The can tho universtiy english-majored freshmen’ learning styles and their teachers’ teaching styles

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CAN THO UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF EDUCATION ENGLISH DEPARTMENT *** THE CAN THO UNIVERSTIY ENGLISH-MAJORED FRESHMEN’ LEARNING STYLES AND THEIR TEACHERS’ TEACHING STYLES B.A. Thesis Field of study: English Language Teaching Supervisor Nguyen Thanh Tung, M.A Student Nguyen Ngoc Cat Khuyen Student’s Code: 7062944 Class: NN0652A2 Course: 32 Can Tho, April 2010 CONTENTS Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………………. i Abstracts…………………………………………………………………………….ii List of tables ……………………………………………………………………...iii List of figures………………………………………………………………………..v Chapter 1: Introduction............................................................................................1 1.1. General statement of the problem .........................................................................1 1.2. Statement of research questions............................................................................3 1.2.1 Research aim ...............................................................................................3 1.2.2. Research question.......................................................................................3 1.2.3 Research hypotheses....................................................................................3 1.3. Definition of terms ...............................................................................................3 1.3.1. Learning styles ...........................................................................................3 1.3.2. Teaching styles...........................................................................................5 1.4. General organization and coverage of the study ...................................................5 Chapter 2: Literature Review ..................................................................................6 2.1. Related literature ..................................................................................................6 2.1.1. An Overview of learning styles and teaching styles ....................................6 Learning styles............................................................................................6 Teaching styles..........................................................................................11 2.2 Related studies ....................................................................................................12 2.2.1 Congruence between learning styles and teaching styles.............................12 The effects of match and mismatch between teaching styles and learning style on students’ learning ...................................................................................12 The researchers’ remarks on the effects of the match or mismatch between learning styles and teaching ones on students’ success in learning ............................13 Suggestion on overcoming of the mismatch between teaching styles and learning styles ...........................................................................................................15 2.3. Justification of the present study ........................................................................17 Chapter 3: Research Methodology.........................................................................19 3.1. Research design .................................................................................................19 3.2. Description of subjects, instruments, and materials ............................................19 3.2.1. Subjects ....................................................................................................19 3.2.2. Research instruments................................................................................19 3.2.3. Questionnaires..........................................................................................20 3.2.4. Interviews.................................................................................................20 3.2.5. Pilot the questionnaire ..............................................................................21 3.3. Research Procedures ..........................................................................................21 3.3.1. Questionnaires..........................................................................................21 3.3.2. Interviews.................................................................................................22 3.4. Description of measures employed .....................................................................22 3.4.1.Data Analysis..................................................................................................22 Chapter 4: Results...................................................................................................23 4.1. The results of learning styles and teaching styles................................................23 4.1.1. Learning styles .........................................................................................23 The visual learning style...........................................................................25 The verbal learning style ..........................................................................26 The logical learning style..........................................................................27 The physical learning style .......................................................................28 