The difficulties of khmer students in learning english at can tho university (ctu)

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CAN THO UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF EDUCATION ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT THE DIFFICULTIES OF KHMER STUDENTS IN LEARNING ENGLISH AT CAN THO UNIVERSITY (CTU) B.A thesis Supervisor: Le Thi Huyen, M.A Researcher: Kim Phi Rum Student‟s code: 7062920 Class: NN0652A1 Course: 32 Can Tho – April , 2010 Kim Phi Rum 5/20/2010 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To finish this research, I have got support from many people. Firstly, I would like to thank to my supervisor, Le Thi Huyen, M.A, who has advised and showed me the procedure for the research step by step. During the time working with her, I have realized errors that should be corrected to be a good person. I have got more experience on working style, as well as know how to make thesis more effectively which is very useful for my higher education. Secondly, I want to send my gratitude to my friends – Vu Thi Hong and Nguyen Thi Nhuyen, who have helped me so much during my process. Especially, when I have difficulties, two of them are always willing to help me. Thirdly, I am also grateful to Mr Moore Stephen (Department of Linguistics Macquaire University) and Ms Suksiri Bounchan (Department of English Institute of Foreign Languages, Royal University of Phnom Penh) who have presented a good topic “Khmer learner English: A teachers’ guide to Khmer interference”, supplied me the necessary materials for my thesis when I was in Cambodia. Thanks also to my advisor, Bui Minh Chau, M.A, who has given me special help during my difficult process. Thank my parents who have encouraged me to finish the research well. Last but not least, thank 74 participants who are willing to take part in my research so that I can have the data to finish my thesis. Kim Phi Rum 5/20/2010 2 CONTENTS CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... Page List of tables ........................................................................................................... v Abstract .................................................................................................................. vi 1. Introduction ..................................................................................................... 1 1. General statement of the problem .......................................................... 1 2. Statement of hypotheses, objectives and questions ............................... 2 3. General organization of the study .......................................................... 3 2. Literature review............................................................................................. 4 1. The difficulties caused by the mother tongue in second language learning .......................................................................... 4 1.1 Overview of Khmer language .................................................... 4 1.2 The difficulties of Khmer Cambodia learners in learning English 4 a. In phonology ........................................................................ 4 b. In grammar ........................................................................... 9 1.3 The influence of L1 transfer .................................................... 12 2. The difficulties caused by attitudes and motivation factors in learning English .................................................................................. 14 3. Research method ............................................................................................... 1. Research design.................................................................................... 17 2. Description of participants and instruments ........................................ 17 2.1 Participants ................................................................................ 17 2.2 Research instruments ................................................................ 17 3. Research procedures ............................................................................ 18 4. Results ............................................................................................................ 19 1. The level of difficulties in learning English of Khmer CTU students .. 19 1.1 The level of difficulties in learning English caused by the mother tongue ......................................................................................... 19 1.2 The level of difficulties in learning English caused by factor of attitude ........................................................... 19 1.3 The difficulties in learning English can be caused by motivation 20 2. Khmer CTU students‟ awareness of the differences between Khmer and English .................................................................... 