MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
HA NOI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION
VU THI MAI HUONG
THE DEVELOPMENT OF
URBAN AGRICULTURE IN HA NOI
SUMMARY OF THE PhD DISSERTATION IN GEOGRAPHY
HA NOI - 2014
The thesis is completed at the Faculty of Geography,
Hanoi National University of Education
Supervisors: Prof. Dr. Do Thi Minh Duc
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hoang Van Chuc
First Reviewer: Prof. Dr. Truong Quang Hai
Office: VNU Institute of Vietnamese Studies and
Second Reviewer: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nguyen Thuc Nhu
Office: Hanoi National University of Education
Third Reviewer: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Le Van Truong
Office: Hongduc University
The thesis will be defended at the University’s Thesis Commission
meeting at: .…………………………………………………………
on…….., date…….., month ………, year ………………………....
The thesis can be found at:
- Vietnamese National Library
- The library of Hanoi National University of Education
- The library of Faculty of Geography - HNUE
LIST OF PUBLICATIONS
Vu Thi Mai Huong (2001), The structural transformation of agriculture
in Gia Lam district, Scientific Information of Universities, Hanoi,
pp.112 - 117.
Vu Thi Mai Huong (2006), Analysis of agricultural restructuring in
Vietnam in the period of industrialization - modernization, Proceedings of
the Scientific Conference celebrating 50th Department of Geography,
Journal of Science, Hanoi National University of Education, pp.183 - 189.
Vu Thi Mai Huong (2007), Urban agriculture and the development of
urban agriculture in the world, Journal of Science, Hanoi National
University of Education, Social sciences, pp.115 - 120.
Vu Thi Mai Huong (2009), Theory and development practice of urban
agriculture, The research project sponsored by Hanoi National University
Vu Thi Mai Huong (2010), The basic characteristics of urban agriculture,
Scientific Report Collection, Proceedings of the 5nd National Science
Conference on Geography, Publishing house of Natural Sciences and
Technology, Hanoi, pp.769 - 775.
Vu Thi Mai Huong (2010), Favorable and difficult conditions to develop
urban agriculture in Hanoi, The research project sponsored by Hanoi
National University of Education.
Vu Thi Mai Huong (2010), Factors affecting the development of urban
agriculture in Hanoi, Scientific Report Collection, Southeast Asian
Geography Association International Conference, Ha Noi, 23 - 26/11/2010.
Publishing house of Hanoi National University of Education, pp.192 - 198.
Vu Thi Mai Huong (2011), Potential and current status of vegetable
production in Hanoi, Scientific Report Collection, Scientific Research and
Teacher Training of Geography, Publishing house of Hanoi National
University of Education, pp.52 - 61.
Vu Thi Mai Huong (2012), Status of livestock development in Hanoi,
Scientific Report Collection, Proceedings of the 6nd National Science
Conference on Geography, Publishing house of Natural Sciences and
Technology, Hue, pp.669 - 676.
10. Vu Thi Mai Huong (2013), Characteristics and changes in agricultural
land in Hanoi, Scientific Report Collection, Proceedings of the 7nd
National Science Conference on Geography, Thai Nguyen, Publishing
House of Thai Nguyen University, pp.288 - 294.
1. Rationale of this research
Urbanization is inevitable and worldwide process. Over more than 60 years
recently, urbanization has taken place across the world on such a massive scale
and rapid pace unseen before. Viet Nam has experienced significant
urbanization from the beginning of Doi Moi process. Along with the general
trend of municipal development nationwide, the population of Hanoi has
expanded rapidly. Rapid urbanization associated with the development of
industrial parks, industrial zones has reduced agricultural land and labor
engaged in agriculture; food supplies became scarce, and risk of environmental
pollution was getting obvious. Labor engaged in agriculture, especially in
suburban areas, has lost land and therefore lost their livelihoods or became part
- time unemployed. As a large percentage of Hanoi population live on
agriculture, development of urban agriculture (UA) is considered one of the
best solutions to help Hanoi overcome the challenges of urbanization and
industrialization. With that in mind, the author decided to chose the topic "The
development of urban agriculture in Hanoi" for her PhD thesis in geography.
2. Literature review
- Researches on theoretical issues related to urban agriculture
+ Research on agricultural rings: Von Thünen was the first to theorize the
development of the agricultural rings. He argued that transportation costs would
determine the distribution of agricultural activities. Based on that premise, he
had built 4 rings of agricultural activity surrounding the city, the first ring to
provide dairy and intensive farming, the second ring to provide firewood and
timber, the third to be reserved for extensive field crops, and the last ring was
for ranching. After Thünen, a number of authors such as Sinclair, Boal, Bryant
also found that UA is often developed into agricultural belts. This theory is also
mentioned in the studies of Vietnamese researchers such as Bui Van Loan, Ngo
Doan Vinh, Dang Van Phan, Le Quoc Doanh and Le Duc Thinh...
+ Research on suburban agriculture or peri - urban agriculture: Since
1950s, many researchers had focused on suburban agriculture, such Soviet
geographers as Ivanov K.I., Lovkov J.A., Mineev V.A., Galazun A.R. In
Vietnam, a number of researchers were also interested in this theme, as Le
At the beginnings of the XXI century, the researchers started shifting
attention to peri - urban agriculture and discussed opportunities, risks,
characteristics of peri - urban agriculture. Here we can mention researches of
Paule Moustier, Nguyen Dang Nghia, and Le Quoc Doanh.
