The policy and guideline of the Communist Party of Vietnam on education and training cooperation with ASEAN countries from 1995 to 2010

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HOCHIMINH NATIONAL ACADEMY OF POLITICS AND PUBLIC ADMINITRATION NGUYEN THI MAI The policy and guideline of the communist party of vietnam on education and training cooperation with asean countries from 1995 to 2010 Major: History of the Communist Party of Vietnam Code number: 62 22 56 01 Science Instructors: Prof. Dr. Nguyen Huu Cat Prof. Dr. Nguyen Hoang Giap EXECUTIVE SUMMARY PhD Thesis In History Hanoi - 2013 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY PhD Thesis In History ***** 1 INTRODUCTION 1. The urgency of the thesis In the late 1980s, when Agreements on cultural and Science and technological cooperation between Vietnam and other socialist countries during the period between 1986 and 1990 nearly expired, the socialist regime in Soviet Union fell into crisis. Thus, international relations moved to a new phase with fierce challenges, requiring quick adaptation from Vietnam to propose a new strategy in dealing with the changing circumstances. In the context where the country was facing many difficulties there were many profound changes in the world situation. The Communist Party of Vietnam advocated joining ASEAN, thus defining cooperation on education and training with ASEAN countries as a priority. To implement the policy of the Party and State, the Ministry of Education and Training actively planned to join the South East Asian Ministers of Education Organisation (SEAMEO). On 10 Feb 1992, at the 27th meeting of the Council of Southeast Asian Ministers of Educatios, held in Brunei, the Ministry of Education and Training of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam became an official member of this organization. After Vietnam became an official member of ASEAN (July 1995), and the Vietnamese Ministry of Education and Training became a member of the ASEAN Sub- Committee of Education (ASCOE), it has been actively collaborated with other regional countries to carry out practical and effective activities. In the task of boosting industrialization and modernization process in the country, education and training plays a very important role, as the top national policy. The Party and the Government have introduced many policies and closely monitored to promote education and training in the country. One of the guidelines and measures is to strengthen cooperation on education and training with other countries, especially regional ones. By 2010, Vietnam has established educational partnerships with more than 80 countries and regions, 36 international organizations and 70 non- 2 governmental organizations. Furthermore, cooperation on education and training also contributed to the promotion of Vietnamese diplomacy. At the 9th ASEAN Summit (October 2003), the ASEAN leaders signed the Declaration of ASEAN Concord II (Bali Concord II), specifying major strategic orientations with the goal of building a strongly connected and self-improved ASEAN Community in 2020 on three pillars: Political – Security Community, Economic Community, and Cultural – Social Community. The 12th ASEAN Summit (January 2007) decided to shorten the formation of the ASEAN Community by 2015. In the building of the ASEAN Community, especially the Cultural – Social one, the quality of cooperation on education and training should be strengthened and improved besides other areas of cooperation such as politics, security, and economics. As the initiator of the ASEAN Cultural – Social Community with education as an important element, Vietnam shall be responsible for and in charge of promoting cooperation on education and training between ASEAN countries. In that spirit, our Party and Government have launched many policies and measures to finish the task in the shortest time. From now to 2010, 15 years after Vietnam joined ASEAN, in order to further improve the efficiency and quality of education and training cooperation with ASEAN countries, thus contributing to the building of the ASEAN Cultural - Social Community by 2015, it is important to carry out regular review and evaluation of achievements and constraints and to accumulate experiences on the Party’s policies and guidance on cooperation on education and training with other ASEAN countries. From the aforementioned theoretical and practical meaning, the topic on “The Policies and Guidance of the Communist Party of Vietnam on cooperation on education and training with ASEAN countries from 1995 to 2010” has been chosen for my PhD thesis, majoring in History of the Communist Party of Vietnam. 2. Purpose and Missions of the Thesis 3 2.1. Purpose Through the study of the Party’s policy and guidance, along with actual cooperation cooperation on education and training between Vietnam and ASEAN countries over the last 15 years (1995-2010), this thesis asserts the activeness and insight of Party in prioritizing education and training cooperation as the basis for promoting comprehensive cooperation with other ASEAN countries, thus emphazing the achievements as well as limitations and drawing out fundamental lessons. 