22 5. Discussions ..................................................................................................... 25 1. Discussions............................................................................................ 25 2. Pedagogical implications ...................................................................... 26 3. Limitation and recommendations ......................................................... 27 4. Conclusions ........................................................................................... 27 References ........................................................................................................... 28 Appendices .......................................................................................................... 30 Kim Phi Rum 5/20/2010 3 LIST OF TABLES Tables: ............................................................................................................ Page 2.1 Original consonant in Khmer .................................................................. 5 2.2 Distinctive phonemes in Khmer............................................................... 5 2.3 Distinctive phonemes of invented consonant sounds in Khmer ............... 6 2.4 Dependent and independent Khmer vowels ............................................. 8 3.1 Clusters of questionnaire ......................................................................... 18 4.1.1.a The mean score of level of difficulties in learning English caused by the mother tongue ....................................................................... 19 4.1.1.b Descriptive statistic of difficulties in learning English caused by factor of attitude ............................................................................................ 20 4.1.1.b.1 Descriptive statistic of specific item of attitude factor .................. 20 4.1.2 The overall mean score of Khmer students‟ self-study frequency in learning English ....................................................................................... 21 4.1.1.c The level of difficulties in learning English caused by the motivation factor ............................................................................... 23 4.1.1.c.1 Descriptive statistic of specific items of English speaking environment difficulties.................................................... 23 4.2 The overall mean score of Khmer students‟ awareness of the difficulties between Khmer and English ................................................. 24 Kim Phi Rum 5/20/2010 4 ABSTRACT Nowadays, English is one of the most important languages of the world. However, learning English seems to be difficult to all learners as well as to Khmer CTU students. The study the difficulties of Khmer students in learning English at Can Tho university aimed to find out the difficulties that Khmer CTU students face in learning English which caused by the mother tongue as well as attitude and motivation factors. With a descriptive research, 16 items – questionnaires were delivered to 74 Khmer CTU students who were following non-major English program to get data. The data was analyzed by the Statistic Package for the Social Science (SPSS) program. The result shows that Khmer CTU students sometimes have difficulties in pronouncing English sounds that do not exist in Khmer language system. Besides, lack of motivation from teachers; difficult English learning material; as well as lack of English speaking environment are other difficulties that Khmer students are suffering when learning English at CTU. However, they still have positive attitude to English learning. From the results, the researcher proposes some implications for both teachers and students that students should not only have good attitudes to their English learning but also know the differences between their mother tongue (Khmer) and English so that they will have “special treatments” to any aspects of English which are different from those of the former. Teachers should make students more motivated in learning English, use the appropriate materials to students‟ ability as well as ask students to practice speaking English more frequently. TÓM LƯỢC Ngày nay tiếng Anh là một trong những ngôn ngữ quan trọng nhất thế giới. Tuy nhiên, việc học tiếng Anh thì luôn khó đối với tất cả người học nói chung và đối với sinh viên Khmer tại Đại học Cần Thơ nói riêng. Bài nghiên cứu những khó khăn của sinh viên Khmer trong học tiếng Anh tại Đại học Cần Thơ nhằm tìm ra những khó khăn của họ trong học tiếng Anh gây ra bởi yếu tố tiếng mẹ đẻ cũng như các yếu tố thái độ và động lực học. Bằng hình thức định tính phiếu điều tra được phát cho 74 sinh viên Khmer đang theo học tiếng Anh không chuyên tại trường để lấy số liệu. Dữ liệu thu được đã được phân tích bằng phần mềm SPSS . Kết quả cho thấy, sinh viên Khmer thỉnh thoảng gặp khó khăn khi phát những âm tiếng Anh mà không có trong hệ thống âm tiếng Khmer. Ngoài ra, thiếu động lực học từ giáo viên; tài liệu học tiếng Anh khó cũng như thiếu môi trường thực hành nói tiếng Anh là những khó khăn mà sinh viên Khmer gặp phải khi học Anh văn. Tuy nhiên, họ vẫn có thái độ tích cực khi học tiếng Anh . Từ kết quả nghiên cứu, tác giả đưa ra một số kiến nghị đến giáo viên và sinh viên Khmer. Để học tiếng Anh tốt hơn, ngoài có thái độ tích cực trong học tập, sinh viên cần biết sự giống và khác nhau giữa tiếng mẹ đẻ và tiếng Anh từ đó có cách xử lý tốt đối với những phần trong tiếng Anh khác với tiếng mẹ đẻ. Bên cạnh đó, giáo viên cần tạo ra hứng thú, tiếp thêm động lực cho sinh viên trong học tiếng Anh, sử dụng tài liệu phù hợp với năng lực của sinh viên cũng như yêu cầu họ luyện tập nói tiếng Anh nhiều hơn. Kim Phi Rum 5/20/2010 5 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, I would like to state general statement of the problem; statement of the hypotheses, objectives, or questions. Besides, general organization and coverage of the study are also included afterwards. 1. General statement of the problem Nowadays, no one denies the importance of English language. It is clear that the English language has become very dominant around the world. In some countries, it is a native language, and in others, it is taught in schools as a second language. According to “The world ten most influential languages” by Weber, G. (1995), it ranks the second of the languages that have the most native speakers of the world with more than 508 million people (after Mandarin Chinese with more than 1 billion people). It is the official language of more countries than any other languages, including New Zealand, the U.S.A, Australia, England, Zimbabwe, the Caribbean, Hong Kong, South Africa, and Canada. According to Internet World Statistics English, it is also the language that is used most in the Internet. People who know English can deal with the Internet, which is regard information and communications revolution. It is clear that English is very necessary today. We use it in different fields of life such as economy, e-commerce, medicine, aviation tourism, travel, and so on. Especially, it is used in the field of education by the university and institute for the scientific research. Because of the necessity of English, millions of people all over the world learn this language. In Vietnam, English is taught from the 6th grade in Secondary School not only in the cities but also in the countryside. However, learning English seems to be not easy to all learners, including Khmer learners who are considered to be more convenient in learning English because of the similarities between their mother tongue and English. For example, it is rare for Khmer speakers to have any problems with pronouncing initial or medial – positioned consonant cluster such as /cr/, /pl/, /sm/, /tw/ because Khmer also has a similar system of blending consonants together (Moore, S. & Bounchan. S., 2010). Indeed, Khmer learners have met many difficulties in learning English. Lightbown, M. and Spada, N. (1993) stated that learning English is not easy because there are many factors affecting English learners such as intelligence, aptitude, Kim Phi Rum 5/20/2010 6 age at which learner begins learning the language. Besides, the native language or the mother tongue is one of the important factors in learning English (Kenworthy, 1987). It can make learners learn English easily or cause difficulties to them. According to Lado, R. (1957), “the elements that are similar to his native language will be simple for him, and the elements that are different will be difficult”. On the other hand, in pronunciation, when there is a sound in the target language, which is absent the learner native sound inventory of vice versa, learners may not be able to produce or even perceive the sounds (Avery, P. and Ehrlich, S. 1992). Moreover, the factor of attitude and motivation is also one of the important factors leading to success “the more succeeds the greater one‟s motivation, the greater one‟s motivation, the more one succeeds” (Lightbown & Spada, 1993). In other words, if learners have positive attitude and motivation in learning English, it will motivate them in learning. In contrast, if they have negative motivation, it will lead them to difficulties in learning English. In brief, there are difficulties in learning English of English learners especially Khmer CTU students. There are many factors affecting students; however, two main factors that may directly or indirectly affect the result of Khmer students‟ language learning are their mother tongue, and their attitude and motivation. These factors may cause difficulties to Khmer learners. Being a Khmer student at CTU, I really want to help Khmer students realize as well as overcome problems in learning English. Therefore, I want to conduct the research that I named The difficulties of Khmer students in learning English at Can Tho university (CTU). 