The kinds of errors made by thirdyear english language study students in translating articles in terms of generic reference

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Supervisor: Hong Lu Chi Toan Researcher: Tran Anh Thu CAN THO UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF EDUCATION ENGLISH DEPARTMENT THE KINDS OF ERRORS MADE BY THIRDYEAR ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDY STUDENTS IN TRANSLATING ARTICLES IN TERMS OF GENERIC REFERENCE B.A THESIS Field of Cần study: Thơ@Tài English Language Trung tâm Học liệu ĐH liệu Learning học tập và nghiên cứu Supervisor: Hong Lu Chi Toan, M. Ed Researcher: Tran Anh Thu Student ID: 7044868 Letters of English Class 03 Course 30 Can Tho, May 2008 -1- Supervisor: Hong Lu Chi Toan Researcher: Tran Anh Thu CONTENT Content -------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 Acknowledgement ------------------------------------------------------- 3 Abstract -------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 Interpretation Page ------------------------------------------------------ 5 Chapter I Introduction ----------------------------------------------- 6 Chapter II Literature Review---------------------------------------- 9 I. Definition of the Article -------------------------------------- 9 II. Types and Usages of the Article----------------------------- 9 1. Types of the Article----------------------------------- 9 2. Usages of the Article --------------------------------- 10 III. Reference and the Article------------------------------------ 13 IV. Generic Reference -------------------------------------------- 14 V. Translation ----------------------------------------------------- 16 Trung tâmChapter Học liệu ĐH Cần Thơ@Tài liệu học tập và nghiên cứu III Research Methodology -------------------------------- 19 I. Research Aim -------------------------------------------------- 19 II. Participants ----------------------------------------------------- 19 III. Instruments ---------------------------------------------------- 19 IV. Procedure ------------------------------------------------------ 20 Chapter IV Data Analysis and Discussion ------------------------ 22 I. Data Collection------------------------------------------------- 22 II. Data Analysis -------------------------------------------------- 22 1. Data Analysis for Items of A/An ------------------- 23 2. Data Analysis for items of The---------------------- 29 3. Comparison between Data Analysis of “A/An” and “The” ------------------------------------------------- 34 4. Analyzing the Problems That Cause Making Errors of Students ---------------------------------------------------- 35 Chapter V Conclusion, Suggestion, and Limitation ------------- 37 -2- Supervisor: Hong Lu Chi Toan Researcher: Tran Anh Thu I Conclusion------------------------------------------------------- 37 II. Suggestion ------------------------------------------------------ 38 III. Suggestion for Further research ---------------------------- 39 IV. Limitation ----------------------------------------------------- 39 References ----------------------------------------------------------------- 40 Appendices ---------------------------------------------------------------- 42 Trung tâm Học liệu ĐH Cần Thơ@Tài liệu học tập và nghiên cứu -3- Supervisor: Hong Lu Chi Toan Researcher: Tran Anh Thu ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  First of all, I would like to show my deep gratitude to my supervisor, Mr. HỒNG LƯ CHÍ TOÀN, who constantly gave me useful advice, tirelessly corrected my draft and actively encouraged me to work better and better on my research thesis. Also, I have the greatest respect for and gratitude to Dr. NGUYỄN THU HƯƠNG’s real help, positive encouragement to my desirable study and also adequate provision of materials for reference. Trung tâm Học liệu ĐH Cần Thơ@Tài liệu học tập và nghiên cứu I would further like to acknowledge Mr. ĐÀO PHONG LÂM and two teachers from the Department of Vietnamese, Mr.CHIÊM VĂN BÉ and Mr. NGUYỄN VĂN NỞ, for their substantial help. My sincere thanks go to all my close friends, my best friends, and my participants – B.A students of English from course 31, for their voluntary involvement in my thesis. And special thanks go to my life friend who gave me mental support at the time I was disheartened on my thesis work. Last but not least, thank English Department for giving me an opportunity to accept challenge for carrying out a thesis. -4- Supervisor: Hong Lu Chi Toan Researcher: Tran Anh Thu ABSTRACT This thesis deals with the English – Vietnamese translation in terms of English article related to generic reference. The research is conducted to point out the errors that students commit, to find out the causes that lead to the errors and to