2.2. Mission This thesis first identifies the historical context and domestic and international factors affecting the education and training cooperation between Vietnam and other ASEAN. It then clarifies the Party’s view and the process in implementing such cooperation from 1995 to 2010. After evaluating successes and limitations during such process, this thesis is able to draw some experiences and lessons learnt during the process of directing cooperation between Vietnam and ASEAN by the Party. 3. Objects and Scope of research 3.1. Objects of research This thesis conducts research on the Party’s policy and guidance as well as the implementation process of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on education and training with other ASEAN countries. 3.2. Scope of research  Research period: from 1995 to 2010.  Research content: Since cooperation on education and training is broad in scope, this thesis only focuses on the policy and guidance of the Communist Party of Vietnam’s educational cooperation with ASEAN countries.  Scope of research: Cooperation on education and training with ASEAN countries on two aspects: multilateral and bilateral (except Brunei). 4 4. The rationale and research methodology 4.1. Rationale and Practice: The rationale of this thesis is based on the theory of Marxism-Leninism and Ho Chi Minh ideology on international cooperation on education and training, the views of the Party and State as well as the guidelines and policies of Vietnam - ASEAN cooperation in general, and cooperation on education and training in particular. In the practical aspect, the thesis is based on the practical cooperation on education and training between Vietnam and other ASEAN countries from 1995 to 2010. 4.2. Research Methodology: The research methodology of this thesis is primarily historical approach combined with logical methods. In addition, the thesis also uses analytical, aggregated, statistical, comparative methods and survey to illustrate the issues in the dissertation. 5. Scientific contribution of the thesis 5.1. Sources of Data The thesis collects and systemizes documentation of the policies, guidance and implementation outcomes of cooperation on education and training with ASEAN countries from 1995 to 2010. 5.2. Contents  Clarifying Party and State’s views, guidelines and policies on cooperation on education and training with ASEAN countries.  Analysis of the outcomes and limitations of the Party’s policy and guidance on cooperation on education and training with ASEAN countries, through which drawing lessons from theory and realiality, thus contributing to the improvement of quality and efficiency of such cooperation in the future.  Outcomes of the thesis shall contribute to the research and teaching of the history of the Communist Party of Vietnam in the new era. 6. Significance of the thesis 5 The research outcome of this thesis contributes to better cooperation between Vietnam and ASEAN. It asserts that the Party and State’s policies and guidances on cooperation with ASEAN countries in the field of education and training during the period of accelerating industrialization, modernization and international integration are completely appropriate in contributing to the improvement of research and teaching quality of the Party’s history in the new age. The thesis provides additional scientific arguments and suggests some thoughts applicable to present cooperation on education and training between Vietnam and ASEAN. 7. Structure of the thesis Besides introduction, overview of the research, conclusions, list of references and appendices, the thesis is divided into three chapters and eight sections. 6 RESEARCH OVERVIEW The thesis provides an overview of the research outcomes of scientific studies that are directly related to the following topics:  Scientific study of the cooperation between Vietnam and ASEAN: The book on The integration process of Vietnam – ASEAN, by Dinh Xuan Ly, published by the National University Publishing House in 2000; Ministerial research project of the Department of ASEAN in 2001 (Ministry of Foreign Affairs); 5 years of Vienam’s accession to ASEAN: achievements, challenges and prospects; key scientific study on Vietnam – ASEAN Integration: the process, current status and related problems by the Hanoi National University, checked in 2002; The book Vietnam - ASEAN multilateral and bilateral relations by Vu Duong Ninh, published by National Political Publishing House; The article The development of ASEAN: 10 years looking back by Nguyen Thu My on the Communist Review issue no.14/ July 2005; The article Vietnam - ASEAN after 10 years by Le Cong Phung published on External Affairs Magazine, issue no.8/2005; The doctoral dissertation in history Thailand - Vietnam Relations (1976-2004) by Thananan Boonwanna, completed in 2008; The book Connecting ASEAN in the first decade of the twenty-first century by Prof. Pham Duc Thanh (Editor), published by the Social Sciences Publishing House in 2006; The book The role of Vietnam in ASEAN by the Database and Document Centre under Vietnam News Agency, published by Vietnam News Agency in 2007; The book Current ASEAN cooperation and connectivity and the participation of Vietnam by Nguyen Hoang Giap, Nguyen Huu Cat and Nguyen Thi Que, published by the Political Theory Publishing