HOCHIMINH NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
POLITICS AND PUBLIC ADMINITRATION
NGUYEN THI MAI
The policy and guideline of the communist
party of vietnam on education and training
cooperation with asean countries
from 1995 to 2010
Major: History of the Communist Party of Vietnam
Code number: 62 22 56 01
Science Instructors: Prof. Dr. Nguyen Huu Cat
Prof. Dr. Nguyen Hoang Giap
PhD Thesis In History
Hanoi - 2013
PhD Thesis In History
1. The urgency of the thesis
In the late 1980s, when Agreements on cultural and Science and technological
cooperation between Vietnam and other socialist countries during the period between
1986 and 1990 nearly expired, the socialist regime in Soviet Union fell into crisis. Thus,
international relations moved to a new phase with fierce challenges, requiring quick
adaptation from Vietnam to propose a new strategy in dealing with the changing
In the context where the country was facing many difficulties there were many
profound changes in the world situation. The Communist Party of Vietnam advocated
joining ASEAN, thus defining cooperation on education and training with ASEAN
countries as a priority. To implement the policy of the Party and State, the Ministry of
Education and Training actively planned to join the South East Asian Ministers of
Education Organisation (SEAMEO). On 10 Feb 1992, at the 27th meeting of the
Council of Southeast Asian Ministers of Educatios, held in Brunei, the Ministry of
Education and Training of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam became an official
member of this organization. After Vietnam became an official member of ASEAN
(July 1995), and the Vietnamese Ministry of Education and Training became a
member of the ASEAN Sub- Committee of Education (ASCOE), it has been actively
collaborated with other regional countries to carry out practical and effective
In the task of boosting industrialization and modernization process in the
country, education and training plays a very important role, as the top national policy.
The Party and the Government have introduced many policies and closely monitored
to promote education and training in the country. One of the guidelines and measures
is to strengthen cooperation on education and training with other countries, especially
regional ones. By 2010, Vietnam has established educational partnerships with more
than 80 countries and regions, 36 international organizations and 70 non-
governmental organizations. Furthermore, cooperation on education and training also
contributed to the promotion of Vietnamese diplomacy.
At the 9th ASEAN Summit (October 2003), the ASEAN leaders signed the
Declaration of ASEAN Concord II (Bali Concord II), specifying major strategic
orientations with the goal of building a strongly connected and self-improved
ASEAN Community in 2020 on three pillars: Political – Security Community,
Economic Community, and Cultural – Social Community. The 12th ASEAN Summit
(January 2007) decided to shorten the formation of the ASEAN Community by 2015.
In the building of the ASEAN Community, especially the Cultural – Social one, the
quality of cooperation on education and training should be strengthened and
improved besides other areas of cooperation such as politics, security, and
As the initiator of the ASEAN Cultural – Social Community with education as
an important element, Vietnam shall be responsible for and in charge of promoting
cooperation on education and training between ASEAN countries. In that spirit, our
Party and Government have launched many policies and measures to finish the task
in the shortest time. From now to 2010, 15 years after Vietnam joined ASEAN, in
order to further improve the efficiency and quality of education and training
cooperation with ASEAN countries, thus contributing to the building of the ASEAN
Cultural - Social Community by 2015, it is important to carry out regular review and
evaluation of achievements and constraints and to accumulate experiences on the
Party’s policies and guidance on cooperation on education and training with other
From the aforementioned theoretical and practical meaning, the topic on “The
Policies and Guidance of the Communist Party of Vietnam on cooperation on
education and training with ASEAN countries from 1995 to 2010” has been chosen for
my PhD thesis, majoring in History of the Communist Party of Vietnam.
2. Purpose and Missions of the Thesis
Through the study of the Party’s policy and guidance, along with actual
cooperation cooperation on education and training between Vietnam and ASEAN
countries over the last 15 years (1995-2010), this thesis asserts the activeness and
insight of Party in prioritizing education and training cooperation as the basis for
promoting comprehensive cooperation with other ASEAN countries, thus emphazing
the achievements as well as limitations and drawing out fundamental lessons.
This thesis first identifies the historical context and domestic and international
factors affecting the education and training cooperation between Vietnam and other
ASEAN. It then clarifies the Party’s view and the process in implementing such
cooperation from 1995 to 2010. After evaluating successes and limitations during
such process, this thesis is able to draw some experiences and lessons learnt during
the process of directing cooperation between Vietnam and ASEAN by the Party.