come up with a suggestion of paying attention to article with regard to translation. The data were collected from a translation test consisting of 14 single – sentence items and 2 extra questions responded by 60 juniors of English at Can Tho University. The result shows that the minority of the participants(28.57%) yet commit errors on the articles in terms of generic reference. Also, the main causes of the errors are that some of the participants do not have a thorough understanding of reference of article, have a habit of translating word - for – word, cannot express Vietnamese equivalences for Trung tâm Học liệu ĐH Cần Thơ@Tài liệu học tập và nghiên cứu some sentences in the test though they know the meanings of each word n those sentences. Importantly enough, some of the participants assume that some new words prevent them from doing the translating naturally and accurately. This mistranslation indirectly left a limitation for the data analysis because I found it hard to affirm whether the errors committed in their mistranslation were caused by the new words or by their own incomplete understanding on the articles in terms of generic reference. To sum up, articles in terms of generic reference are yet considered simple or sometimes rather easy, students commit errors when they work with them in English – Vietnamese translation, though. -5- Supervisor: Hong Lu Chi Toan Researcher: Tran Anh Thu INTERPRETATION PAGE The citations of linguists in Literature review as well as in other parts of this thesis research without interpretation of page numbers (e.g. McArthur: 1998; Ehrlich: 2000) were cited from websites (see reference page). Table 1. Master’s Summary of Aspects of Classification and Identification (1990). Table 2. The summary of the use of articles (adapted from Byrd & Benson :1992). Table 3. Vietnamese versions of items of “A/An”. Table 4. Figures in the scales of Vietnamese versions of “A/An” . Trung tâmTable Học5. liệu ĐH CầninThơ@Tài liệu học versions tập vàofnghiên The percentages the scales of Vietnamese “A/An”. cứu Table 6. Vietnamese versions of items of “The”. Table 7. Figures in the scales of Vietnamese versions of “The”. Table 8. The percentages in the scales of Vietnamese versions “The”. Table 9. The comparison Vietnamese versions between “A/An” and “The”. Chart 1. Vietnamese versions of “A/An”. Chart 2. Vietnamese versions of “The”. -6- Supervisor: Hong Lu Chi Toan Researcher: Tran Anh Thu CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Vietnam’s joining the World Trade Organization (WTO) has promoted a significance of English in the country where English is employed to make itself globally understood. Consequently, learning English in Vietnam has been a nation – wide race. Vietnamese have been involved in learning it as proficiently and professionally as possible. The integration into WTO requires English not only in listening, speaking, reading, writing, grammar, and vocabulary, but also in translation (written translation) which is mostly manipulated in documents, agreements, negotiations, law, and many other necessary paper work. As far as translation is concerned, most students may think that if they are good at English, especially in grammar and vocabulary, they are able to do the translating However, translationliệu asks học for much than that.cứu Trung tâm Học accurately. liệu ĐH Cần Thơ@Tài tập more và nghiên Students have to be proficient in both English and their mother tongue – Vietnamese so that the version into English or Vietnamese could be accurate in the target language and faithful to its original one. In translation, the article system causes quite a few problems to deal with. Actually, I myself have faced difficulties in translating “article” which is really thought easy and simple by most students. As Celce-Mucrcia and Larsen-Freeman (1983), and Huong (2005) have pointed out that article problems, unlike other grammar or syntactic problems, do not disappear as students become more proficient. They also state that the article system in English is notoriously difficult to acquire, probably because Vietnamese has a classifying system in which, among other things, distinctions are made between human, animal, concrete and abstract, whereas English distinguishes between count and non- count noun, which is related to boundedness. Also, another obvious evidence about the problems Vietnamese learners getting -7- Supervisor: Hong Lu Chi Toan Researcher: Tran Anh Thu with the English article system is that the absence of article system in Vietnamese (Butler 2002; Berry 1991; Master 1988; Thomas 1989; Yamada & Matsuura 1982). Therefore, it is very difficult for Vietnamese learners to find the equivalence between English and Vietnamese when translating some text relating to the