House in 2008; The book on the History of Vietnam - Singapore relations (1965-2005) by Pham Thi Ngoc Thu, published by Ho Chi Minh City Publishing House in 2009; Master thesis in international relations of Chhouet Sopheak (Cambodia) themed Cambodia – Vietnam cooperation since 1993, completed in July 2009; The 2010 Ministerial study Vietnam’s accession to ASEAN from 1995 until present: Achievements, related issues and prospects by the Institute 7 of International Relations (Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics and Public Administration); The book on Vietnam in the process of integrating into ASEAN by Nguyen Van Thien and Nguyen Cong Hai published by the People’s Army Publishing House in 2011; The book on the history of the special Vietnam-Laos, Laos-Vietnam relationships (1930 -2007) by the Hanoi National Political Publishing House, published in 2011.  Study of cooperation on education and training between Vietnam and ASEAN: + Reference: Guideline on international relations in education and training of the Department of International Relations (Ministry of Education and Training) published by the Education Publishing House in 1996; This book was edited and amended in 2002 by the Department of International Relations - Ministry of Education and Training; + Conference keynotes: The study on Educational Cooperation between Vietnam and other Southeast Asian countries in the current period by Dr. Nghiem Dinh Vy and Dr. Tung Cheng in the Today - Tomorrow ASEAN conference yearbook (September 1997); The Workshop on Developing ASEAN towards a sustainable, equitable and cooperative community of developing countries included the following article: Strengthening bilateral and multilateral cooperation in human resources training for ASEAN by Dr. Nguyen Tho Vuong, Current status and prospects of human resource development in ASEAN countries by Dr. Truong Thi Thuy Hang; Speeches written about cooperation on education and training between Vietnam and ASEAN within the scope of the seminar on Vietnam - ASEAN Integration prior to the beginning of XXI century, including: "5 years backward looking on Vietnam – ASEAN educational cooperation"by Tran Van Nhung and Nguyen Van Khoi, the presentation on The cooperation on education and training within ASEAN (mainly higher education and training) by Dr. Mai Ngoc Chu; 2nd workshop on Connecting ASEAN by the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies includes a presentation on Typical policies of ASEAN countries on the development of education and human resources in the first decade of the twenty-first century by a group of authors: Dr. Phan Van Kha, Vuong Thanh Huong and Le Hong Quang; the 8 Scientific Conference on Looking backwards and forwards the role of Vietnam in ASEAN had a presentation on Some thoughts about Vietnamese education and regional integration strategy in the twenty-first century from the experience of some countries in Southeast Asia by Phan Thi Hong Xuan. The Vietnam - ASEAN: 10 years of integration and development Seminar posted a speech on the topic ASEAN Educational Cooperation – a potential and prosperous area by Le Thi Ngoc Dung. + Master in Science and History thesis of Nguyen Thi Huyen Nga, completed in 2008 at the University of Vinh on The educational status in the Democratic Republic of Laos (1986-2007) and the role of Vietnam; Doctoral dissertation on The cooperation between the Communist Party of Vietnam and the Lao people's Revolutionary Party on staff training in the political system from 1986 to 2006 by Duong Thi Hue for her PhD.in History, completed in 2011; Master in International Relations thesis on The Laos - Vietnam cooperation on culture - education from 1975 to 2010 by Xayasane Bounsavang (PDR), completed in 2011.  The scientific research projects that mention policy on education and training by the Party and the State: Education and training in the reform period: policy, implementation and evaluation by the Central Commission on Science and Education published by the National Political Publishing House in 2002; Vietnam Education on the threshold of the XXI century by Pham Minh Hac, published by the National Political Publishing House in 2002; The article Education and training development or industrialization and modernization of the country written by the Minister of Education and Training Nguyen Minh Hien posted on the Communist Review issue no.22 (November 2005); The 2009 ministerial project on Neighbouring policy of Vietnam from 1991 to present by the Institute of International Relations (HCM National Academy of Politics and Public Administration); doctoral dissertation on the Foreign Policy of the Communist Party of Vietnam for Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2006 by Nguyen Thi Hoan, completed in February 2011; doctoral dissertation on The cooperation between the Vietnamese Communist Party and the Lao people's Revolutionary Party on staff 9 training in the political system from 1986 to 2006 by Duong Thi Hue, completed in 2011.  Although there have been many scientific research works on the general cooperation between Vietnam and other ASEAN countries and on some specific areas of cooperation, there has not been any in-depth, systematic project on the Party’s policy and guidance on education and training cooperation between Vietnam and ASEAN from 1995 to 2010. 