The social learning style ...........................................................................29 The solitary learning style.........................................................................30 The auditory-music learning style.............................................................31 4.1.2. Interview questions about learning styles..................................................31 4.1.3. Teaching styles.........................................................................................32 The visual teaching style ..........................................................................33 The verbal teaching style ..........................................................................34 The logical teaching style .........................................................................35 The physical teaching style.......................................................................36 The social teaching style...........................................................................37 The solitary teaching style ........................................................................38 The auditory-music teaching style ............................................................38 4.1.4. Interview questions about teaching styles ................................................39 4.2. Description of the results pertinent to research questions....................................40 4.3. Other findings ....................................................................................................41 Chapter 5: Discussion, Implications and suggestion for further research and Conclusion ...............................................................................................................43 5.1. Discussion .........................................................................................................43 5.2. Implications .......................................................................................................44 5.3. Recommendations ..............................................................................................45 5.4. Limitations and Suggestion for Further Research ...............................................46 5.4.1. Limitations ...............................................................................................46 5.4.2. Suggestion for Further Researches............................................................46 5.5. Conclusions........................................................................................................47 Appendices ...............................................................................................................48 Appendix 1.....................................................................................................48 Appendix 2.....................................................................................................54 References ................................................................................................................59 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my appreciation to a number of people who helped me to complete this study through their advice, encouragement, criticism and suggestion. I would like to offer my profound and greatest indebtedness to my thesis advisor, Mr. Nguyen Thanh Tung, for his valuable comments, corrections and constant encouragement in completing my thesis. Without his help, this study would have hardly been made possible. I am also thankful to my subjects, the teachers from English Departments and the freshmen of bachelor of English Education, class 01 and 02, the freshmen of bachelor of English Studies, classes 01, 02, 03, and 04. Without their help during the data collection process, the research will never be finished. Last but not least, I would like to show my deepest appreciation to my family and my close friends, whose support and encouragement made me overcome all difficulties in carrying out the thesis. ABSTRACT This study “the Can Tho University English-majored freshmen’s learning styles and their teachers’ teaching styles” aims at identifying the most favorite learning styles of the Can Tho University English-majored freshmen, the most favorite teaching styles of their teachers, and the match or mismatch between the learning and teaching styles. The subjects include 153 English majors at Can Tho University and 10 teachers who teach these classes (teach writing, speaking and listening, and reading). The data were gathered from the questionnaires and interview questions. It was found that the most favorite learning styles are the music-auditory, social and verbal learning style, and the most favorite teaching styles are the social, logical and solitary teaching style. Actually, the students and teachers all have the match between the five teaching and learning styles including visual, verbal, physical, logical and social style. The solitary and auditory –music style have the mismatch between learning and teaching styles, in fact, this mismatch does not cause a big problem. As a result, the Can Tho University English- majored freshmen’s learning styles match with their teachers’ teaching styles. However, the mismatch (between auditory-musical and solitary teaching and learning styles) needs to be considered. TÓM LƯỢC Bài nghiên cứu- sự phù hợp hoặc không phù hợp giữa phong cách học và phong cách dạy của sinh viên chuyên Anh văn năm nhất và giáo viên dạy các sinh viên ñó. Bài nghiên