+ Research on urban agriculture: From 1990s to present, due to the boom
of global urbanization, there has been a surge in studies on UA. These studies
mostly refer to the role, characteristic, limitation and challenge of UA. The
authors that represent this array of topics are Smith J., Ratta A., Nasr J.; Luc
Mougeot J.A.; Dao The Tuan; Le Duc Thinh; Le Van Truong.
- Research on the practices of urban agriculture in the world: The studies
of international organizations often focus on introducing experience and
technical instruction to help poor farmers in urban areas of the developing
countries increase food production and income, improve their health and the
environment. Studies of independent researchers examined mainly the historical
development of UA in the world, relationship between agriculture and urban,
development practices of UA in different territories.
- Researches on practices of urban agriculture in Vietnam has been
published in recent years. History of UA in Vietnam was dealt with in the study
of Le Van Truong; Le Hong Ke and Le Van Lan. The development of UA in
Vietnam was summarized in a study of Le Duc Thinh, Le Van Truong. In
particular, more researchers were interested in the development of ecologically
urban agricultures (such as Vu Xuan De, Dinh Son Hung, Le Van Tho, and
Tran Trong Phuong).
- Research on practices of urban agriculture in Hanoi is limited. Le
Hong Ke described the historical development of UA in Hanoi. Dao The Tuan
examined agricultural belts of Hanoi. Article of Luong Ngoc Cu; Moustier P.;
Ali M., De Bon H. and P. Moustier mentioned the role of agriculture in Hanoi.
The work of Phuong Anh M.T. and Ali M.; Van den Berg L.M., Van Wijk M.S.
and Van Hoi P.; Le Quoc Doanh pointed out the factors affecting UA in Hanoi.
The study of Mai Thi Phuong Anh; Georges Rossi and Pham Van Cu; B. Lee,
T. Binns and A. Dixon analyzed the state of suburban agriculture, UA in Hanoi.
Pham Van Khoi, Le Quy Don, Tran Thi Hong Viet studied the state of Hanoi
suburban agriculture from an ecological point of view.
In Hanoi, especially in the expanded capital, there have been no studies
wholly dedicated to UA. So the author has inherited and selected ideas from
studies mentioned above and other related studies to build up her own
theoretical basis of this study.
3. Research Objective and Tasks
3.1. Research Objective
The thesis aims to analyze and to assess the state of UA in Hanoi in the
current period and based on this to propose recommendations to promote the
development of UA in Hanoi toward modernization, better quality and
3.2 . Research Tasks
- To review theoretical and practical issues on development of UA, as the
scientific basis for the study of the situation of UA in Hanoi.
- To assess the factors affecting the development of UA in Hanoi.
- To analyze the development of UA in Hanoi by activities and its spatial
- To propose recommendations to promote the development of UA in
Hanoi toward modernization, better quality and efficiency.
4 . Research Scope
4.1. Content Scope
Thesis limited analysis of UA, including cultivation, animal husbandry and
agricultural services. In each sub-sector, the author studied in depth those
activities specific for UA, namely the growing of high quality paddy,
vegetables and beans, fruit crops, flowers and ornamental plants; pig raising,
beef and dairy cattle breeding and poultry breeding.
4.2. Time Scope
Data are collected and analyzed within the timeframe from 2001 to 2011.
However, during this period, Hanoi has expanded its administrative boundary in
2008, and subsequently the analysis and evaluation are divided into 2 sub –
periods of 2001 - 2007 and 2008 - 2011.
The development prospects are done for the year 2015 and 2020.
4.3. Spatial Scope
Thesis research focused on urban and peripheral districts, namely:
- The old Hanoi (period of 2001 - 2007), which consists of 8 districts,
including Tay Ho, Hoang Mai, Long Bien, Tu Liem, Thanh Tri, Gia Lam, Dong
Anh, and Soc Son.
- The new Hanoi (period of 2008 - 2011), which consists of 23 districts,
including Tay Ho, Hoang Mai, Long Bien, Ha Dong, Tu Liem, Thanh Tri, Gia
Lam, Dong Anh, Soc Son, Me Linh, Ba Vi, Phuc Tho, Dan Phuong, Hoai Duc,
Quoc Oai, Thach That, Chuong My, Thanh Oai, Thuong Tin, Phu Xuyen, Ung
Hoa, My Duc.
5. Methodological approaches
The 5 main approaches were used are: systematic, geo-complex, historicalperspective and sustainable development.
6. Methods applied
The 6 research methods applied: primary and secondary data collection and
processing; analysis and synthesis, comparison; expertise consultation; social
survey; statistical analysis; GIS.
7. Contributions and New Findings
- Reviewed and clarified the theoretical and practical basis of UA
development to apply to the case-study of UA in Hanoi.
- Developed a system of indicators to evaluate the development of
specialized activities, specific for UA and applying those indicators to the casestudy.
- Analyzed those socio - economic and natural factors which affected to
UA development in Hanoi.
- Analyzed the current situation of UA in Hanoi by main activities and its
spatial differentiation; pointed out achievements, difficulties and obstacles to
- Propose solutions to promote the development of UA in Hanoi towards
modernization, higher quality and efficiency.
