The complete guide to the toefl test pbt

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JIo.-\1 "' ~ ~ TOEfl® IS a r gist red trademark of Educational e sentials esting ervic s (ETS) . T lis publication IS not e I ed or approved by ETS. The Complete Guide to the TOEFL® Test --- -----~- - ---- ------ ---- --- _._- ---- - -- -------- The Complete Guide to the TOEFL@ Test PBT Edition Bruce Rogers ~... J# HEINLE _- (ENGAGE Learning - - - - - - - - - - Australia· Brazil· Japan. Korea· Mexico· Singapore. Spain. United Kingdom. United States - ~...~ HEINLE ,.., (ENGAGE Learning· The Complete Guide to the TOEFL ® Test: PBT Edition Bruce Rogers Publisher: Sherrise Roehr Acquisitions Editor: Tom Jefferies Director of Global Marketing: Ian Martin Director of Content and Media Production: Michael Burggren Content Project Manager: Daisy Sosa Print Buyer: Susan Spencer Cover Designer: Lisa Mezikofsky Cover Image: iStockphoto Compositor: MPS Limited, A Macmillan Company © 2011 Heinle, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher. For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706 For permission to use material from this text or product, submit all requests online at cengage_com/permissions Further permissions questions can be emailed to ISBN-13: 978-1-111-22059-4 ISBN-lO: 1-111-22059-X Heinle Cengage Learning 20 Channel Center Street Boston, Massachussetts 02210 USA Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with office locations around the globe, including Singapore, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico, Brazil, and Japan. Locate your local office at: Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd. Visit Heinle online at Visit our corporate website at This edition is an updated printing of the Complete Guide to the TOEFL®, Second Edition. Printed in the United States of America 12345671413121110 f/ Contents Preface Acknowledgements ix xiii GETTING STARTED xv Questions and Answers about TOEFL Twelve Keys to High Scores on TOEFL xvi xx SECTION 1: GUIDE TO LISTENING COMPREHENSION 1 About Listening Comprehension Sample Listening Comprehension Test 2 Part A: Dialogs About Dialogs Lesson 1. Anticipating Questions about Dialogs Lesson 2. Dialogs with Sound Confusion Lesson 3. Dialogs with Homonyms and Words with Multiple Meanings Lesson 4. Dialogs with Idiomatic Expressions Lesson 5. Answering Inference Questions about Dialogs Lesson 6. Dialogs Involving Agreement and Disagreement Lesson 7. Dialogs Involving Suggestions, Invitations, Offers, and Requests Lesson 8. Dialogs Involving Contradictions, Assumptions, and Questions Lesson 9. Answering Questions about Activities, Plans, Topics, and Problems Lesson 10. Dialogs with Special Verbs Mini-Test 1: Dialogs Part B: About Extended Conversations About Extended Conversations Lesson 11. Anticipating Questions about the Extended Conversations Lesson 12. Answering Overview Questions about Extended Conversations Lesson 13. Answering Detail Questions about Extended Conversations Min i-Test 2: Extended Conversations Part C: Mini-Talks About Mini-Talks Lesson 14. Anticipating Questions about Mini-Talks Lesson 15. Answering Overview Questions about Mini-Talks Lesson 16. Answering Detail Questions about Mini-Talks 3 11 11 16 18 21 24 29 32 35 42 46 49 52 55 55 59 62 64 67 68 68 72 74 76 Mini-Test 3: Mini-Talks 79 Mini-Lessons for Section 1: Idiomatic Expressions 81 vi Contents SECTION 2: GUIDE TO STRUCTURE AND WRITTEN EXPRESSION 101 About Structure and Written Expression Sample Structure and Written Expression Test 102 104 Part A: About Structure Introduction Lesson 17. Incomplete Independent Clauses Lesson 18. Incomplete Adjective Clauses Lesson 19. Incomplete or Missing Participial Phrases Lesson 20. Incomplete or Missing Appositives Lesson 21. Incomplete Adverb Clauses Lesson 22. Incomplete Noun Clauses Lesson 23. Missing or Incomplete Prepositional Phrases 111 111 114 121 126 129 132 138 141 Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Mini-Test 4: Structure 144 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 147 152 155 159 162 165 168 171 Word Order Items Items Involving Verb Problems Incomplete or Missing Infinitive and Gerund Phrases Items Involving Parallel Structures Items Involving Misplaced Modifiers Incomplete or Missing Comparisons Missing Conjunctions Missing Negative Words Mini-Test 5: Structure Part B: Written Expression About Written Expression Lesson 32. Errors with Word Forms Lesson 33. Errors in Word Choice Lesson 34. Errors with Verbs Lesson 35. Errors with Parallel Structures Lesson 36. Errors with Pronouns Lesson 37. Errors with Singular and Plural Nouns Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson 174 176 176 179 189 202 209 212 219 Mini-Test 6: Written Expression 225 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 228 234 240 247 250 254 Errors with Verbals Errors with Prepositions Errors with