3. Objects and Scope of research
Objects of research
This thesis conducts research on the Party’s policy and guidance as well as the
implementation process of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on education and
training with other ASEAN countries.
Scope of research
Research period: from 1995 to 2010.
Research content: Since cooperation on education and training is broad in
scope, this thesis only focuses on the policy and guidance of the Communist
Party of Vietnam’s educational cooperation with ASEAN countries.
Scope of research: Cooperation on education and training with ASEAN
countries on two aspects: multilateral and bilateral (except Brunei).
4. The rationale and research methodology
4.1. Rationale and Practice: The rationale of this thesis is based on the theory
of Marxism-Leninism and Ho Chi Minh ideology on international cooperation on
education and training, the views of the Party and State as well as the guidelines and
policies of Vietnam - ASEAN cooperation in general, and cooperation on education
and training in particular. In the practical aspect, the thesis is based on the practical
cooperation on education and training between Vietnam and other ASEAN countries
from 1995 to 2010.
4.2. Research Methodology: The research methodology of this thesis is
primarily historical approach combined with logical methods. In addition, the thesis
also uses analytical, aggregated, statistical, comparative methods and survey to
illustrate the issues in the dissertation.
5. Scientific contribution of the thesis
Sources of Data
The thesis collects and systemizes documentation of the policies, guidance and
implementation outcomes of cooperation on education and training with ASEAN
countries from 1995 to 2010.
Clarifying Party and State’s views, guidelines and policies on cooperation on
education and training with ASEAN countries.
Analysis of the outcomes and limitations of the Party’s policy and guidance on
cooperation on education and training with ASEAN countries, through which
drawing lessons from theory and realiality, thus contributing to the
improvement of quality and efficiency of such cooperation in the future.
Outcomes of the thesis shall contribute to the research and teaching of the
history of the Communist Party of Vietnam in the new era.
6. Significance of the thesis
The research outcome of this thesis contributes to better cooperation between
Vietnam and ASEAN. It asserts that the Party and State’s policies and guidances on
cooperation with ASEAN countries in the field of education and training during the
period of accelerating industrialization, modernization and international integration
are completely appropriate in contributing to the improvement of research and
teaching quality of the Party’s history in the new age. The thesis provides additional
scientific arguments and suggests some thoughts applicable to present cooperation on
education and training between Vietnam and ASEAN.
7. Structure of the thesis
Besides introduction, overview of the research, conclusions, list of references
and appendices, the thesis is divided into three chapters and eight sections.
The thesis provides an overview of the research outcomes of scientific studies
that are directly related to the following topics:
Scientific study of the cooperation between Vietnam and ASEAN:
The book on The integration process of Vietnam – ASEAN, by Dinh Xuan Ly,
published by the National University Publishing House in 2000; Ministerial research
project of the Department of ASEAN in 2001 (Ministry of Foreign Affairs); 5 years
of Vienam’s accession to ASEAN: achievements, challenges and prospects; key
scientific study on Vietnam – ASEAN Integration: the process, current status and
related problems by the Hanoi National University, checked in 2002; The book
Vietnam - ASEAN multilateral and bilateral relations by Vu Duong Ninh, published
by National Political Publishing House; The article The development of ASEAN: 10
years looking back by Nguyen Thu My on the Communist Review issue no.14/ July
2005; The article Vietnam - ASEAN after 10 years by Le Cong Phung published on
External Affairs Magazine, issue no.8/2005; The doctoral dissertation in history
Thailand - Vietnam Relations (1976-2004) by Thananan Boonwanna, completed in
2008; The book Connecting ASEAN in the first decade of the twenty-first century by
Prof. Pham Duc Thanh (Editor), published by the Social Sciences Publishing House
in 2006; The book The role of Vietnam in ASEAN by the Database and Document
Centre under Vietnam News Agency, published by Vietnam News Agency in 2007;
The book Current ASEAN cooperation and connectivity and the participation of
Vietnam by Nguyen Hoang Giap, Nguyen Huu Cat and Nguyen Thi Que, published
by the Political Theory Publishing House in 2008; The book on the History of
Vietnam - Singapore relations (1965-2005) by Pham Thi Ngoc Thu, published by Ho
Chi Minh City Publishing House in 2009; Master thesis in international relations of
Chhouet Sopheak (Cambodia) themed Cambodia – Vietnam cooperation since 1993,
completed in July 2009; The 2010 Ministerial study Vietnam’s accession to ASEAN
from 1995 until present: Achievements, related issues and prospects by the Institute
of International Relations (Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics and Public
Administration); The book on Vietnam in the process of integrating into ASEAN by
Nguyen Van Thien and Nguyen Cong Hai published by the People’s Army
Publishing House in 2011; The book on the history of the special Vietnam-Laos,
Laos-Vietnam relationships (1930 -2007) by the Hanoi National Political Publishing
House, published in 2011.