8. Structure of the thesis
Beside the introduction and conclusion, the content of thesis was divided
into 4 chapters in volume of 162 pages, 48 tables, 8 charts, 10 maps, 141
references and 59 annexes.
THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL BASIS OF
URBAN AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT
1.1. Theoretical basis of urban agriculture development
- Urban Center. The definition was cited from the 2009 Vietnamese Law
on Urban Planning (article 3).
- Urban agriculture: In the specific conditions of Vietnam, we suggest this
definition: Urban agriculture is an economic sector in urban and peri - urban
areas, that not only provides food, fresh products, flowers, ornamental plants,
but also creates more green space and recreational opportunities for urban
residents; uses and reuses natural resources and urban wastes; applies intensive
farming techniques and brings high economic efficiency.
1.1.2. The role of urban agriculture
In this section, some main aspects in the role of urban agriculture were
- To contribute to providing fresh food in place for urban residents
- To contribute to creating job and increasing income for urban residents
- To contribute to the sustainable management of natural resources
- To contribute to creating urban landscapes and improving community health
1.1.3. Characteristics of urban agriculture
The following characteristics of urban agriculture were clarified:
- Products of urban agriculture to be strongly affected by urban markets
- Urban agriculture to allow easier access to agricultural services
- Urban agriculture to develop based on intensive farming techniques
- Urban agriculture to be highly specialized
- Development of urban agriculture often formulates the farm belt
- Development of urban agriculture to bring high economic efficiency
1.1.4. Factors which affect the development of urban agriculture
Three main groups of factors were analyzed: (1) geographical position, (2)
economic - social factors (including: population and labor force, capital
investment and markets, science - technology, industrialization and urbanization,
infrastructure and technical facilities, institution and policies in agriculture) and
(3) natural factors (including: topography, soil, climate, water, organisms).
1.1.5. Some theories on the development of urban agriculture
22.214.171.124. Theory on the development of urban agricultural rings
In 1826, Von Thunen conceptualized the development of the agricultural
rings under the influence of a city. He classified four agricultural rings. The inner
most is for fresh foods (vegetables, fruits, milk). Timber and firewood locate in the
second ring. Food crops concentrated in the third ring and ranching situate in the
final ring. Thunen’s model is an example to demonstrate how farmers make
balance between land rents and transport costs to produce at the optimal.
126.96.36.199. Land rent theory and its application to explain urban land prices
Land rent is the basis for determining land price. The differences between
the price of urban land and rural land, between the price of agricultural land and
land used in industry and commerce are due to the various factors which affect
rents. Geographic location is a fundamental element of the primary rent
difference. In the competition for urban land price, the value of land used for
agriculture is much lower than that for other uses (commercial, industrial), so
the area of agricultural land in urban areas tend to be shrinking.
1.1.6. The criteria to evaluate typical UA sub-sectors applied for Hanoi
In this section, the author focused on dairy cattle breeding and safe
The following criteria were built to evaluate economic efficiency of dairy
cattle breeding, including: revenue, costs, profit, profit per dairy cow, profit per
The criteria to evaluate economic efficiency of safe vegetable cultivation are
as follow: revenue, cost and profit of safe vegetable cultivation, profit per
cultivated hectar, profit per cost unit, profit per labor engaged in safe vegetable
1.1.7. Some forms of territorial organization of urban agriculture
Farmer households are economically autonomous units in agriculture, as
they have land, means of production and employ mainly family labor.
Farm is a basic productive form in agricultural, forestry and fishery for
commodity production. The means of production are owned or licensed by
independent owner. The production is carried out on the larger land area and
higher concentration of production (compared to household economy),
progressively and autonomously managed, in close links to market.
Concentrated breeding area far from residential area is an area with
defined demarcation, approved by the district/town authority for organizations,
individuals and households to move their husbandry activities from residential
area to non - residential area, or to allow them convert the land or lease land to
build up facilities for animal husbandry.
Specialized agricultural zone is assumed as a defined territory by
conventional demarcation where agricultural activities are highly concentrated
organized logically, in large or relatively large scale, in order to gain high
efficiency, on the basis of good infrastructure and close connection between
the region of raw material supply and the processing facilities.
Agricultural belts (rings) refer to agricultural production areas surrounding
a big city and industrial center, specialized in producing fresh foods that are
better to transport over short distances, such as whole milk, vegetables, fresh
eggs, fresh meat, fruits, flowers, to supply urban dwellers.
1.2. Practical basis of urban agriculture development in the largest cities
Urban agriculture has been shaped in the largest cities as Ho Chi Minh
City, Hanoi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Can Tho Depending on the specific natural
and economic - social conditions, agriculture in each city has its own
characteristics. From the practice of UA development in the largest cities in
Vietnam, lessons learned were applied for the case-study of Hanoi.
THE FACTORS WHICH AFFECT THE DEVELOPMENT
OF URBAN AGRICULTURE IN HANOI
2.1. Geographical position
The administrative boundaries of Hanoi has undergone four major changes
in 1961, 1978, 1991 and 2008. After the latest expansion (2008), Hanoi has an
area of 3,344.7 km2 (3.6 times larger than that of 2007) and its population
reaches 6,350 thousand people (1.9 times bibber than that of 2007).