English article. In addition, even though article is hard to acquire, students’ attitude toward it is not positive. They invest less time in it. In fact, they just search for and read what is needed for the exams. They do not explore it in depth. As a result, they get confused when they work with article in translation. For example, “A woman always remembers her first love with affection” (Thu Uyen, 2007, P.176) cannot be completely natural in Vietnamese like “Một người đàn bà luôn thương nhớvềngười tình đ ầ u tiên của cô ấ y”although the version is understandable and acceptable in Vietnamese. When a translation version differs somewhat from the original one, it is easy to give rise to readers having a different look at what the writer wants to convey. The above Trung tâm Học liệu ĐH Cần Thơ@Tài liệu học tập và nghiên cứu – mentioned translation version might lead to a look that the writer refers to a specific woman whereas the writer really does not. Rather, the writer makes the reference of “woman” in general. Then, that sentence should be better translated as follows “người đàn bà luôn nhớthươ ng người tình đ ầ u tiên”(Thu uyen, 2007,248). In other words, the article “A” is not translated in Vietnamese version. What has been mentioned from the beginning of the introduction inspires me to carry out an investigation into what majoring – English juniors at Can Tho University work with English article system in translation.Therefore, my research will try to answer two questions: (1) Do third –year English language study students commit errors in translating the English articles in terms of generic reference? (2) What causes the errors? The research is outlined as followings: -8- Supervisor: Hong Lu Chi Toan Researcher: Tran Anh Thu Chapter I: Introduction Chapter II: Literature review Chapter III: Research methodology Chapter IV: Data analysis and discussion Chapter V: Conclusion, suggestion and limitation Trung tâm Học liệu ĐH Cần Thơ@Tài liệu học tập và nghiên cứu -9- Supervisor: Hong Lu Chi Toan Researcher: Tran Anh Thu CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW I. DEFINITION OF ARTICLES: Article is a word which is used with a noun, and which shows whether the noun refers to something definite or something indefinite (Richards, J.Platt and H. Platt: 1985:22). Also, article is a word whose role is to mark noun phrase as either “definite” or “indefinite”. For example, definite the in the girl, indefinite a in a girl (Mathew: 1997:25). Thus, articles are described as “markers” that accompany a noun or a noun phrase and that denote qualities of “definiteness” or “indefiniteness”. the ĐH fact that articles accompany a noun a noun theycứu Trung tâmOwing Học toliệu Cần Thơ@Tài liệu họcortập và phrase, nghiên are considered as noun modifiers or noun markers (Ehrlich: 2000). However, they are not adjectives because they do not describe the noun. Rather, they indicate the type of reference being made by the noun or the noun phrase. Articles work as noun modifiers or noun markers, but not as noun describers. As a result, they are named determiners that are involved “a/an” and “the” and classified as types of articles. II. TYPES AND USAGES OF ARTICLES: 1. Types of Articles: According to McArthur(1998) and Ehrlich(2000), there are only two types of article in English: the, the definite article, and a/an, the indefinite article. In contrast, Quirk (1973), Murphy (1985), Eastwood (1999) and Hewings(1999) - 10 - Supervisor: Hong Lu Chi Toan Researcher: Tran Anh Thu state that article system involves three types: definite article (the), indefinite article (a/an) and zero article. In fact, zero article is really the omission of the definite article which is omitted when the writer does not specify a particular amount or quantity of the noun (Ehrlich: 2000). For example, “Salt is an important commodity”. In other words, zero article has the same sort of indefinite meaning as a/an before singular nouns. This convention and the usage it describes are distinct from the suppression of articles in certain kinds of writing and speaking, such as note-taking (have suitcase, will travel: I have a suitcase and I am willing to travel) and elliptical instructions (as in dramatic scripts: leaves room: the actor leaves the room) (McArthur: 1998). However, zero article, more or less, makes sentences change their meaning (Swan: 2004:55) 2. Usages of Articles : Trung tâmArticle Học use liệuis ĐH CầnonThơ@Tài liệu học và speaker, nghiênnotcứu dependent the representation soughttập by the on rule (Hewson: 1972:94). Actually, article use may have more to do with communication and communicative competence than with grammar and linguistic competence (Pica: 1983:222). To a great extent, we depend on discourse context to determine what is definite