10 CHAPTER 1 PARTY’S VIEWPOINTS AND GUIDANCE ON COOPERATION ON EDUCATION AND TRAINING WITH ASEAN COUNTRIES (1995 - 2001) 1.1. OBJECTIVE REQUIREMENTS OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING COOPERATION BETWEEN VIETNAM AND ASEAN COUNTRIES 1.1.1. Regional and world factors The end of 20th century saw the development of science and technology as the main productive force. National priority is placed on educational development, thus enhancing regional and international cooperation is an important measure against the risk of significant lag in culture and science. For developing countries like Vietnam, this is of significant importance, playing a key role in the social progress and development. Globalization is an inevitable trend that promotes peace and cooperation for development. The financial crisis left some ASEAN countries with serious consequences, affecting the process of cooperation on education and training between Vietnam and other ASEAN countries. The realization of ASEAN 10 initiatives, which are striving for regional peace and stability, maintaining national identity and unity, and upholding regional selfimprovement spirit, has opened up a new era of cooperation between countries in the Association. 1.1.2. ASEAN in promoting educational cooperation In Southeast Asia, there are two educational institutions simultaneously operating in cooperation activities, which are: the South East Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO) and the ASEAN Sub-Committee on Education (ASCOE). 11 SEAMEO is operated by the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Council (SEAMEC). SEAMEO has one Secretariat abbreviated as SEAMES who assists the Council headquartered in Bangkok (Thailand). SEAMES Director is an official selected by the Board who is the citizen of a member country. He shall be in office for a 3 year term. In addition, the ASEAN University Network (AUN) under the supervision of ASEAN comprises of leading universities in ASEAN member countries. AUN is responsible for promoting cooperation through the exchange of students, scientific leaders and human resources between the participating countries. In ASEAN, the ASEAN Sub-Committee on Education (ASCOE) is structured within the Commission on Social Development of ASEAN (COSD). ASCOE is in charge of cooperation activitites on education and training, below ASCOE are various groups of educational experts in ASEAN. A number of ASEAN declarations and documents have mentioned in detail the educational cooperation in ASEAN, especially cooperation to improve human resources such as the Hanoi Declaration (1998), or the Hanoi Action Plan (1998). 1.1.3. The national requirement of human resources development The process of reform within the country has obtained many great achievements. Besides such advantages, the current challenges faced by Vietnam make task of promoting regional and world cooperation on education and training ever more important. After the collapse of socialist regime in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, cooperation on education and training between Vietnam and these countries fell sharply. The learning and exchange sharing on education between regional and global countries is the general trend of the process of globalization in education development. Therefore, expanding and strengthening cooperation with regional countries is an objective requirement for Vietnam. 12 1.2. PARTY'S POLICIES ON EDUCATION AND TRAINING COOPERATION WITH ASEAN COUNTRIES DURING 1995 – 2001 1.2.1. Party’s policy for the accession to ASEAN (1986 – 1995) In the late 1980s, there were rapid and complex developments in the world situation that changed the basis of global context. Since the 1970s to the mid 1980s, Vietnam faced severe socio-economic crisis within the country. Given major difficulties and challenges resulted from the world and domestic situation, the Party proposed policy to expand external relations with ASEAN countries, thus accelerating the accession of Vietnam to ASEAN. This is expressed through various documents of the Party: Resolution on the 6th National Party Congress (December 1986), Resolution 13 by the Politburo (May 1988), Resolutions on the 6th and 8th Plenums (Term 6), Resolution on the 7th Party Congress, and the 3rd Plenum congress term 7 in June 1992. Following the Party’s policy, in September 1994, Prime Minister Vo Van Kiet announced the formation of ASEAN Department (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) to coordinate activities between Vietnam and ASEAN. The accession ceremony of Vietnam to ASEAN was held on 28 July1995 it Brunei. 1.2.2. Party’s Policy and Guidance on education and training cooperation with ASEAN countries (1996-2001) The 8th National Party Congress (1996) set out specific orientations in the foreign relations with ASEAN as well as identifying education and training as the top national priority along with science and technology. To further specify the Resolution of the 8th Party Coongress, the Central Committee term 8 in the 2nd Plenum issued the Resolution no.2 on “strategic orientation for education and training development in the period of industrialization and modernization and mission until 2020” in December 1996. In June 1999, the Ministry of Education and Training developed and submitted the Project to expand and improve the effectiveness of international relations on 13 education and training until 2010 to the Prime Minister for consideration. This project specified the key measures to enhance cooperation on education and training with other regional and international countries. 