cứu này nhằm khảo sát phong cách học sinh viên ủng hộ nhiều nhất và phong cách dạy mà giáo viên ủng hộ nhiều nhất. Dựa trên kết quả nghiên cứu thu ñược, bài nghiên cứu còn tìm ra sự phù hợp không phù hợp giữa phong cách dạy và học của giáo viên và sinh viên. ðối tượng nghiên cứu là 153 sinh viên năm nhất khóa 35 chuyên ngành Anh Văn tại ðại Học Cần Thơ và những giáo viên dạy viết, nghe-nói, và ñọc hiểu cho các lớp ñó. Người nghiên cứu ñã sử dụng bản câu hỏi lựa chọn và những câu hỏi phỏng vấn ñể thực hiện nghiên cứu. Kết quả cho thấy, phong cách học sinh viên ủng hộ nhiều nhất là phong cách âm nhạc- sự lắng nghe (musicauditory), xã hội (social) và ngôn ngữ học (verbal). Phong cách dạy giáo viên sử dụng nhiều nhất là các phong cách xã hội (social), theo logic (logical) and ñộc lập (solitary). Kết quả cho thấy mức ñộ ñồng ý ủng hộ các phong cách visual, ngôn ngữ (verbal), thuộc hoạt ñộng cơ thể (physical), theo logic (logical) và xã hội (social) giữa giáo viên và sinh viên nhìn chung là tương ñương nhau, chỉ có phong cách ñộc lập (solitary) và âm nhạc- sự lắng nghe (music-auditory), là mức ñộ ñồng ý sử dụng không phù hợp với nhau. Tuy nhiên sự không phù hợp này cũng không quá lớn. Do ñó, có thể kết luận rằng phong cách dạy và học của giáo viên và học sinh tương ñối phù hợp với nhau mặc dầu sự không phù hợp (phong cách âm nhạc- sự lắng nghe và phong cách ñộc lập của giáo viên và học sinh) khá nhỏ nhưng cũng cần ñược chú ý. LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Descriptive Statistics of learning style Table 2: Descriptive statistic of visual learning style Table 3: Descriptive Statistics of the verbal learning style Table 4: Descriptive Statistics of the logical learning style Table 5: Descriptive Statistics of the physical learning style Table 6: Descriptive Statistics the of social learning style Table 7: Descriptive Statistics of the solitary learning style Table 8: Descriptive Statistics of the music- auditory learning style Table 1’: Descriptive Statistics of teaching styles Table 2’: Descriptive statistic of visual teaching style Table 3’: Descriptive Statistics of the verbal teaching style Table 4’: Descriptive Statistics of the logical teaching style Table 5’: Descriptive Statistics of the physical teaching style Table 6’: Descriptive Statistics the of social teaching style Table 7’: Descriptive Statistics of the solitary teaching style Table 8’: Descriptive Statistics of the music- auditory teaching style Table 9: The comparison between teaching and learning styles LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: the chart of the learning styles Figure 2: the chart of the teaching styles CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In this part, the general statement of the problem will be first addressed. Then, statement of the research questions, definition of terms, and general organization and coverage will be presented. 1. 1 General statement of the problem Each language learner has his or her own ways of learning and understanding new information that the teachers give him or her. Moreover, each of them prefers different methods for learning. And, the methods are often originated from their habits, their schools or their families. In fact, the ways or methods of individuals have been gradually subjected to a great deal of attention. Since Reid’s research on the topic of learning styles was published in 1987, more and more researchers have paid much attention to learning styles and discovered aspects related to ones, especially there are a lot of studies about second language on this topic. The studies on learning styles indicate that it is very helpful as well as useful for teachers and students to take a different view of learning. Therefore, teachers can use knowledge of learning styles in these studies for their classes. Among the researchers, there are some famous ones such as Reid (1987), Rita and Dunn (1993), and Felder (1995), Peacock (2001) and Zhenhui (2001). In general, the teaching practices nowadays seem to have idealized view from pedagogical aspects; however, the truth is that most of teachers are hardly aware of their students’ learning styles. The teachers just focus on the way of giving lectures to their students. Although establishing and identifying learning styles play an important role in teaching, the teachers seldom identify how the students get their lessons, and what ways they use to get knowledge from their lectures. Therefore, their unawareness of learning styles causes some unanticipated consequences in students’ learning. In general, students’ learning styles are considered as an insignificant factor in teaching. However, without an evaluation, experienced teachers may misinterpret students’ behaviors such as hyperactivity or inattentiveness. Hence, it’s very necessary to obviously assess learning styles of students to accommodate different learners. 1 According to Felder (1996), when students learn in class, they partially prove their abilities. In addition, they show their learning styles quite clearly when studying. Besides, the results of their studying often indicate the learning styles as well as the lecturers’ teaching styles. For many years, the researchers have studied the relationship between teaching and learning styles. They have proved the effects of match and mismatch between the teaching and learning styles on students’ learning. Among the researchers who had views regarding this aspect, Peacock (2001) determines that a mismatch causes learning frustration, failure and demotivation. In a class where a mismatch occurs, the students get bored and inattentive. Thus, they do not get good results on the tests, and they even quit the course. Furthermore, the teachers may feel disappointed with their students, and may suppose that they do not have good ability in teaching (Oxford et al, 1991). Besides, other researchers have claimed that matching teaching and learning style improves learning, attitudes, behavior, and motivation (Willing 1980; Reid 1987, Spolsky 1989; Hyland 1993; Felder 1995; Oxford et al. 1991; Kinsella 1995; Nelson 1995; Tudor 1996 and Jones 1997). For some research above, the researchers partly showed the consequences or effect of mismatch between students’ learning styles and teachers’ teaching styles. To conclude, the mismatch and match between teaching and learning styles play an important role to determine students’ learning success. The educators have paid lots of attention to the relationship of teaching and learning styles. However, except for some researchers such as Peacock (2001), Maria and Mahela (2007), for many research about learning styles, the majority of researchers such as Almasa, Parilah and Fauziah (1985), or Almasa, Parilah Mohd and Fauziah (2009) principally focus on the students’ learning styles, and investigate the origin of learning styles titled Perceptual of Learning Style of ESL Students. Also, Reid (1987) did a research named The Learning Style Preferences of ELS Students. The limitation of these studies above was that they didn’t mention the match between teaching and learning styles meanwhile the match plays an important role to decide the students’ results of studying. Can Tho University has recently applied the credit-based curriculum. With this system, the students are considered to be centered in their learning process. Thus, they need to find out their good points, that is, what styles belong to them. Especially, if the first- year students can find out and know their own learning styles at the beginning of their course, the teachers can base on students’ learning styles to apply 2 suitable teaching methods and motivate students to learn. As a result, the mismatch between teaching and learning styles can be avoided, so we can also stay away from some bad results that the mismatch causes. For those reasons above, the researcher would like to conduct a research on the learning styles, teaching styles and the match between them. And I name my research as “The CTU English-majored freshmen’s learning styles and their teachers’ teaching styles”. 1.2 Statement of research questions 1. 2.1 Research aims In this research, I want to investigate (1) learning styles that are mostly favored by the CTU English-majored freshmen, and (2) teaching styles that are mostly favored by their teachers. Also, I want to answer the question (3) Do the CTU English-majored freshmen’s learning styles match or mismatch with their teachers’ teaching styles? 1.2.2 Research questions - Which learning styles are mostly favored by the CTU English-majored freshmen? - Which teaching styles are mostly favored by the CTU English-majored freshmen’s teachers ? - Do the CTU English-majored freshmen’s learning styles match or mismatch with their teachers’ teaching styles? 1.2.3 Hypotheses In this study, I hypothesize that (1) social learning style, physical learning style and visual learning style are mostly favored by the CTU English- majored freshmen, (2) social teaching style, physical learning styles and solitary teaching style are mostly favored by the CTU English-majored freshmen’s teachers, and (3) the CTU Englishmajored freshmen’s learning styles match with their teachers’ teaching styles. 1.3 Definition of terms 1.3.1 Learning styles 3 There are numerous definitions about “learning styles”. According to Reid (1995) cited in Maria (2007), learning style is said to be internally based characteristics of individuals for intake of understanding of new information. In other words, each language learner has his or her own peculiarity when he or she studies. The peculiarity relates to the learning process that he or she acquired from time to time. Perhaps, this person prefer visual presentation while that person likes to take part in role-plays or do experiments to study, even others tend to work in groups to discuss or work individually to study. Although they all have different learning styles, they all expect to get good results for their studying. Besides, Reid (1995) also cited in Peacock (2001) that learning styles are a student’s natural, habitual, and preferred way(s) of absorbing, processing, and retaining new information and skills. This definition is the most common one during the time. This definition indicates that the origin of learning styles, habits, natural available features and preferred ways were incorporated during the studying process. According to Arthur (1993), learning styles are mental processes and instructional settings that every student uses effectively when he or she learns. He mentioned that learning styles were the mental processes and instructional settings which helped students gain good effects on studying. Besides, Irvinc & York(1995) cited in Suleiman, Mahmoud (1996) that the term learning styles was a generic term that included three distinct styles or substyles: cognitive, affective, and physiological. According to Adey, Fairbrother et al. (1999) cited in Cheng-Yi (2004), learning styles were thoughts of as persistent learning strategies which were operated across all subjects’ areas. Moreover, Keffe (1979), Willing (1988) and Spolsky (1989) once stated that: Learning styles were cognitive and affective traits that were relatively stable indicators of how learners perceived, interacted with, and responded to the learning environment; learning styles are natural, habitual, and preferred ways of learning. Learning styles are a clear, comprehensible and coherent set of likes and dislikes; learning styles were identifiable individual approaches to learning situations. In other words, learning styles are the cognitive and affective ways that students have from nature or their habit or even preferred ways; and they are also the ways that they found approach to their studying. 