and what is indefinite (Celce Muricia and Larsen Freeman: 1983). The indefinite article(a/an) is used when we have a singular countable noun that is unknown or not specific to the hearer, while the definite article( the) is used or the reader knows what specific noun we are talking about( Swan:2004:56). Largely, Mizuno (1993a) describes the process of choosing an article as binary, in that there are levels of test criteria that can only be answered with a "yes" or "no". According to Mizuno, there are four criterion levels: (1) Discourse Labeling (Is the object new to the discourse?), (2) Numeric Labeling (Is the object countable?), (3) Class Labeling (Is the object plural or singular?), (4) Phonetic Labeling (Does the noun which follows begin with a - 11 - Supervisor: Hong Lu Chi Toan Researcher: Tran Anh Thu vowel?). However, Master (1990) proposes a binary system. Master’s rationale for article choice is based not on "yes" or "no" decisions, but on the concepts of "identification" (marked by the) or "classification"(marked by a or Ø) (table 1). He states that determining the correct article requires a consideration of definiteness (+ definite), specificity (+specificity), countability (+ count) and number (+ singular).He suggests collapsing these categories into a system in which + definite and + specificity would become "identified", taking the definite article. The cases of definite and specific would be considered "classified" (Master: 1990:465). Therefore, in many cases, choosing a or the is only a matter of viewpoint and style (Chistophersen: 1993). As a result, Byrd & Benson (1992) give the summary of the use of articles (table 2) Table1. Master’s Summary of Aspects of Classification and Identification (1990) Identification (the) Classification(a; Ø) Trung tâm Học liệu ĐH Cần Thơ@Tài liệu học tập và nghiên cứu Count/noncount First mention Subsequent mention Ranking adjectives Shared knowledge Defining postmodification Limiting postmodification Partitive of-phrase Descriptive of-phrase Intentional vagueness General characteristics Existential there and it Generic the Classified proper nouns Proper nouns (Ø and the) Idiomatic phrases Idiomatic phrases - 12 - Supervisor: Hong Lu Chi Toan Researcher: Tran Anh Thu Table2. the summary of the use of articles (adapted from Byrd & Benson :1992) Articles Usage A(n) 1. with indefinite singular or plural count nouns (“Indefinite” means that the speaker thinks that the listener does not know what is being talked about.):e.g. I met a musician at the concert. The 1.with definite singular or plural count nouns(“Definite means that the speaker thinks that the listener knows what is being talked about.):e.g. I bought the required textbook(s) for this class yesterday. 2. with definite noncount nouns: e.g., I found the information for my research project. 3. with generic singular count nouns: e.g. Modern life has been Trung tâm Học liệu ĐHbyCần Thơ@Tài liệu học tập và nghiên cứu changed the computer. 4. With some proper nouns that are plural or collective semantically: e.g. the United States; the Soviet Union. Zero 1. with most proper nouns: e.g., John lives in Alaska. article (Ø) 2. with generic plural nouns: e.g., Tigers are both beautiful and dangerous. 3. with generic noncount nouns: e.g., people need water to live. Two 1. Singular-count nouns must have an article or another central important determiner (see Note) facts 2. For generic meaning, noncount nouns never have an article or about another central determiner articles Note. Determiners are used to specify the reference of a noun, “and there are three subgroups among them: pre-, central-, and post- determiners (Biber - 13 - Supervisor: Hong Lu Chi Toan Researcher: Tran Anh Thu et al.:1999: 258). Central determiners include articles, demonstratives (e.g. this, that), possessives (e.g. my, her, their), universal (each, every), dual (either, neither), WH (what, which, whose) determiners, assertive/nonassertive (some, any), and negative (no) (Master: 2002: 339-340). Generally, both articles and determiners play an important role in specifying the reference of a noun. III. REFERENCE AND THE ARTICLE: According to Richards, J. Platt and H. Platt (1985), reference is the relationship between words and the things, actions, events and qualities they stand for. Reference in its wider sense would be the relationship between a word or phrase and an entry in the external word (the word TREE refers to the object TREE). Reference in its narrower sense is the relationship between a word or phrase and a specific object (Peter’s horse refers to a horse which is Trung tâm Học liệu ĐH Cần Thơ@Tài liệu học tập và nghiên cứu owned by Peter).Moreover, Master(1990) argues that “whether or not we mean a specific , actual tick [as in A tick