of development. Many resources have been exploited and used more latterly than other countries in the world, but have made longer advance as compared to various countries (in the field of technology, information, telecommunication, etc.) which actively contribute to the national development. However, certain restrictions and weakness in term of managerial qualification and competence, structural organization of the State make the exploitation and use of the internal and external forces not corresponding with potentials and opportunities; many resources are lost and wasted; requirements for promoting the internal and external forces for active and proactive integration to the world have not been met to assure that rapid development pertains to sustainable one. 3.1.4. Status of the State's roles in orienting sustainable development of the internal and external forces to assure development objective of the nation. To manage, orient and stimulate promotion of resources for development at next stages, the State applies basic management tools like plans, strategies, macro policies and economic leverage. Through assessment on status of the State's role in orienting the promotion of the internal and external forces with plans, strategies, macro policies and economic leverage, it can be commented as follows: By applying legal tools, planning, macro regulation policies, the State has managed better and better resources for development, also oriented for promotion of the internal and external forces appropriately with the national strategy for socio-economic development; stimulated combination of the internal and external forces in harmonization, effectiveness and solidity and continuous development in the next stages. However, on one hand, the State's restrictions in using such tools also limit scientific and logic nature in exploiting and allocating resources: weak control that causes waste in budget expenditure and social consumption; non-reasonable mechanism for development as compared to actual requirements of each region as well as the national great balance for short-term, middle and long-term visions. On other hand, lack of an overall and permanent plan also reduces the State's role in orienting and stimulating promotion of the internal and external forces. 3.2. Some problems to be addressed by the State in promoting the internal and external forces in the current stage of integration From such above mentioned status, with achievements and on-going restrictions and weakness, the State's roles in promoting the internal and external forces in the 17 condition of integration confront with very critical matters, that are the very contradictions resulted from the course of the internal and external force promotion, international integration, direction to sustainable development of the country. Firstly, contradictions among the socialism-oriented roles of the State with spontaneous trends of capitalism result from the promotion of the internal and external forces in the market economy and international integration. The Party's guideline on developing the socialism-oriented market economy, that was formed at the VI National Delegate Conference in 1986, is the throughout perspective affirmed by the Party so far. It is orientation and requirement for the country's development. Nevertheless, the course of promotion of the internal and external forces in international integration has created objective premises for formation of capitalist trends spontaneously. This is the contradiction influencing orientation of development for a nation, the State is required to enhance the role of management and regulation upon the promotion of the internal and external forces for addressing it. Secondly, contradictions among national and international institutions when the State is promoting the internal and external force, actively integrating in the world. The promotion of the internal and external forces requires that, on one hand, we have to focus on promoting all potentials and strong points at home, build and develop the country on the basis of national institutions in an effort to assure national interests, maintain independence and self-control in the economic development; maintain national characters in the cultural development; solve security matters, political and social issues; protect legitimate interests and rights of every Vietnamese citizen through legislations and legal norms of the nation. On the other hand, the promotion of the internal and external forces must also comply with international institutions, contribute to solve global issues, harmonize the national benefits and international issues. Thus, during the course of promoting the internal and external forces in the international integration, the State must often pay attention to addressing contradictions among the national institutions and international ones. Thirdly, contradictions between requirements of enhancing the State’s roles toward the promotion of the internal and external forces in the international integration and the existing restrictions of the State. From such above mentioned contradictions, it shows that the course of promotion of the internal and external forces in the past years result in potential risks that threaten and influence directly the role and range of impact of the State, hence the State is required to renovate itself, to enhance its competence for addressing such contradictions. Alternatively, the promotion of the internal and external forces confronts with various difficulties and it is required to enhance the State’s roles to effectively perform such important task. 18 Sub-conclusion of Chapter 3 After nearly 30 years of renovation performance, under the Party’s leadership, our State has gained many achievements in promoting the internal and external forces, been active and proactive in international integration. The State unceasingly realize the Party’s guidelines on promoting the internal and external forces, proactive in international integration by various policies and manners, increasingly developing strength of the internal force; proactively attracting many sources of the external forces; exploiting and using more and more effectively sources of the external forces, also orienting and stimulating combination of the internal and external forces to become expanded and sustainable. Beside gained achievements, the State’s roles in promoting the internal and external forces also expose many restrictions like: cumbersome apparatus, slow adaption with variations in the world; unsatisfactory macro management and regulation levels of the State toward requirements of the promotion of the internal and external forces; inconsistent legislation and policies; less renovated personnel works; confused and less proactive organization and performance of promoting the internal and external forces; corruption and wasting, which are barriers toward the promotion of the internal and external forces. The State’s restrictions result in unsatisfactory output of the promotion of the internal and external forces. In detail: There are still many limits and shortcomings in creating environment for promoting the internal and external forces, which make the national internal force has not developed sufficiently and correspondingly with potentials and strong points of the nation, not met requirements of integration practice. Some internal forces are exposed and promoted but not powerfully and have not created solid basis for sustainable development. As evaluated by the Party, the promotion of the internal and external forces is “still under development capability of the country, meanwhile socio-economic activities are still shortcoming”. Attracting the external force has not been actually active, but passive and confused toward situations and contingency in relation with international law, practice and problems to be addressed in relation and cooperation with other countries. We have not established actually stable, permanent and solid relations with big countries; have not developed relations with intertwined, interdependent interests with such countries. We have not properly respected and actively attracted indirect foreign investments. International opinions have not taken into account when solving some domestic issues; slow performance of commitments and trade agreement; limited perfection of legal framework and administrative reform, etc. less or more diminish attractiveness of the investment environment, reduce effectiveness, activeness and proactive of policies and methods of attracting the external force of the State.
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