Articles Errors with Comparatives and Superlatives Errors in Word Order Errors with Conjunctions Mini-Test 7: Written Expression 257 Mini-Lessons for Section 2: Preposition Use 260 Contents vii SECTION 3: GUIDE TO READING COMPREHENSION About Reading Comprehension Sample Reading Comprehension Test Lesson 44. Overview Questions Lesson 45. Factual Questions, Negative Questions, and Scanning Questions Lesson 46. Inference Questions and Purpose Questions Lesson 47. Vocabulary-in-Context Questions Lesson 48. Reference Questions 269 270 276 290 303 313 324 334 Mini-Test 8: Reading Comprehension 343 Mini-Lessons for Section 3: Vocabulary Building 352 Guide to the Test of Written English (TWE) About the Test of Written English Ten Keys to Writing theTWE Essay Three Practice TWE Tests 387 388 Three Complete Practice Tests About Taking the Practice Tests Scoring the Practice Tests Practice Test I Practice Test 2 Practice Test 3 409 About the Author 497 Answer Sheets 499 395 399 410 411 413 441 469 Preface About This Book If you are preparing for TOEFL, you are not alone. Over a million people all over the world take either the Internet- or Paper-based version of the test every year. A high score on this test is an essential step in being admitted to graduate or undergraduate programs at almost all colleges and universities in North America. A strong TOEFL score may also be needed to complete an English program at a language school or may be a requirement for graduation from a university. But preparing for this test can be a difficult, frustrating experience. Perhaps you haven't taken many standardized, multiple choice tests such as TOEFL. Perhaps you are not familiar with the format of TOEFL. Maybe you've taken TOEFL once but were not satisfied with your score, or maybe you've taken the test several times but can't seem to improve your score beyond a certain point. In any of these cases, you need a guide. That's why this book was written-to help students preparing for this important exam to maximize their scores. This is the most complete and accurate TOEFL preparation book for the Paper-based test now available. It is based on many years of classroom experience teaching TOEFL preparation classes in the United States and abroad, and on several years of research on the test. The Complete Guide to the TOEFL Test is simply written and clearly organized and is suitable for any intermediate or advanced student of English as a second or foreign language. The Complete Guide to the TOEFL Test offers a step-by-step program that teaches you critical test taking techniques, helps you polish the language skills specifically needed for the Paper-based test, and generally makes you a smarter test-taker. And the Guide is an efficient way to prepare for TOEFL; by concentrating only on the points that are actually tested on the TOEFL, it lets you make the most of your preparation period and never wastes your time. Good luck on TOEFL! x Preface About This Edition In 200S, Educational Testing Service (ETS) began administering the Internet-based TOEFL (iBT). It was introduced at first in the United States and a few other countries. Over the next few years, ETS began to administer the iBT in more and more countries. However, the original Paper-based TOEFL (PBT) is still given in many locations around the world. Whether you take the iBT or the PBT depends on the location where you take the test. It may also depend on when you take the test, because some centers offer the PBT on certain dates and the iBT on others. To find out if the iBT or the PBT is given in your area, you should check the TOEFL website. Go to on TOEFL and then click on Register for the Test. In addition, the Institutional TOEFL (called the TOEFL Institutional Testing Program (ITP) by ETS) is a paper-based test which is administered by language centers, universities, and other institutions all over the world. Over 400,000 people take the Institutional test every year. For students or classes that must prepare for the Internet-based test, The Complete Guide to the TOEFL: iET Edition is also available from this publisher. This edition of The Complete Guide to the TOEFL Test meets the needs of people who want to take the TOEFL PBT rather than the iBT because the design of the two versions of the test is quite different. I believe The Complete Guide to the TOEFL Test is the most complete and accurate and up-to-date guide to preparing for the Paper-based TOEFL available. If you have comments about this edition of The Complete Guide to the TOEFL Test or about any aspect of the TOEFL test, I welcome your ideas, questions, and suggestions. please feel free to contact me at the e-mail address below. And, as always, good luck on TOEFL! Bruce Rogers Preface xi Organization of this Book Getting Started, th~ first section of the book, serves as an introduction to the Paper-based test. The opening - Xem thêm -