2. Statement of the hypotheses, objectives and questions 2.1. Statement of the hypotheses 1. The differences between the mother tongue (Khmer) and English as well as lack of attitude and motivation cause difficulties in learning English of Khmer CTU students. 2. Khmer CTU students‟ awareness of the differences between the mother tongue (Khmer) and English is low. 2.2. Statement to the objectives With this research, I want to: 1. find out the difficulties of Khmer CTU students in learning English caused by the mother tongue as well as attitudes and motivation factors. Kim Phi Rum 5/20/2010 7 1. measure Khmer students‟ awareness of the differences between Khmer and English. 2.3. Statement of the questions 1. What are the difficulties in learning English of Khmer CTU students caused by the mother tongue as well as attitudes and motivation factors? 2. To which extent are Khmer students aware of the differences between their mother tongue and English? 3. General organization of the study This thesis consists of five chapters: Chapter 1 is introduction which consists of four following items: general statement of the problem, statement of the hypotheses, objectives, questions, and general organization of the study. Chapter 2 is literature review. It relates to the difficulties caused by the mother tongue in second language learning, the difficulties of Khmer Cambodian learners in learning English, influence of L1 transfer, the difficulties caused by attitude and motivation factors in second language learning. Chapter 3 is research methodology. It includes research design, participants, instruments, and research procedure. Chapter 4 is research findings, including some difficulties that Khmer CTU students suffer from learning English, as well as their awareness of the differences between Khmer and English languages. Chapter 5 is discussions. It is about the summary of research problems, methods, and findings as well as conclusions and implications. Kim Phi Rum 5/20/2010 8 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW In this chapter, I will review the difficulties caused by the mother tongue in second language learning, the difficulties of Khmer Cambodian learners in learning English, influence of L1 transfer, the difficulties caused by attitudes and motivation factors in second language learning. 1. THE DIFFICULTIES CAUSED BY THE MOTHER TONGUE IN SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING: 1.1 Overview of Khmer language Khmer is the official language of Cambodia and is spoken by virtually all Cambodians. Its origins lie mainly in a local language from the Mon-Khmer family and the two ancient Indian languages, Pali and Sanskrit. Words of Khmer origin are typically root words and are commonly found in the spoken language whereas words of Pali and Sanskrit origin, in a Khmerized form, can be found in formal written language and literature, including poetry. Khmer has a small number of vocabulary items borrowed from Chinese, Thai, Vietnamese, French, and most recently English (Moore, S. & Bounchan, S. 2010). Based on the differences between English and Khmer first on phonology then on grammar, the following section is some difficulties of Khmer Cambodian learners in learning English which has been reported on the 6th CamTESOL 2010 by Moore, S. and Bounchan, S. 1.2. The difficulties of Khmer Cambodian learners in learning English: a. In phonology Consonants English has 20 alphabetic consonants (or, 21 including letter „y‟), and an additional 4 consonant sounds consisting of combined consonants. Khmer consonants are more numerous .There are 33 consonants and sub-consonants as shown in Table 2.1, and more complex since they make up just 21 individual distinctive phoneme sounds as shown in Table 2.2. Moreover, there are 3 additional „invented‟ consonants in Khmer (see Table 2.3) bringing the grand total to 24 consonant sounds. Kim Phi Rum 5/20/2010 9 Table 2.1 Original Consonant in Khmer (adapted from Pov, O. 1968) ញ ឡ Table 2.2 Distinctive phonemes in Khmer Kim Phi Rum 5/20/2010 = k = ng = c 10 ឡ ញ = d = t = b = p = y = l = s = a = kh = j = gn = th = n = ph = m = r = v = h The three „invented‟ consonant sounds, are shown in Table 2.3, and correspond to phonemes borrowed from other languages such as French. In fact, invented consonants use existing Khmer consonants in a new combination (Moore, S. & Bounchan, S. 2010) . Kim Phi Rum 5/20/2010 11 Table 2.3 Distinctive phoneme of invented consonant sounds in Khmer = f = g = z Because of the differences between Khmer and English phonologies, some Khmer learners of English may have difficulty pronouncing certain English sounds such as: //, //, /t/, // and //.