entered my ear] or a generic one [as in A tick carries disease],we still classify that tick when we use the article “a”(Master:1990:467). However, in case of “I need a digital camera, but I couldn’t find it versus I couldn’t find one, the distinction between specific and generic reference is very important. Thus, readers can guess which word or phrase is specific or generic basing on context because context, in turn, has an important influence on article choice (Zalewski: 1993:696). For those reasons, Quirk & Greenbaum (1973) classify reference of the English article system into Unique reference, Specific reference and Generic reference. Unique reference also divides many small pieces involving proper nouns, Personal nouns, Calendar items, Geographical names, Name+common nouns, and Proper nouns with definite article(Quirk:1973:76-79).Specific reference is mentioned by indefinite a/an and definite the, and Generic - 14 - Supervisor: Hong Lu Chi Toan Researcher: Tran Anh Thu reference is concentrated much on nationality words and adjectives as head (Quirk & Greenbaum:1973:68-73).Moreover, it is essential to make a distinction between specific and generic reference (Quirk:1973:67) DEFINITE INDEFINITE the tiger SPECIFIC a tiger the ink REFERENCE the tigers (some)ink (some) tiger the tiger GENERIC a tiger REFERENCE tigers IV. ink GENERIC REFERENCE: Trung tâm Học liệu ĐH Cần Thơ@Tài liệu học tập và nghiên cứu Generic reference is a type of reference, which is used to refer to a class of objects or things rather than to a specific member of a class. (Richards, J.Platt and H. Platt: 1985:155).Actually, in terms of semantic, we are seldom interested in one kind of sentence referring to a class of objects or things that are used very much in our daily communication in both conversations and academic texts. This kind of sentence is called generic sentence, which is used as the aim of generic reference of speakers or writers (Thu Uyen: 2007). For example, “An honest woman always has friends, and is never separated from her family” [17, p. 538] “ Đàn bà đứng đ ắ n, ai là chẳ ng có bè bạ n, và có bao giờlạ i cắ tđ ứt hoàn toàn quan hệvới gia đ ình” [16, p.514]. Grammatically, Thu Uyen emphasizes that generic sentence is an ideal structure for the combination of words, but the entities or the subjects - 15 - Supervisor: Hong Lu Chi Toan Researcher: Tran Anh Thu mentioned in this kind of sentence always manifest their inherent attributes. For instance, “…a man, who labours under the pressure of pecuniary embarrassments, is, with the generality of people, at a disadvantage”. “….một con người loay hoay trong cả nh túng bấ n vềtiề n tài thì phả i ởđ ị a vịbấ t lợi hơn so với phầ n lớn những người khác” .( Thu Uyen:2007:536) In a simple term, generic sentences are used when one refers to a whole group or class, to generalize about all possible member of a group without distinguishing with any specific individual or any individual in that group or class.(Hurford: 2001:56; Fillip and Carlson: 1997:176) such as “The whale is a mammal” Cá voi là loài đ ộng vậ t có vú”or “Dogs are animals” “Chó là đ ộng vậ t”(Nguyễ n Minh: 2005:56) More specifically, Thewlis (2000 states “Both the and a (n) can be used to Trung tâm Học liệu ĐH Cần Thơ@Tài liệu học tập và nghiên cứu express generic statements” like “A lion is a mighty creature” or “The computer is changing the business world”. (Master: 1996). Similarly, Berry (1993) emphasizes that use of generic The to indicate Membership like “The third task of the teacher is criticism” or “The kitchen can be a very suitable place to take a nap”, and In a narrower sense, the definite plural can also be used generically with nouns of nationality and names of animals and plants representing groups larger than species (Lyons: 1999:181) as in “The Swiss consume a lot of chocolate” or “The cats- at least the big ones like tigers and pumas – are particularly fierce predators”. - 16 - Supervisor: Hong Lu Chi Toan Researcher: Tran Anh Thu However, the problematic nature of using article in terms of generic reference is that one form of article a/an or the represents multiple functions (McEldowney: 1977).This is illustrated as the following examples: (1) The American is a good debater. (2) An American is a good debater. (3) The Americans are good debaters. (4) Americans are good debaters. Depending on the context, the subject in each of the above can fulfill the same generic function (McEldowney: 1977).Convincingly, Weeble (2007) exemplifies exactly the same as McEldowney’s analysis. For instance, (1) The teacher is low-paid everywhere. (2) A teacher is low-paid everywhere. (3) Teachers are low-paid everywhere. (4) The teachers are low-paid everywhere. These four examples are totally the same information that the