Geographical position of Hanoi has special advantages. Hanoi nowadays is
at the center of three major planning regions: the Northern key economic
region, the Red River Delta region and the Hanoi capital region. Hanoi is home
to the headquarters of the Party and the State; is the leading center of science technology, training, finance - banking, commerce, telecommunication and is
the place of residence, providing work for millions of people. The road
transport system of Hanoi is quite developed.
In this context, UA in Hanoi has the advantage in receiving positive
impacts of science - technology, consumer market; however on the other hand
is also under the pressure of industrialization and urbanization (such as loss of
arable land, deficit of agricultural labor, environmental pollution).
2.2. Socio - economic factors
2.2.1. Population and labor force
In 2011, Hanoi's population is 6,779,300 people (2nd place after Ho Chi
Minh City, accounting for 7.7 percent of the whole country). Population growth
rate remains high. Population density is 2,037 people per sq.km in 2011. Income
per capita monthly has a continuous upward trend over the years. Therefore, food
and green space demand of the capital inhabitants have also increased.
The proportion of agricultural labor in rural areas decreased gradually
(only 54.7% in 2011). This is progressive trend, however is great obstacle to
UA in Hanoi.
Agricultural labor is diligent, experienced, market and technology - savvy.
With this advantage, Hanoi’s farmers can easily divert to UA. However, more
and more young agricultural laborers tend to escape from agriculture.
2.2.2. The consumer market
With strong economic growth and income per capita among the top ranks
of the country, Hanoi is the second largest city in the country and and
concentrates a thriving food processing industry. In Hanoi there are 140 central
state-owned companies, enterprises, agencies; more 100 local state-owned
businesses; more than 800 representative offices of the provinces and cities;
approximately 1,000 foreign companies’ representative offices; nearly 9 million
tourist visitors and more 3 million temporary visitors. With the advantage of
market size, huge demand, UA in Hanoi has to develop positively both in
quantity and quality to meet the needs of the local market.
2.2.3. Capital investment
During the period of 2001 - 2011, Hanoi has mobilized 4,238 billion VND
investment from the state budget for the agricultural sector, in particular
invested trillion VND for infrastructure building. However, investment for
agriculture remains keep low share and increases slowly over years, which do
not meet the needs to develop high quality UA.
2.2.4. Science and technology
In Vietnam, Ha Noi is the biggest concentration of universities, research
institutions and large number of scientific workers, and therefore has the most
powerful scientific - technological potentiality in the country. As agricultural
land decreases, agricultural labor in shortages, UA is a new type of production
that requires of the support of scientists, of science - technology to help farmers
approach and apply new technology that matches the requirements of the
environment, production conditions, consumption of urban. In fact, the
achievements of seed, fertilizer, disease prevention, advanced techniques and
new technologies have been applied effectively by Hanoi farmers.
2.2.5. Industrialization and urbanization
In the process of industrialization the economy of Hanoi is rapidly shifting
towards a structure of services - industry - agriculture. The share of each sector
is 52.4% - 41.7% - 5.9% (2011) respectively. Industry sector is keeping the
highest growth rate. Currently, Hanoi has 16,532 food - beverage processing
facilities (accounting for 17.7 percent of all industrial establishments), along
with 18 industrial parks and 100 village industrial clusters that have been
planned. A highly developed industry will create incentives for UA in Hanoi to
develop a diverse structure, forming large-scale areas of specialization.
However, industrial development also increases the shortage of agricultural
land and agricultural labor.
In the process of urbanization, the urban population of Hanoi has been
increasing rapidly. The urban population has increased by 5.0% per annum in
the period 2001 - 2007 and 1.9% per annum in the period 2008 - 2011, while its
rural population change rate was only -0,1% and 0,5% per annum. Hanoi has to
develop many urban areas, amusement parks. As of 2011, Hanoi had 152 urban
areas and 8 golf course development projects. Expanding urban space and
increasing urban population lead to reducing area of agricultural land but
increasing demand for food. Thus UA with the belt of crops, livestock must be
directed to commodity production to satisfy the increasing demand as well as to
create the highest economic efficiency per unit area and per labor.
2.2.6. Infrastructure and technical facilities
The research focused on four infrastructure factors as road transport,
communication system, electric supply system, distribution system of
agricultural products) and six technical facility factors: irrigation system, dyke
system, extension system, feed processing facilities, livestock and poultry
slaughter facilities, milk collection facilities).
In general, infrastructure and technical facilities supporting the
development of UA in Hanoi have been attracting investment by central and
local government. That investment has sustained growth and prompted a shift in
the structure of crops and animals. However, compared with the requirements
of the UA development, it leaves a lot to be desired.
2.2.7. Agricultural policies and institution
Ha Noi authority has implemented a number of priority programs and
projects to promote high-value crops and livestock to gradually establish and
expand specialization areas; there policies are, for example: land consolidation;
restructuring of crops and livestock; production development of high quality
paddy; development of production and consumption of safe vegetables;
development of specialty fruit crops; production development of flowers and
ornamental plants; implementation of mechanization in agricultural production;
livestock development in pivotal areas and communes; development of large scale animal husbandry outside residential areas; farm development.