( Le, T. 2008 ; Moore, S. & Bounchan, S. 2010) On the other hand, Khmer speakers do not instinctively voice the sound of final position consonants in words. Thus, many students may drop /t/ and /d/ in „ant‟ and „and‟. They pronounce them as /an/. However, unlike Thai or Vietnamese speakers, it is rarely for Khmer speakers to have any problems with pronouncing initial or medial-positioned consonant clusters, i.e. /cr/, /pl/, /sm/, /tw/ because Khmer also has a similar system of blending consonants together (Lam, K. 2007). There are 18 voiced consonants and 15 unvoiced consonants in the Khmer alphabet. The next section is about the dependent and independent Khmer vowels. Vowels While English has approximately 14 vowel sounds, depending on the dialect (Yallop, C. 1995) , there are 23 dependent vowels and 12 independent vowels in Khmer (see Table 2.4). The sounds made by independent vowels are constant, whereas the sounds of dependent vowels vary, depending on nearby consonants being either voiced or unvoiced. Kim Phi Rum 5/20/2010 12 Table 2.4 Dependent and Independent Khmer Vowels: Adapted from Tonkin, D. (1962) Dependent Vowels = a: = ae = e = ai = ei = ao = oe = aow = oe = oom = o = om = o = am = uo = ah = aoe = oh = ua = eh = ie = aoh = e Independent Vowels ឥ = e ឦ = ei ឧ = u ឪ = aow ឫ = roe ឬ = roe Kim Phi Rum 5/20/2010 13 ឭ = loe ឮ = loe ឯ = ae ឰ = ai ឱ = ao ឳ = aow Stress and Intonation Unlike English, Khmer does not have stress on individual words, partly because most Khmer words are monosyllabic. However, Khmer speakers can add and do shift their pitch, stress, or tone to suit the purposes of their talk (e.g., giving polite requests, showing surprises, expressing anger or sadness, etc…) b. In grammar Khmer and English grammar are alike in one very important aspect – their typical word order of „SOV‟ : Subject followed by Verb followed by Object (Chhun, L. 2007). This share „logic‟ enables even beginner language learners to make meanings in rudimentary English. However, there are some ways in which Khmer grammar is dissimilar to English grammar. Below are some most significant differences that may cause difficulties to Khmer learners of English: Plural Nouns Khmer does not have a distinctive plural form of nouns as in English. Words that represent quantity (e.g. some, a few, several, five…) have to be added after the nouns to show the plural form: Ex 1: /kmeng klah leng knong suon/ Sometimes the noun is repeated to show its plural form: Ex 2: Kim Phi Rum 5/20/2010 14 /kmeng kmeng leng knong suon/ Some children play in the garden However, there is no rule about repeating nouns, and not all nouns can be repeated to show their plural form. Generally, only one-sylable words are likely to be repeated in this manner. Because of the differences in the plural form between Khmer and English, Khmer learners of English usually face difficulties in remembering to add -s,-es, or –ies to form the plural form of regular nouns in English, and to change the word forms for irregular nouns especially in speaking. For example: Ex 3: The girl are playing in the park Verb forms and tenses Khmer verb forms do not change as English verbs do according to number and gender. This section is about the significant differences between how Khmer and English verbs are formed and used. For present simple: Khmer learners for English may forget to add –s, -es, or –ies to English verbs or to change the verb forms for appropriate agreement in third person singular cases. For example: Ex 4: My mother work at the market. Ex 5: He have 3 children. For present continuous: To express a continuing action in Khmer, we use the word /kampoung/ or /kampoung tae/ to add in front of a verb. For example: Ex 6: /kort kampoung tae tveur kar/ He is working Ex 7: /yeay Chan kampoung meul touraktuos/ Mrs Chan is watching television Because of the differences in expressing the continuing action in Khmer and English, Khmer students may make mistakes in using the present simple form to express continuous tenses. For example: Kim Phi Rum 5/20/2010 15 Ex8: Look! She come(s) to us. Or they may remember to use the –ing form, but may forget to use an auxiliary verb. Ex 9: Look! She coming to us. For past tense: To express an action happened in the past in Khmer we use the word /barn/ to add in front of a verb. For example: Ex 10: /kjom barn touv Siem Reap kal pi chnam touv/ I went to Siem Reap last year However most of the time (especially in speaking) the word barn is not in fact used – thus, Khmer students usually make grammatical mistakes by not changing verb forms in affirmative statements for appropriate past tenses (especially with irregular verbs). For example: Ex 11: I see him yesterday Ex 12: We went shopping and buy some shirts For future tense: Like the word “will” in English, a word /nueng/ in Khmer is added in front of a verb to express action in the future. For example: Ex 13: ញ /kort nueng vil vign/ He will come back However, normally Khmer tend to omit the word nueng