Trung tâm Học liệu ĐH Cần Thơ@Tài liệu học tập và nghiên cứu speaker/writer wants to convey that “ởđ âu thì giáo viên( giáo viên in general) cũ ng bịtrảlươ ng thấ p” . The only difference between these four sentences is style. The style from (1) to (4) is from most formal to less formal in uses. Therefore, sometimes when writing or speaking you are not referring to one member of a class or to specific entity; instead you want to refer to the whole class or every member of the whole class. (Weeble: 2007). Therefore, it is very necessary to have the ways to realize generic sentences and the ways to translate them into Vietnamese exactly (Thu Uyen: 2007) V. TRANSLATION: Translation, in a simple term, is a process of finding a target language equivalent for a source language utterance (Pinhuck: 1977). In contrast, Catford(1965) assumes that translation is the replacement of textual material - 17 - Supervisor: Hong Lu Chi Toan Researcher: Tran Anh Thu in one language by equivalent textual material in another language or is the replacement of written message in one language by the same message in another language ( Newmark: 1981). On the other hand, Translation involves the rendering of a source language text into the target language so as to ensure that the surface meaning of the two will be approximately similar to the structure of the source language and will be preserved as closely as possible, but not so closely that the target language structure will be seriously distorted( McGuire:1980). More deeply, Will in Noss (1982) defines translation as a transfer process which aims at the transformation of a written source language text into an optimally equivalent target text, and which requires the syntactic, the semantic, and the pragmatic understanding and analytical processing of the source language. For example, A/An has different meanings in Vietnamese, A/An is translated as “ MỘT” in case of “I was beginning to mix with people of a kind I’d never mixed before” “Tôi bắ tđ ầ u hòa mình với những người là mộ t loại người(Môt loại trong Trung tâm Học liệu ĐH Cần Thơ@Tài liệu học tập và nghiên cứu nhiề u loạ i # The kind : loại người đ ó)tôi chưa từng trà trộn trước đ ây.” (Lê Vă n Sự: 2003:18) A/An is translated as “NÀO ĐÓ” in case of “On this particular morning, he sat facing a new client, a Mr.redginal Wade” “Vào buổ i sang đ ặ c biệ tấ y, ông ta ngồi đố i diệ n một khách hàng mới, ông Redginal Wade nào đó”( Lê Vă n Sự:2003:19), and A/An are not translated in case of “Unless I can get to a major competition and win it, I haven’t a chance of establishing myself here” “Trừkhi tôi có thểdựmộ t cuộ c tranh tài lớn và thắ ng cuộ c , tôi sẽkhông có cơhộ i làm ă n ởđây”(Lê Vă n Sự:2003:20). A/An in three cases of those examples above clearly illustrates Master’s account about “classification” as in table1 since three cases lies in the - 18 - Supervisor: Hong Lu Chi Toan Researcher: Tran Anh Thu classification of Master. Therefore, Translation is really good when the translation in target language is natural and right to the aim that source language conveys (Duff: 1989). Mistranslation can result from incomplete understanding of grammar; inability to pick out an appropriate meaning from a list of meaning of a word in the dictionary; and failure in finding an equivalence in the target language. Trung tâm Học liệu ĐH Cần Thơ@Tài liệu học tập và nghiên cứu - 19 - Supervisor: Hong Lu Chi Toan Researcher: Tran Anh Thu CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY I. Research aim: This descriptive research aim to find out the errors students made during the process of translation related to the English article system in terms of generic reference. This study, moreover, also aims to identify the main problems or difficulties that they get while translating sentences related to genericity. II. Participants: Trung tâm Học liệu ĐH Cần Thơ@Tài liệu học tập và nghiên cứu The participants in my research are 60 third-year English Language Study students from Course 31. They have been chosen randomly to take part in this study. They have been found in the random alternative of participants since they have completed the modules of translation, theory of translation one and grammar. In other words, they have acquired basic as well as advanced knowledge of articles. Actually, before tackling “generic reference terms”, students need to have understood the article in nongeneric contexts at their intermediate level. (Peter Master). III. Instruments: Two main instruments that are used in this study included a translation test and a questionnaire. The translation test (see appendices page) is drawn up with 14 single items that requires students to translate them from English into - 20 -
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