2.3. Natural Factors
Hanoi has a diverse terrain. The mountainous region has a cool climate,
which is favorable for the production of temperate annual crops, pasture and
cattle husbandry. The hilly region has favorable conditions for the development
of fruit crops, annual cash crops, ranching. The plain region occupies most of
the area, has fertile soil and the advantage for large - scale production
concentration. However, as a depression to the south - southeast, the plain
region also is the place to city's sewerage so it can easily lead to environmental
pollution. From there, it will negatively affect the development of agriculture
towards clean, high quality products.
After the expansion, Hanoi has a diversified soil bank of 7 soil groups with
21 different types, of which alluvial soil accounting for 36.13%, yellow red soil
14.44%, bleached gray soil 5.65% of the total natural area.
Hanoi nowadays has the largest agricultural land area in Red river delta
region. In 2011, agricultural land accounted for 56.04% of the total natural area.
Of the agricultural land, land for agricultural production has the largest area,
accounting for 80.55% of the total agricultural land area and 45.14% of the total
natural area. Agricultural production land distributes mostly in the suburban
districts (146,075 ha, accounting for 97.2% of total agricultural production land
area of the city). This land category most concentrates in Ba Vi, Soc Son,
Chuong My, Ung Hoa. In the inner districts, it primarily concentrates in newly
established districts, such as Long Bien, Ha Dong, Hoang Mai, Tay Ho.
However, Hanoi's agricultural land has been shrinking due to conversion to
non-agricultural land, mainly residential, industrial and transportation land use.
Agricultural land area decreased by 5,126 ha over period of 2001 - 2007 and by
2,754 ha over 2008 - 2011. Variations between groups of agricultural land was
uneven. The largest decline was rice cultivated land.
Within the borders of old Hanoi, agricultural production land in most
districts were reduced. Sudden decrease happened in Gia Lam and Thanh Tri,
followed by Tu Liem, Dong Anh, Soc Son. Within the new boundaries of
Hanoi, agricultural production land area has continued to decline in most
districts. The biggest reduction is in Soc Son, Dong Anh, Thach That, Ung Hoa,
Thanh Oai, Chuong My, Gia Lam, Tu Liem.
Most of the converted agricultural land area is fertile soil, so production
cost will increase, crop yields will subsequently reduce. The area of agricultural
land per capita is very low (224 sq.m in 2011). Therefore, the scale of
production is usually small, dispersed and this will cause difficult for the
process of industrialization - modernization of agriculture sector (increasing
production costs, using more labor force, causing difficult for irrigation,
mechanization and application of new technologies). In addition, the
phenomenon of land speculation is pretty complicated, it will affect the
management, planning and use for agricultural production land of city.
Hanoi climate belongs to tropical monsoon one: in summer it is hot and
with high rainfall, but in winter it is rather cold and little rainfall. Radiation
absorbed is abundant for growing crops (corn, tomatoes, cabbage, beans).
Possibilities for development of winter crops are very important. In early
winter, the dry cold weather usually affects the yield formation period of some
winter crops (corn, cabbage, kohlrabi, tomatoes) or growth period of spring
rice. Toward the end of winter, humid climate coincides with the bud flowering period of crops, so it becomes limiting factor for agriculture.
Precipitation and humidity regime is also distinguished into two seasons.
In general, air humidity is suitable for many types of crops to grow. Rainfall
meets the water needs of crops. However, seasonal uneven distribution of
rainfall causes difficulty for agriculture: flooding in the rainy season and
drought in the dry season.
Hanoi has pretty dense river networks, serving as sources of alluvium and
water for irrigation. The major rivers of Hanoi's are Red river, Day river, Tich
river, Ca Lo river, Da river and Duong river. Hanoi also has many lakes and
swamps. They create environmental landscape, drainage for the city as well as
help the fight against flooding and drought for the field. Underground water is
of good quality, reserves is abundant and accessible enough to support UA.
However, some lakes are land-filled or its usage changed affecting the
requirements of irrigation and drainage. At one point, some lakes, rivers can not
reach necessary water level for UA production. Some rivers, lakes are seriously
polluted, which is not safe for agriculture.
It has been accessed that Hanoi has a rich agricultural biodiversity. Hanoi
has many valuable specialty crops such as Dien pomelo, Xuan Dinh sapodilla,
Bac Bien starfruit, Dong Du guava, Nhat Tan peach blossom, Tu Lien kumquat
and several poultry varieties that had been selected, domesticated and nourished
for a long time such as Ri chicken, Mia chicken, Pha chicken. After expanding
boundaries, Hanoi has added a number of Ha Tay’s specialities including Van
Dinh duck, Dai Xuyen duck, Canh orange, Dai Thanh longan. In short, thanks
to the abundance of plants and animals, Hanoi is capable of providing many
plant varieties and animal breeds that are valuable for UA in Hanoi and
STATUS OF URBAN AGRICULTURE IN HANOI
IN THE PERIOD 2001 - 2011
3.1. The role and position of urban agriculture in the economy of the city
3.1.1. Growth rate, scale and structure of agriculture
Agriculture growth rate ranks second only after fishery. In the period 2001
- 2007 agriculture growth rate was low (2.5% per annum), however this rate
reaching 4,6% per year during the period 2008 - 2011,. As agricultural land area
and the number of agricultural households declined constantly, agricultural
production is dependent on weather conditions and natural productivity limits,
low growth rate is inevitable. However, when merged with Ha Tay province
and Me Linh district, which is strong in cultivation and husbandry, the city’s
agriculture grew faster.