4 Learning styles, defined by researchers, are the students’ preferred ways originated from their habit or characteristics. Also, learning styles are the preferred ways which are suitable for students or their ability. Hence, the students themselves get lessons easily with their own ways when studying. For those definitions above, it is noted that all definitions of learning styles are equally significant in meeting the unique demands of the learning/teaching situation. If teachers are aware of the variables affecting learning, it is useful for educators and teachers. 1.3.2 Teaching styles There are some definitions related to teaching styles. According to Galton et al. (1980), teaching styles are a set of teaching tactics. Similarly, Seidentop (1991) defines that teaching styles are instructional format. Physical Education also states that teaching styles are the general pattern created by using a particular set of strategies (from Teaching Styles in Physical Education and Mosston’s Spectrum, retrieved 15:43, 111 August 2007 (MEST). It is obvious that these definitions of teaching styles are slightly different in the way they are stated, but not the nature itself. Therefore, it can be concluded that teaching style refers to teaching styles as a set of teaching tactics. Thanks to the researchers’ ideas, teaching styles can be understood as follows. Teaching styles depend on teachers, each of whom has his own teaching styles that he experienced from the way he learned best, or he believes he can help their students get lessons well. 1.4 General organization and coverage of the study This thesis consists of five chapters. Chapter 1 covers the general statement of the problem, the research aims, the research questions and the hypotheses as well as the organization of the thesis. Chapter 2 presents related readings, related literature, related studies, and justification of the present study. Chapter 3 provides the research design, subjects, research instruments, and procedures of the study description of measures employed. Chapter 4 addresses the analysis and synthesis collected from the instruments. Chapter 5 includes discussions, limitations, pedagogical implications, recommendations, suggestions for further research, and conclusions. 5 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter will be about related literature, related studies, and justification of the present study. 2.1 Related literature 2.1.1 An Overview of learning styles and teaching styles Learning styles There are three theories about learning styles by Gardner (1983), Reid (1987), and Felder and Silverman’s. Gardner (1983) asserts that there are at least seven modalities or intelligences that link to our individual styles. He suggests that humans can be verbal/linguistic, logical/mathematical, visual/spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal intelligence. He believes that these seven intelligences are independent; they develop at different times and to different degrees in different individuals. In fact, the strongest skills of many students lie in these seven areas. If students have chances to learn through their strengths, they may get successful in learning all subjects even “basic skills”. Actually, this theory was originally designed for Multiple Intelligences in humans generally not in a classroom application. However, it not only was supported by a lot of educators but also got large adaptation in educational settings. In general, each student has his or her own strengths and weaknesses in the classroom. Gardner’s research enabled to point out that and helped to improve students’ ability in any given intelligence. On the basis of his theory, many schools have documented the use of MI (i.e., Multiple Intelligences) in their instructional design to adapt their lesson plans and classroom activities to accommodate these various styles. One specific school is the Key Learning Community, formerly known as the Key School, a part of the Indianapolis Public School. Gardner (1983) was wellregarded for his theory of different learning styles. He developed a theory on the different ways that individuals learned and processed information. According to his theory of Multiple Intelligences, students may show stronger learning skills in any of 6 seven different style categories. Besides, some people have strengths in several areas, while others may find that they learn predominantly through a single style. In combination with Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences, Memletic Learning Styles Inventory has been prepared in Memletics Accelerated Learning Manual book by Sean Whiteley published by advanogy.com 2003). It also differentiates seven learning styles according to the types of the theory