Study of cooperation on education and training between Vietnam and ASEAN:
+ Reference: Guideline on international relations in education and training of
the Department of International Relations (Ministry of Education and Training)
published by the Education Publishing House in 1996; This book was edited and
amended in 2002 by the Department of International Relations - Ministry of
Education and Training;
+ Conference keynotes: The study on Educational Cooperation between
Vietnam and other Southeast Asian countries in the current period by Dr. Nghiem
Dinh Vy and Dr. Tung Cheng in the Today - Tomorrow ASEAN conference
yearbook (September 1997); The Workshop on Developing ASEAN towards a
sustainable, equitable and cooperative community of developing countries included
the following article: Strengthening bilateral and multilateral cooperation in human
resources training for ASEAN by Dr. Nguyen Tho Vuong, Current status and
prospects of human resource development in ASEAN countries by Dr. Truong Thi
Thuy Hang; Speeches written about cooperation on education and training between
Vietnam and ASEAN within the scope of the seminar on Vietnam - ASEAN
Integration prior to the beginning of XXI century, including: "5 years backward
looking on Vietnam – ASEAN educational cooperation"by Tran Van Nhung and
Nguyen Van Khoi, the presentation on The cooperation on education and training
within ASEAN (mainly higher education and training) by Dr. Mai Ngoc Chu; 2nd
workshop on Connecting ASEAN by the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
includes a presentation on Typical policies of ASEAN countries on the development of
education and human resources in the first decade of the twenty-first century by a
group of authors: Dr. Phan Van Kha, Vuong Thanh Huong and Le Hong Quang; the
Scientific Conference on Looking backwards and forwards the role of Vietnam in
ASEAN had a presentation on Some thoughts about Vietnamese education and
regional integration strategy in the twenty-first century from the experience of some
countries in Southeast Asia by Phan Thi Hong Xuan. The Vietnam - ASEAN: 10 years
of integration and development Seminar posted a speech on the topic ASEAN
Educational Cooperation – a potential and prosperous area by Le Thi Ngoc Dung.
+ Master in Science and History thesis of Nguyen Thi Huyen Nga, completed
in 2008 at the University of Vinh on The educational status in the Democratic
Republic of Laos (1986-2007) and the role of Vietnam; Doctoral dissertation on The
cooperation between the Communist Party of Vietnam and the Lao people's
Revolutionary Party on staff training in the political system from 1986 to 2006 by
Duong Thi Hue for her PhD.in History, completed in 2011; Master in International
Relations thesis on The Laos - Vietnam cooperation on culture - education from 1975
to 2010 by Xayasane Bounsavang (PDR), completed in 2011.
The scientific research projects that mention policy on education and training
by the Party and the State:
Education and training in the reform period: policy, implementation and
evaluation by the Central Commission on Science and Education published by the
National Political Publishing House in 2002; Vietnam Education on the threshold of
the XXI century by Pham Minh Hac, published by the National Political Publishing
House in 2002; The article Education and training development or industrialization
and modernization of the country written by the Minister of Education and Training
Nguyen Minh Hien posted on the Communist Review issue no.22 (November 2005); The 2009 ministerial project on Neighbouring policy of Vietnam from 1991 to
present by the Institute of International Relations (HCM National Academy of
Politics and Public Administration); doctoral dissertation on the Foreign Policy of the
Communist Party of Vietnam for Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2006 by Nguyen Thi
Hoan, completed in February 2011; doctoral dissertation on The cooperation between
the Vietnamese Communist Party and the Lao people's Revolutionary Party on staff
training in the political system from 1986 to 2006 by Duong Thi Hue, completed in
Although there have been many scientific research works on the general
cooperation between Vietnam and other ASEAN countries and on some
specific areas of cooperation, there has not been any in-depth, systematic
project on the Party’s policy and guidance on education and training
cooperation between Vietnam and ASEAN from 1995 to 2010.