Agricultural gross output was the major proportion in structure of gross
output of agro - forestry - fishery. Agricultural structure shifted positively.
Cultivation tended to decline rapidly, from 57.7% in 2001 to 44.6% in 2011;
husbandry grew continuously from 39.8% in 2001 to 52.8% in 2011. At present
Hanoi is one of the provinces and cities with highest proportion of husbandry.
3.1.2. Contributions of urban agriculture to society and environment
UA directly supplies an important amount of agricultural products and
food (especially fresh food) to meet daily demand of the whole city. UA is
sector that has attracted a large number of agricultural labors and created major
source of income for agricultural households. UA in Hanoi supplies a
significant portion of materials for food processing industry and feed processing
industry. UA has an important role in creating a green space, creating diverse
and vivid landscapes of the city. UA also becomes a factor that supports the
recreational activities and entertainment to the city’s inhabitants, helping them
to relax, improve health and get along with nature.
3.2. Current status urban agriculture in Hanoi
188.8.131.52. Livestock husbandry
a. Pig raising
Currently Hanoi is locality having the biggest pig herds and living
weight of pigs in the whole country. Pig raising plays a main role in
livestock sector. As of 2011, gross output of pig raising accounted for
71.3% of animal husbandry Pig living weight of pigs made up 95.6% of the
living weight of livestock.
However, both before and after 2008, Hanoi’s total pigs herds tended to
decrease. In 2007, number of pigs increased by 8.4 thousand compared to 2001
but decreased by 22.5 thousand compared to 2005. In 2011, pig herds decreased
by 136.9 thousand compared to 2008. The reason is that Hanoi has the policy to
reduce the quantity to increase the quality of pig herds and to shift to large scale farm concentrations far from residential areas.
Thanks to intensification, living weight of pigs increased faster than
number of pigs (period 2001 - 2007 increased 4.6% per year, period 2008 2011 increased 4.1% per year). In 2007, living weight of pigs increased by
9.4 thousand tons compared to 2001, in 2011 increased by 32.5 thousand
compared to 2008.
In the structure of pig herds, meat pigs always account for a major
proportion, about 88 - 90%. Besides meat pig husbandry, in recent years, Hanoi
has shifted to develop breeding pig herds to provide breeds for local market and
Pig breeding farms have been thriving. Pig husbandry by pivotal areas and
communes and large - scale farms far from residential area have been formed.
However, household small - scale pig husbandry still remains popular. The
2011 survey showed an average size of 7.5 pigs per household. The number of
households breeding 1 - 5 pigs was 101,035, accounted for 64.0%.
Quality of pig breeds grows positively. 100% of pigs raised on farms is
exotic breeds Yorkshire, Landrace, Duroc, Pietrain, Maxter, Pi4, Pi16. The
share of exotic breeds in the structure of pigs herds reaches about 65%.
Households are raising mostly hybrid pig breeds.
Pig husbandry technique using biological pads started introduced. Some
patterns of production-consumption linking chain ("4 stakeholders" connection)
have appeared, especially model of biological pig husbandry in Son Tay, Ba Vi
and Soc Son.
Pigs are raised in all districts to inner districts. Before 2008, pigs were
raised and tent to be quickly developed in Soc Son, Dong Anh. After 2008, pigs
tent to decrease (except Ba Vi, Soc Son and Ung Hoa). At present, pig
husbandry has been moved far out of the inner city, concentrated mainly in Ba
Vi, Soc Son, Chuong My, Thuong Tin, Ung Hoa, Thanh Oai, My Duc, Dong
Anh (accounted for 64% of total pig herds).
b. Cattle breeding
Cattle breeding occupies an important position in livestock sector. Hanoi
currently has the 9 th biggest cattle herds nationwide, ranking the 1 st in the Red
river delta region and ranking the 2 nd in livestock sector (accounted for
10.0% of total livestock herds). Gross output of milk ranks the 4 th nationwide
(accounted for 4.6%) and ranks the 1 st in the Red river delta region
(accounted for 69.2 %).
- Beef cattle
Thanks to diversion to beef production to meet the needs of Hanoi market
and improvement of production efficiency, the number of beef cattle and living
weight of cattle have been increasing rapidly. In period 2001 - 2007, average
herd growth rate was 20.5% per year, in period 2008 - 2011 16.6% per year.
The number of beef cattle jumped from 9.6 thousand heads (2001) to 89.8
thousand heads (2008) and then 140.7 thousand heads (2010). Meanwhile,
living weight of cattle reached the highest growth rates compared to total living
weight of livestock in both 2 periods (16.5% and 8.0%). However of the
productivity of beef cattle remains low.
Household-based small - scale husbandry is in decline, although it is
dominant, while husbandry by pivotal areas and communes; farm
husbandry outside residential areas were established and developed.
According to the 2011 survey, the average size is of 1.4 beef cattle per
household. Of which the number of households raising 1 - 5 beef cattle
were 76,400, accounted for 98.0%.