1.3. THE PROCESS OF COOPERATION ON EDUCATION AND TRAINING WITH ASEAN COUNTRIES 1.3.1. Vietnam – ASEAN Multilateral Cooperation Given changes in the world situation and the need for education cooperation with ASEAN countries, the Ministry of Education and Training of Vietnam attaches great importance to expanding partnerships with countries in Southeast Asia. It officially joined the South East Asian Minister of Education Organization (SEAMEO) in February 1992. On 28 March 1992, the Ministry announced its decision regarding the establishment of the Executive Board overseeing cooperation activities with SEAMEO. After Vietnam became the official member of ASEAN (July 1995), the Vietnamese Ministry of Education and Training also joined the ASEAN SubCommittee on Education. Vietnam fulfilled all of its obligations, commitments and responsibilities as a member country, thus positively and proactively proposing initiatives to promote regional cooperation on the basis of consensus, and noninterference in the internal affairs of each other. 1.3.2. Bilateral cooperation between Vietnam and ASEAN countries on education and training 1.3.2.1. Education cooperation between Vietnam and other CLM countries  Cooperation with Cambodia Cambodian government considered Vietnam as a reliable training center for Cambodian students. As requested by Cambodia, the number of students attending Vietnamese school tends to increase every year. In 1994, Vietnam and Cambodia signed the Agreement on training Cambodian officials in Vietnam. The two governments also agreed that this Agreement would be 14 amended annually to account for the changes in each country’s situation. Another Agreement on Cambodian personnel training in Vietnam was signed on 15 June 1999, setting an important standard for training criteria used in full time training course for Cambodian students in Vietnam. Following the Agreement, Vietnam receives approximately 100 Cambodian students on average annually. The accomodation conditions for Cambodian students also improve every year.  Cooperation with Laos Education and training is identified as a strategic area for cooperation, a symbol of the special friendship by the two Parties, two States and thus it is given priority. It is also one of the most successful areas for cooperation. To further develop and improve the quality of human resources, since 1992, the Ministry of Education and Training of the two countries have agreed to only focus on training Laos’s students in undergraduate and postgraduate education, especially in the key areas on economics and science – technology, while excluding applications from Laos’s students for secondary and tertiary education. With this policy, Vietnam has given Laos a significant source of funding and comprehensive support in the area of education and training. Since 1997, due to the difficult socio-economic situation in both countries, along with the accession of Laos into ASEAN as the 8th member, there was a significant increase in the number of students studying in other countries such as Thailand, Singapore, and the Philippines etc. Consequently, the number of Lao students attending Vietnam schools has declined. However, on the basis of the achievements obtained from comprehensive cooperation between the two countries and our special friendship, Vietnam is still considered by the Laos government as the most reliable training centre and Lao government hopes to receive continuous assistance from Vietnam. Nevertheless, the number of Lao students applying for Vietnamese schools and wishing to study continues to rise and there is also a rapid increase in the number of Laos’s students studying in Vietnam. 15  Cooperation with Myanmar Vietnam - Myanmar relations are always stable on all aspects. In the difficult circumstances, Myanmar considers Vietnam as a trusted friend. In May 1995, the Delegation of the Vietnamese Ministry of Education and Training visited Myanmar for the first time and signed the "Memorandum of Understanding" with the Myanmar Ministry of Education, creating a legal basis for the development of cooperation on education between the two countries. However, cooperation between Vietnam and Myanmar on education is limited due to economic difficulties faced by both countries. 1.3.2.2. Education cooperation between Vietnam and other ASEAN countries  Cooperation with Singapore Singapore is a developed country in the region. That’s why Vietnam advocates promoting comprehensive cooperation with Singapore, including cooperation on education and training. Education cooperation between Vietnam and Singapore was initiated from the 1990s, but only was formalized when Vietnam joined ASEAN (1995). Both countries have cooperated in there main channels: 1. Full fee paying student; 2. Bilateral cooperation between educational institutions; 3. Government Scholarships resulting from education and training cooperation. In addition, many Vietnamese teachers and research officials are invited to attend training courses and seminars in Singapore. Many Singaporean teachers also volunteer to teach English in Vietnam. Some Vietnamese lecturers also currently teach Vietnamese at the National University of Singapore.  