PARTY’S VIEWPOINTS AND GUIDANCE ON
COOPERATION ON EDUCATION AND TRAINING WITH
(1995 - 2001)
COOPERATION BETWEEN VIETNAM AND ASEAN COUNTRIES
1.1.1. Regional and world factors
The end of 20th century saw the development of science and technology as the
main productive force. National priority is placed on educational development, thus
enhancing regional and international cooperation is an important measure against the
risk of significant lag in culture and science. For developing countries like Vietnam,
this is of significant importance, playing a key role in the social progress and
Globalization is an inevitable trend that promotes peace and cooperation for
development. The financial crisis left some ASEAN countries with serious
consequences, affecting the process of cooperation on education and training between
Vietnam and other ASEAN countries.
The realization of ASEAN 10 initiatives, which are striving for regional peace
and stability, maintaining national identity and unity, and upholding regional selfimprovement spirit, has opened up a new era of cooperation between countries in the
1.1.2. ASEAN in promoting educational cooperation
In Southeast Asia, there are two educational institutions simultaneously
operating in cooperation activities, which are: the South East Asian Ministers of
Education Organization (SEAMEO) and the ASEAN Sub-Committee on Education
SEAMEO is operated by the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Council
(SEAMEC). SEAMEO has one Secretariat abbreviated as SEAMES who assists the
Council headquartered in Bangkok (Thailand). SEAMES Director is an official
selected by the Board who is the citizen of a member country. He shall be in office
for a 3 year term.
In addition, the ASEAN University Network (AUN) under the supervision of
ASEAN comprises of leading universities in ASEAN member countries. AUN is
responsible for promoting cooperation through the exchange of students, scientific
leaders and human resources between the participating countries.
In ASEAN, the ASEAN Sub-Committee on Education (ASCOE) is structured
within the Commission on Social Development of ASEAN (COSD). ASCOE is in
charge of cooperation activitites on education and training, below ASCOE are
various groups of educational experts in ASEAN.
A number of ASEAN declarations and documents have mentioned in detail the
educational cooperation in ASEAN, especially cooperation to improve human
resources such as the Hanoi Declaration (1998), or the Hanoi Action Plan (1998).
1.1.3. The national requirement of human resources development
The process of reform within the country has obtained many great
achievements. Besides such advantages, the current challenges faced by Vietnam
make task of promoting regional and world cooperation on education and training
ever more important.
After the collapse of socialist regime in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe,
cooperation on education and training between Vietnam and these countries fell
sharply. The learning and exchange sharing on education between regional and global
countries is the general trend of the process of globalization in education
development. Therefore, expanding and strengthening cooperation with regional
countries is an objective requirement for Vietnam.
COOPERATION WITH ASEAN COUNTRIES DURING 1995 – 2001
1.2.1. Party’s policy for the accession to ASEAN (1986 – 1995)
In the late 1980s, there were rapid and complex developments in the world
situation that changed the basis of global context. Since the 1970s to the mid 1980s,
Vietnam faced severe socio-economic crisis within the country. Given major
difficulties and challenges resulted from the world and domestic situation, the Party
proposed policy to expand external relations with ASEAN countries, thus
accelerating the accession of Vietnam to ASEAN. This is expressed through various
documents of the Party: Resolution on the 6th National Party Congress (December
1986), Resolution 13 by the Politburo (May 1988), Resolutions on the 6th and 8th
Plenums (Term 6), Resolution on the 7th Party Congress, and the 3rd Plenum
congress term 7 in June 1992.
Following the Party’s policy, in September 1994, Prime Minister Vo Van Kiet
announced the formation of ASEAN Department (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) to
coordinate activities between Vietnam and ASEAN. The accession ceremony of
Vietnam to ASEAN was held on 28 July1995 it Brunei.
1.2.2. Party’s Policy and Guidance on education and training cooperation
with ASEAN countries (1996-2001)
The 8th National Party Congress (1996) set out specific orientations in the
foreign relations with ASEAN as well as identifying education and training as the top
national priority along with science and technology.
To further specify the Resolution of the 8th Party Coongress, the Central
Committee term 8 in the 2nd Plenum issued the Resolution no.2 on “strategic
orientation for education and training development in the period of industrialization
and modernization and mission until 2020” in December 1996.