Hanoi has been paying attention to breed improvement. At present rate of
Zebu cattle reaches 90%, of which rate of Sind hybrid cattle takes 70%;
Brahman, Drougmaster, BBB and other new cattle breeds take 20%. Hanoi is
locality that has high rate (50%) of Zebu hybrid compared to other provinces in
Red river delta region.
Before 2008, beef cattle herds tent to increase in all localities, with higher
concentration in Soc Son, Dong Anh, Gia Lam. After 2008, beef cattle herds
tent to increase in most districts except Long Bien, Ha Dong, Tay Ho, Hoang
Mai, Thanh Tri, Dong Anh, and Dan Phuong. At present, beef cattle are raised
in large amount in Ba Vi, Soc Son, Chuong My, Son Tay, Phuc Tho, Gia Lam,
Dong Anh (accounted for 68.5% of the total cattle herds).
- Dairy cattle
Dairy cattle breeding has strongly improved in both quantity and
quality. Dairy cattle herds rose from 2,000 in 2001 to 3,200 in 2007; from
6,900 in 2008 to 9,700 in 2011, and accounted for 5% of the city’s total
cattle herds. Milk production also rose from 2.8 thousand tons to 5.2
thousand tons, from 11.3 thousand tons to 15.9 thousand tons (chart 3.3).
However, development of dairy cattle herds was not stable. From 2003 to
2007, herd growth rate was low (4.3% per year). From 2005 - 2007, dairy
cattle herds slowed down. This growth rate was lowest in 2009. However,
coming to 2010 and 2011 the dairy cattle herds restored and rose pretty
quickly. At present, dairy cattle herds of Hanoi ranks the 3th in the whole
country and the 1st in Red river delta region.
Quality of dairy cattle herds and milk yield was obviously improved.
Hanoi’s dairy cattle herds consist of mainly HF crossbred cows which were
bred domestically (accounted for 90%) and foreign breeds HF (10%). Milk
yield of the bred HF cows rose from 3.1 tons per cycle in 2001 to 4.5 tons per
cycle in 2011. Milk yield of HF cows rose from 3,8 tons per cycle to 4,5 tons
per cycle. Compared with other provinces in the country's dairy cattle herds of
Hanoi has the highest quality.
Chart 3.3. Number of dairy cattle and production of fresh milk
of Hanoi city period 2001 - 2011
Milk market is getting stable. By 2011, milk processing enterprises
(including International Dairy Company, Ba Vi Dairy Stock Company, Ba Vi
Dairy Cake, Anco, Phonuimilk, Hanoimilk, Vinamilk) had invested and
constructed 63 milk collecting centers and they signed the contract to purchase
milk stably for farmers.
However, small - scale farming is still prevailing, in average 3.3 dairy
cattle per household, of which number of households raising 1 - 5 dairy cattle
was 2,487 (accounted for 89,4%). Other difficulties are small area of planted
grass, which meets only 60% of the actual need; short of green feed
especially in dry season; lack of cow breeds ; lack of artificial insemination
technicians and vets; limited knowledge and skills of farmers. These facts are
coincident to findings of author’s survey about dairy breeding households in
Gia Lam district.
Dairy cattle are raised in both peri-urban, suburban and remote communes,
but in restricted distribution than that of pigs and beef cattle. From 2001 - 2007,
dairy cattle herds were raised in large number in 4 districts of Gia Lam, Dong
Anh, Long Bien, Hoang Mai (accounted for 83,1% of total dairy cattle herds in
2007). From 2008 - 2011, all 4 inner districts as well as many peri - urban and
suburban districts decreased even abandoned raising dairy cattle. At present the
dairy cattle only concentrate in Ba Vi and Gia Lam (accounted for 86.6%), and
in other districts as, Dong Anh, Dan Phuong, Quoc Oai, Phuc Tho, Son Tay.
184.108.40.206. Poultry raising
Hanoi has advantage for development of poultry raising since it has a
large consumption market and an easy access to technical advances and new
Before 2008, poultry herds had small scale and unstable growth rate due to
bird flu outbreaks. However Hanoi actively restored poultry herds, so herd
growth rate managed to reach 1.7% per year during the period 2001 - 2007.
From 2008 to present, Hanoi’s poultry has leading position in quantity of meat
and egg production. Poultry herds increased by 3,532,700 in 2011 compared to
2008, in average 6.4% per year. During the same period, living weight of
poultry increased by 28.9 thousand tons (22.2% per year) and gross output of
egg increased by 549.5 million ((30.9%/year).
Currently, small - scale poultry husbandry has declined, it has become a
trend for husbandry to develop in key areas and communes, in large - scale farm
concentrations outside residential areas. However, small-scale natural poultry
husbandry is still prevailing.
Poultry breeding quality has improved significantly. High - yield varieties
of exotic poultries such as Luong Phuong chicken, Tam Hoang chicken, Sasso
chicken, Kabia chicken, Anh Dao ducks, French goose… were raised more
widely. The species with high quality of meat and eggs such as Ri chicken, Mia
chicken, Van Dinh duck, Dai Xuyen duck are multiplied in large number.
Hanoi also deploys trade promotion activities and builds productionconsumption linking chains. In 2011, the city built egg productionconsumption chain in Chuong My district and the trademark Tien Vien
Clean Egg is an example.