and just use the verb to say what they will or are going to do by adding the time frame. Thus, common mistakes made by Khmer students when they try to express future actions can be: Ex 14: I do my homework soon. Ex 15: I finish my study next year. Adjectives In Khmer language, adjectives are normally placed after nouns, except in fomal writing, literature or poetry when used with words borrowed from Pali or Sanskrit (Chhim, S. 1965). Ex 16: /kmeng tauj/ Kim Phi Rum 5/20/2010 little children 16 Ex 17: /arkea kpuohs/ tall building With words borrowed from Pali or Sanskrit, adjectives can precede the nouns (Chhim, S. 1965). For example, Ex 18: /oudam pheakriyea/ Super wife Articles and prepositions Unlike English, there is no article use in Khmer. Thus, Khmer students are likely to struggle with the appropriate use of the article „the‟, either omitting it or using it where it is not necessary. Similarly, they may also struggle with the correct use of prepositions as a result of the direct transfer of prepositions used in Khmer. For example: Ex 19: jealous with Ex 20: interested with Ex 21: stay on bed Ex 22: married with 1.3 The influence of L1 transfer The elements that are similar to learners‟ native language will be simple for them and those elements that are different will be difficult (Lado, R. 1957; Swan, M & Smith, B. 1987). They implied to talk about the important role of language transfer in the acquisition of a second language. However, what is language transfer? The term “language transfer” is defined differently by many authors. Firstly, language transfer is the influence resulting from similarities and differences between the target language and any other language that has been previously and perhaps imperfectly acquired (Odlin, 1989). Another definition of language transfer is “the use of native language (or other language) knowledge – in some unclear way – in the inquisition of a second language (or additional language) (Gass & Selimcer, 1992) whereas, by linguistic transfer, we mean what the learners carry over to or generalize in their native language helps them learn to use a target language. There are two kinds of language transfer, including negative transfer and positive transfer. Interference is also considered as negative transfer. It occurs when language learner commits errors because of the dissimilarity between learner L1 and L2. In contrast, positive transfer is a facilitation, which results from similarity between L1 and L2. In Cummin‟s Common Underlying Kim Phi Rum 5/20/2010 17 Proficiency (CCUP) theory, another concept is generally in the field of second language acquisition. This model shows the relationships between native language and second language. According to Cummins, J (2000), “concept is most readily developed in the first language and once developed, is accessible through the second language. In other words, what we learn in one language transfer into the new language” (Freeman, 1994, p.176). The model is sometimes referred to as the “iceberg model” (Cummins, J. 2000) “Iceberg model” – The relationships between native language and second language (Cummins, J. 2000) Extensive research has already been done in the area of native language interference on the target language. Dulay et al., (1982) defined interference on the target language as automatic transfer due to habit of the surface structure of the first language on to the surface of the target language. Besides, Lott (1983) defined interference as “errors in the learner use of the foreign language that can be traced back to the mother tongue”. As mentioned above, in language transfer, the elements are different will be difficult for the learner in learning the target language (Lado, 1957). Beardsmore (1982) suggests many difficulties that a second language learner has with the phonology; vocabulary and grammar of L2 are due to the interference of habit from L1. In writing or speaking the target language, second language learner tends to rely on their native language (L1) structure to produce a respond. If the structures of two languages are different, then one could expect a relatively high frequency of errors to occur in L2 (Dechert, 1983 and Ellis, 1997). It appears to be much more difficult for an adult to learn Kim Phi Rum 5/20/2010 18 a second language system that is the first language partly in terms of the kind of meaning already learned in the first language (Carroll, 1964; Albert and Obler, 1978; and Larson – Freeman and Long, 1991). On the other hand, Belbe (1988) suggests that in learning a second language, L1 responses are grafted on to L2 responses. Both are made to a common set of learning responses. Other things being equal, the learner is less fluent in L2 and the kind of expression that he uses in L2 bear telltale traces of the structure of L1. In short, native language plays an important role in second language acquisition. It can cause difficulties to the learner in case there are the differences between the native language and the target language. SLA researchers conclude that language distance cannot be used to predict students‟ ease and difficulties in their language learning process. It is still helpful for ESL teacher and learner to know the similarities and difficulties between the mother tongue and the target language (L2) as they can have a deeper understanding of students‟ difficulties (errors) in language learning. Therefore, they can also have more effective teaching methodologies. 