In June 1999, the Ministry of Education and Training developed and submitted
the Project to expand and improve the effectiveness of international relations on
education and training until 2010 to the Prime Minister for consideration. This project
specified the key measures to enhance cooperation on education and training with
other regional and international countries.
TRAINING WITH ASEAN COUNTRIES
1.3.1. Vietnam – ASEAN Multilateral Cooperation
Given changes in the world situation and the need for education cooperation
with ASEAN countries, the Ministry of Education and Training of Vietnam attaches
great importance to expanding partnerships with countries in Southeast Asia. It
officially joined the South East Asian Minister of Education Organization
(SEAMEO) in February 1992. On 28 March 1992, the Ministry announced its
decision regarding the establishment of the Executive Board overseeing cooperation
activities with SEAMEO.
After Vietnam became the official member of ASEAN (July 1995), the
Vietnamese Ministry of Education and Training also joined the ASEAN SubCommittee on Education. Vietnam fulfilled all of its obligations, commitments and
responsibilities as a member country, thus positively and proactively proposing
initiatives to promote regional cooperation on the basis of consensus, and noninterference in the internal affairs of each other.
1.3.2. Bilateral cooperation between Vietnam and ASEAN countries on
education and training
18.104.22.168. Education cooperation between Vietnam and other CLM countries
Cooperation with Cambodia
Cambodian government considered Vietnam as a reliable training center for
Cambodian students. As requested by Cambodia, the number of students attending
Vietnamese school tends to increase every year.
In 1994, Vietnam and Cambodia signed the Agreement on training Cambodian
officials in Vietnam. The two governments also agreed that this Agreement would be
amended annually to account for the changes in each country’s situation. Another
Agreement on Cambodian personnel training in Vietnam was signed on 15 June
1999, setting an important standard for training criteria used in full time training
course for Cambodian students in Vietnam.
Following the Agreement, Vietnam receives approximately 100 Cambodian
students on average annually. The accomodation conditions for Cambodian students
also improve every year.
Cooperation with Laos
Education and training is identified as a strategic area for cooperation, a
symbol of the special friendship by the two Parties, two States and thus it is given
priority. It is also one of the most successful areas for cooperation.
To further develop and improve the quality of human resources, since 1992,
the Ministry of Education and Training of the two countries have agreed to only
focus on training Laos’s students in undergraduate and postgraduate education,
especially in the key areas on economics and science – technology, while excluding
applications from Laos’s students for secondary and tertiary education. With this
policy, Vietnam has given Laos a significant source of funding and comprehensive
support in the area of education and training.
Since 1997, due to the difficult socio-economic situation in both countries,
along with the accession of Laos into ASEAN as the 8th member, there was a
significant increase in the number of students studying in other countries such as
Thailand, Singapore, and the Philippines etc. Consequently, the number of Lao
students attending Vietnam schools has declined. However, on the basis of the
achievements obtained from comprehensive cooperation between the two countries
and our special friendship, Vietnam is still considered by the Laos government as the
most reliable training centre and Lao government hopes to receive continuous
assistance from Vietnam. Nevertheless, the number of Lao students applying for
Vietnamese schools and wishing to study continues to rise and there is also a rapid
increase in the number of Laos’s students studying in Vietnam.
Cooperation with Myanmar
Vietnam - Myanmar relations are always stable on all aspects. In the difficult
circumstances, Myanmar considers Vietnam as a trusted friend. In May 1995, the
Delegation of the Vietnamese Ministry of Education and Training visited Myanmar
for the first time and signed the "Memorandum of Understanding" with the Myanmar
Ministry of Education, creating a legal basis for the development of cooperation on
education between the two countries. However, cooperation between Vietnam and
Myanmar on education is limited due to economic difficulties faced by both
22.214.171.124. Education cooperation between Vietnam and other ASEAN countries
Cooperation with Singapore
Singapore is a developed country in the region. That’s why Vietnam advocates
promoting comprehensive cooperation with Singapore, including cooperation on
education and training.
Education cooperation between Vietnam and Singapore was initiated from the
1990s, but only was formalized when Vietnam joined ASEAN (1995). Both countries
have cooperated in there main channels: 1. Full fee paying student; 2. Bilateral
cooperation between educational institutions; 3. Government Scholarships resulting
from education and training cooperation. In addition, many Vietnamese teachers and
research officials are invited to attend training courses and seminars in Singapore.