of multiple intelligences including visual (spatial), aural (auditory-musical), verbal (linguistic), physical (kinesthetic), logical (mathematical), social (interpersonal) and solitary (intrapersonal). To understand clearly about these learning styles, the researcher give a small summary of learning styles by basing on the theory of these learning styles from theory of Multiple Intelligences. (1) Visual/spatial: learners of this style prefer using pictures, images, and spatial understanding. These learners are able to acquire maps, reading, charts, drawing, mazes, puzzles, imagining things and visualization well. Therefore, they prefer drawing, building, and designing, creating and looking at pictures. They learn best through working with pictures and colors, visualizing, using the mind’s eye and drawing. Legos, videos, movies, slides, art, imagination games, mazes, puzzles, and illustrated books are required to help these learners study well. (2) Verbal/linguistic: learners of this style prefer using words both in speech and writing. These learners are able to acquire lessons by writing, reading, memorizing dates, thinking in words, telling stories well. Therefore, they prefer writing, reading, telling stories, talking, memorizing, and working at solving puzzles. Besides, they learn best through hearing and seeing words, speaking, reading, and writing, discussing and debating. Books, tapes, paper diaries, writing tools, dialogues, discussion, debate, and stories are necessitated to help these learners study well. (3) Auditory/musical: learners of this style prefer using sound and music. These learners are able to acquire sounds, melodies, rhythms and songs, lectures. Therefore, they prefer singing, playing an instrument, listening to music. Besides, they learn best through rhythm, singing, melody, listening to music and melodies. Moreover, they tend to listen in classes, they learn best through listening to the instructions from teachers. These learners need songs, lectures, and instructions to study well. 7 (4) Logical/mathematical: learners of this style prefer using logic, reasoning and systems. These learners are able to acquire lessons well through math, logic, problem-solving, reasons, and patterns. Therefore, they prefer questioning, working with numbers, experimenting and solving problems. Besides, they learn best through working with relationships and patterns, classifying, categorizing, and working with the abstract. They demand for things to think about and explore such as science materials, manipulative and so on. (5) Bodily/kinesthetic: learners of this style prefer to use body language, hands and sense of touch. These learners are able to acquire lessons well by acting, taking part in activities such as role-plays, dramas. Therefore, they prefer moving around, touching, talking and using body language. Besides, they learn best through touching, moving, knowledge through bodily sensations, processing. Role-plays, dramas, movement, sports and physical games, tactile experiences, and hands-on learning are required to help them study well. (6) Social/interpersonal: learners of this style prefer to learn in groups. These learners are able to lead, organize, understand people, communicate and resolve conflicts. Therefore, they like to talk to people, have friends, and join in groups. Besides, they learn best through comparing, relating, sharing, interviewing and cooperating. Group work, group games, social gatherings, community events, clubs, mentors/apprenticeship are necessitated to help them study well. (7) Solitary/intrapersonal: learners of this style prefer to work alone and use self- study. These learners are able to recognize their own strengths and weaknesses, set goals and understand themselves. Therefore, they prefer working alone, pursue interests. Besides, they learn best through working alone, having space, reflecting, doing self-paced projects. They need secret places, time alone, self-paced projects, and choices to help them study. According to Reid (1987), learning styles are of six types: (1) Visual learners prefer seeing words or ideas in writing, e.g. reading handouts or from the board or in workbook. It is better for them to understand information and instructions by reading them. These learners don’t need as much oral explanation as auditory learners, and they can learn by themselves with their books. Taking notes of lectures and oral directions is helpful for them to remember information. 8 (2) Auditory learners prefer listening, that is, oral explanation, discussions, or debates. They may read aloud to remember information, especially when they learn new materials. They learn best through hearing audio tapes, lectures, discussing and making tapes to listen to, and conversing with their teachers. (3) Kinesthetic learners prefer active participation/experiences; that is, dramas and role-plays. They learn best through classroom experiences. When they actively take part in activities such as role- plays or dramas in the classroom, they can remember information well. A combination of stimuli helps them learn better. For example, an audiotape combined with an activity will help them understand new materials. (4) Tactile learners prefer hands-on work; that is, handling materials or taking notes. They can learn best through hands-on experiences with materials. They can show their strengths when working on experiments in a laboratory, handling and building models, touching and working with materials. Besides, they