Poultry distributed in all districts, but mainly focused in the farther
districts. Within the boundaries of old Hanoi, poultry raising was concentrated
in Dong Anh and Soc Son districts (accounted for 80.2% of total poultry herds).
Nowadays, poultry thrives in Dong Anh, Chuong My, Ba Vi, Quoc Oai, Ung
Hoa, Soc Son, Thanh Oai and Phuc Tho districts (accounted for 67.4% of total
220.127.116.11. Food crops
Paddy production has been fluctuant. Period 2001 - 2007, sown area and
production decreased, productivity was low, because farmers did not invest
adequately. Period 2008 - 2011, sown area was decreasing but paddy
productivity and production increasing because farmers were actively apply
new varieties, new cultivation techniques. At present Hanoi has the largest
paddy sown area and highest paddy output in Red river delta region; compared
nationwide, it ranks 10th for rice areas and 9th for rice output.
To meet the need of the large city’s market, Hanoi has focused on
production of high quality paddy. In 2007, high quality paddy area was 2,766
ha, yield 43 quintal per ha, output was 11.9 thousand tons. In 2011, sown area
increased up to 40 thousand ha, yield increased to 54 quintal per ha, output
increased to 216 thousand tones.
The Program of high quality paddy production has promoted a cohesive
commitment among "4 stakeholders". The program has created a sharp progress
in productivity, quality and efficiency of paddy production, opening new
intensification trend in paddy cultivation for suburban farmers. However, sown
area and production of high quality paddy is still low (account below 20%), it
can only meet about 19% of consumer demand (in 2011).
At present, paddy is grown grown mainly in Ung Hoa, Chuong My, Soc
Son, Phu Xuyen, My Duc, Ba Vi, Thanh Oai, Dong Anh, Thuong Tin, Quoc
Oai, Me Linh (accounted for 79.6 % of total sown area). High quality paddy is
distributed entirely in the key districts for paddy growing as Ba Vi, Soc Son,
Thanh Oai, Thuong Tin, Chuong My, My Duc, Ung Hoa, Phu Xuyen.
18.104.22.168. Vegetables and beans
Vegetables and beans are always identified as key crops of the city’s
agriculture. This group now brings the 2nd highest economic efficiency after
fruit crops. In which, vegetables dominate both output value and sown area.
During the period 2001 - 2011, vegetables contributed to 98 - 99% of gross
output and over 90% of sown area of vegetable and bean group. At present
Hanoi’s vegetable area ranks the 8 th in the whole country and ranks the 2 nd in
Red river delta region.
Vegetable production is fluctuant in area, productivity and output.
Vegetable area tent to increase in the period 2001 - 2004, then decreased
markedly in period 2005 - 2007 and fell sharply in 2009. Vegetable growing is
highly dependent on weather conditions, besides, vegetables area decreases
sharply, therefore their output has been unstable. At present, vegetable
production meets only 70% of Hanoi market. Harvested vegetables are mainly
consumed as fresh ones.
Vegetables are produced in two main seasons: winter - spring and summer.
The winter - spring season has the most area and gross output , accounted for
over 2/3 area and output of vegetable of the whole year.
Vegetable species are diverse (more than 60 different species). Popularly
grown species include cabbages, spinach, kohlrabi, tomatoes, potatoes, beans,
cucumbers, squash and zucchini.
Vegetables are distributed in all suburban districts. Before the city’s
expansion, 4 districts having largest vegetable area are Dong Anh, Thanh Tri,
Gia Lam, Soc Son (accounting for 76.6% of total area). After the city’s
expansion, 11 districts having largest vegetable area are Me Linh, Dong Anh,
Thuong Tin, Chuong My, Hoai Duc, Ba Vi, Gia Lam, Thanh Tri, Soc Son,
Phuc Tho, Thanh Oai (accounting for 75.0% of total area). With the advantage
of the large markets, a number of inner districts as Hoang Mai, Long Bien and
some suburban districts as Dong Anh, Gia Lam, Thanh Tri reorient to valuable
b. Safe vegetables
Safe vegetables tend to increase both in area, productivity and output, and
making greater share in the whole vegetable area and production of the city
(table 3.23). But for the city market demand, safe vegetables only meet 25%.
Safe vegetables production is coping with obstacles as fragmented and
small-scaled production area, weak realizing network, instable consumption
market; low confidence of consumers in the quality of safe vegetables. These
facts wew also reflected in the author’s survey results about the safe vegetable
production area in Dong Anh dictrict.
Safe vegetables are also grown throughout the year and concentrated into
two main seasons: winter - spring and summer. In recent years, thanks to
applications of plastic covering technique, an increasing number of suburban
districts were successful with off - season vegetable growing. Currently in
Hanoi there are 3 levels of safe vegetable farming: organic vegetables, VietGap
safe vegetables and vegetable growing according to safety procedure. All 3
groups are increasing in sown area.
Table 3.23. Area, yield and production of safe vegetables
in Hanoi city period 2001 - 2011
Source: Calculated from , 
22.214.171.124. Fruit crops
Among perennial crops, fruit crops always occupied the leading position in
both output value and sown area. The creation of the concentrated fruit crop
areas brings economic benefits, creates green beautiful landscapes and
ecological environment and suits the development orientation of UA in Hanoi.