Many Singaporean teachers also volunteer to teach English in Vietnam. Some
Vietnamese lecturers also currently teach Vietnamese at the National University of
Cooperation with Thailand
Cooperation on education and training between Vietnam and Thailand are
accelerated since 1990. Thailand supports Vietnam mostly in the area of rural and
agriculture. Although modestly in amount, Thailand is still one of the countries who
provide development assistance to Vietnam.
Cooperation with Malaysia
With the growing trust and mutual understanding, the relations between two
countries is increasingly consolidated and comprehensively developed in all aspects.
Cooperation with Indonesia
Having a traditional friendship, Vietnam and Indonesia cooperate in the field of
education and training since 1987. Until 1995, the bilateral relations had reached a
comprehensive level. Indonesia regularly provides scholarships for Vietnamese
students and officials studying Melayu language, or doing thesis in business
management, medicine and pharmacy, and agriculture. In addition, the Indonesian
government also provides short term training courses (4 to 6 weeks) on tourism and
Cooperation with the Philippines
The bilateral relations developed significantly after Vietnam became a member
of ASEAN. In the area of education and training, the Philippines provides Vietnam
with generous assistance on agricultural training.
Shortly after becoming a full member of ASEAN (1995), our Party decided to
strengthen cooperation with ASEAN countries. Vietnam quickly integrated into the
region and promoted cooperation in all areas, including education and training.
Bilateral cooperation on education and training between Vietnam and ASEAN
countries starts to see some positive results. Despite many difficulties, with the goal
of continuously consolidating and developing the traditional friendship and
neighbourhood, Vietnam has maintained and increased our supports for Laos and
Cambodia in education and training. With the rest of the ASEAN countries, after our
accession to ASEAN, Vietnam advocates to enlist in the ASEAN scholarships. We
have begun to receive scholarships on human resource training.
However, the Party’s policies and guidelines on cooperation on education and
training with the ASEAN countries during this period are still limited and lagged
behind the evolvement of reality. Cooperation on education and training between
Vietnam and ASEAN countries is not commensurate with the potential of each
country. Nevertheless, the initial results of the cooperation between Vietnam and
ASEAN countries is the foundation, the premise for Vietnam and other ASEAN
countries to further promote cooperation on education and training.
IMPROVEMENT OF THE QUALITY AND EFFICIENCY OF EDUCATION
AND TRAINING COOPERATION WITH ASEAN COUNTRIES
FOLLOWING THE PARTY'S GUIDELINES (2001-2010)
2.1. THE FACTORS AFFECTING EDUCATION AND TRAINING
COOPERATION BETWEEN VIETNAM AND ASEAN COUNTRIES IN THE
2.1.1. The overall regional and international trend
The scientific and technological revolution will continue to experience great
breakthroughs in the 21st century, leading the world from the industrial age to the
information and intellectual economic development age while affecting all sectors, thus
making swift and profound changes in society's material and mental life.
After the financial crisis, many ASEAN and East Asian economies have been
able to recover with new competitive abilities. This creates a favorable condition for
Vietnam to promote cooperation with regional partners in all areas. Yet since 2007,
the world has fallen into the financial crisis. Besides, many Southeast Asian countries
also greatly suffered from natural disasters. The economic recession has significantly
affected cross-border cooperation in many areas, including education and training.
Nonetheless, educational reforms continue on a global scale. Investment on
education, once considered social welfare, is now considered investment on
2.1.2. ASEAN policy on education and training cooperation
In the 9th ASEAN Summit (Oct 2003), ASEAN leaders signed the Declaration of
ASEAN Concord II (the Bali Concord II), stating the major strategic guidelines of
ASEAN with the goal of building a closely integrated and self-reliant ASEAN
community by 2020 through 3 pillars including: the political-security community, the
economic community, and the socio-cultural community. Education is the cornerstone in
the building of the ASEAN community.
The ASEAN Charter, signed by ASEAN heads of states during the 13th
ASEAN summit (Nov 2007) in Singapore and effective as of December 15 2008,
created favorable circumstances and promoted regional cooperation. With respect to
educational cooperation, point 10, article 1 of the ASEAN Charter holds that the goal
of education is: to develop human resources through closer cooperation in education