Cooperation with Thailand Cooperation on education and training between Vietnam and Thailand are accelerated since 1990. Thailand supports Vietnam mostly in the area of rural and agriculture. Although modestly in amount, Thailand is still one of the countries who provide development assistance to Vietnam. 16  Cooperation with Malaysia With the growing trust and mutual understanding, the relations between two countries is increasingly consolidated and comprehensively developed in all aspects.  Cooperation with Indonesia Having a traditional friendship, Vietnam and Indonesia cooperate in the field of education and training since 1987. Until 1995, the bilateral relations had reached a comprehensive level. Indonesia regularly provides scholarships for Vietnamese students and officials studying Melayu language, or doing thesis in business management, medicine and pharmacy, and agriculture. In addition, the Indonesian government also provides short term training courses (4 to 6 weeks) on tourism and family planning.  Cooperation with the Philippines The bilateral relations developed significantly after Vietnam became a member of ASEAN. In the area of education and training, the Philippines provides Vietnam with generous assistance on agricultural training. * * * Shortly after becoming a full member of ASEAN (1995), our Party decided to strengthen cooperation with ASEAN countries. Vietnam quickly integrated into the region and promoted cooperation in all areas, including education and training. Bilateral cooperation on education and training between Vietnam and ASEAN countries starts to see some positive results. Despite many difficulties, with the goal of continuously consolidating and developing the traditional friendship and neighbourhood, Vietnam has maintained and increased our supports for Laos and Cambodia in education and training. With the rest of the ASEAN countries, after our accession to ASEAN, Vietnam advocates to enlist in the ASEAN scholarships. We have begun to receive scholarships on human resource training. 17 However, the Party’s policies and guidelines on cooperation on education and training with the ASEAN countries during this period are still limited and lagged behind the evolvement of reality. Cooperation on education and training between Vietnam and ASEAN countries is not commensurate with the potential of each country. Nevertheless, the initial results of the cooperation between Vietnam and ASEAN countries is the foundation, the premise for Vietnam and other ASEAN countries to further promote cooperation on education and training. 18 CHAPTER 2 IMPROVEMENT OF THE QUALITY AND EFFICIENCY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING COOPERATION WITH ASEAN COUNTRIES FOLLOWING THE PARTY'S GUIDELINES (2001-2010) 2.1. THE FACTORS AFFECTING EDUCATION AND TRAINING COOPERATION BETWEEN VIETNAM AND ASEAN COUNTRIES IN THE 2001-2010 PERIOD 2.1.1. The overall regional and international trend The scientific and technological revolution will continue to experience great breakthroughs in the 21st century, leading the world from the industrial age to the information and intellectual economic development age while affecting all sectors, thus making swift and profound changes in society's material and mental life. After the financial crisis, many ASEAN and East Asian economies have been able to recover with new competitive abilities. This creates a favorable condition for Vietnam to promote cooperation with regional partners in all areas. Yet since 2007, the world has fallen into the financial crisis. Besides, many Southeast Asian countries also greatly suffered from natural disasters. The economic recession has significantly affected cross-border cooperation in many areas, including education and training. Nonetheless, educational reforms continue on a global scale. Investment on education, once considered social welfare, is now considered investment on development. 2.1.2. ASEAN policy on education and training cooperation In the 9th ASEAN Summit (Oct 2003), ASEAN leaders signed the Declaration of ASEAN Concord II (the Bali Concord II), stating the major strategic guidelines of ASEAN with the goal of building a closely integrated and self-reliant ASEAN community by 2020 through 3 pillars including: the political-security community, the economic community, and the socio-cultural community. Education is the cornerstone in the building of the ASEAN community. The ASEAN Charter, signed by ASEAN heads of states during the 13th ASEAN summit (Nov 2007) in Singapore and effective as of December 15 2008, created favorable circumstances and promoted regional cooperation. With respect to educational cooperation, point 10, article 1 of the ASEAN Charter holds that the goal of education is: to develop human resources through closer cooperation in education
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