2. The difficulties caused by attitudes and motivation factors in learning English There are many factors affecting second language learning. They can help English learner learn English easily or cause difficulties to them. According to Lightbown and Spada (1993), these factors include intelligence, aptitude, and personality, learning style, age of acquisition as well as attitudes and motivation. However, learner‟s motivation has been widely accepted as a key factor which influences the rate and success of second language learning (Donough, 1983; Ellis, 1994). Donough (1983) also stated that “motivation of the students is one of the most important factors influencing their success or failure in learning the language”. Another factor is the learner‟s attitudes. This is also an English learner‟s motivation in language learning. It is affected by his/her attitudes and has been considered a prime concern in language learning research. In addition, Gardner and Lambert (1997) state “his (the learner‟s) motivation to learn is thought to be determined by his attitudes towards the other group in particular and by his orientation towards the learning task itself”. In order to know the difficulties caused by the motivation and attitude, it is necessary to know what motivation and attitudes are. To motivation, Atkinson (2000) defines motivation as “a cluster of factors that „energize‟ the behavior and give it direction”. Thus, in Atkinson‟s point of view, motivation is a term used to describe what Kim Phi Rum 5/20/2010 19 energizes a person and what directs his activity. Energy and direction are at the center of motivation. Whereas Ofoegbu, F (2004, as cited in Berelson, Steiner 1964 and Tracy 2000) define motivation as all those inner striving conditions, such as wishes, desires, and urges to stimulate the interest of a person in an activity. To attitude, Gardner (1980) defines the term attitude as “the sum total of a man‟s instinct about any specified topic”. Ajzam (1988) considers attitudes as “a disposition to respond favorably or unfavorably to an object, person, institution or event. However, Wenden (1991) proposed a broader definition of the concept “attitudes” differently. He states that the term attitude includes three components namely, cognitive, affective and behavioral. A cognitive component is made up of the beliefs and ideas or opinions about the object of the attitude. The affective one refers to the feelings and emotions that one has towards an object „like‟ „dislike‟ „with‟ or „against‟. Finally, the behavioral components refer to one‟s consisting actions or behavioral intentions towards the object. For example, student‟s attitude in learning English is reflected by learner‟s reading autonomy or self-studying in English. As mentioned above, the factor of attitudes and motivation can make English learners learn English easily or cause difficulties to them. Raines (2007) said that attitudes are expressed by our action, our action better know as our behavior. Therefore, when we show correct behavior to English learning, we are also showing the positive attitude. If we have the positive attitude, we will learn English with ease. On the contrary, when we have negative one, we will learn English difficultly. There are several of subfactors of motivation in second language learning. These sub-factors may be either positive or negative to the learners. The following section is the sub-factors of motivation which may cause difficulties to English learners. Teacher In L2 learning, teachers play a vital role since the learning of the target language rests on the competency of the teachers. In fact, as Wiseman et al. (2000) confirm, teachers can motivate students by being enthusiastic about their teaching, and for learners themselves, when teachers demonstrate that learning is important, motivating and relevant, students will become increasingly self-motivated to be active learner. A teacher who is knowledgeable about the target language and able to adopt various teaching methods to impact or teach the language is likely to be a positive motivating factor for the L2 learners, so they will learn the language more easily and more effectively; thereby Kim Phi Rum 5/20/2010 20
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