can remember information better by writing notes or instructions. Moreover, making something for class projects, building something and involving in related activities help them understand new information. (5) Group learners prefer studying with others. Group interactions help them learn better. They learn more easily when they study with at least one other student, and they learn best through working with others. They value both group interaction and class work with other students. (6) Individual learners prefer studying alone, that is, self-directed study or independent reading and study. They learn best through working alone. The successful learning situations for them are to think and work by themselves. They understand information and make better progress in learning when they work by themselves. According to Felder and Silverman, there are eight learning styles: sensory, intuitive, visual, verbal, active, reflective, sequential and global. (1) Sensory learners prefer concrete, practical, and procedural information. They look for the facts. (2) Intuitive learners prefer conceptual, innovative, and theoretical information. They look for the meanings. 9 (3) Visual learners prefer graphs, pictures, and diagrams. They look for visual representations of information. (4) Verbal learners prefer to hear or read information. They look for explanation with words. (5) Active learners prefer to manipulate objects, do physical experiments, and learn by trying. They enjoy working in groups to figure out problems. (6) Reflective learners prefer to think things through, to evaluate options, and learn by analysis. They enjoy figuring out a problem on their own. (7) Sequential learners prefer to have information presented linearly and in and orderly manner. They tend to put together the details in order to understand the big picture emerges. (8) Global learners prefer a holistic and systematic approach. They see the big pictures first and then fill in the details. From the above theories, there are different researchers with various theories of learning styles. Gardner’s (1983) theory and Reid’s (1987) theory are similar to each other. Although they use the different terms for determining learning styles, both of them mentioned visual, auditory (musical), kinesthetic (bodily), individual (intrapersonal) and group (interpersonal). However, Gardner’s theory is more comprehensive than Reid’s because Gardner adds two more learning styles about logical (mathematical) and verbal (linguistic). Reid does not mention these learning styles. In Reid’s theory about learning styles, she specifies tactile and kinesthetic learners as two types of learning styles, in fact, they are similar as one. Actually, tactile and kinesthetic are also connected with the sense of touch; learners with these two learning styles all prefer active participation, experiences or hand on works. Reid (1987) distinguishes learning styles into six types; however, they nearly include five types because the tactile and kinesthetic are as in one. In general, both Reid and Gardner’ theories help students or learners identify their strengths or weaknesses to learn best. In addition, the teachers can base on their learning styles to accommodate with teaching styles. Nevertheless, Gardner’s theory is more comprehensive and idealized with 7 learning styles than Reid’s. Felder and Silverman’s theory is rather strange; this theory is not as common as the two theories above. 10 Teaching styles Not all professors approach teaching in the same way. Major differences exist depending upon academic discipline, class size, and on individual instructor preferences. The Indiana State University Center for Teaching and Learning has identified four teaching styles: a) Formal teachers are those who have a formal authority teaching style and tend to focus on content. This style is generally teacher-centered, where the teacher feels responsible for providing and controlling the flow of the content and students are expected to receive the content. Teachers of this style are not as concerned with building relationships with their students. They don’t care that their students form relationships with other students. These teachers do not usually require much students’ participation in class. b) Demonstrator teachers are those who tend to run teacher-centered classes with an emphasis on demonstrating and modeling. Teachers of this type act as a role model by demonstrating skills and processing and then as a guide in helping students develop and apply these skills and knowledge. Teachers with this teaching style are interested in encouraging students to participate in and adapt their presentation to include various learning. c) Facilitator teachers are those who have a facilitator model teaching style and tend to focus on activities. This teaching style emphasizes on students-centered learning. Teachers typically design group activities which necessitate active learning, student-to-student collaboration and problem solving. These teachers often design learning situations and activities that certainly require students to process and apply in creative and origin ways. d) Delegator teachers are those who have a delegator teaching style and tend to place much control and responsibility for learning on individuals or groups of students. They will give students a choice designing and implementing their own complex learning projects and act in a consultative role. Students are often to ask to work independently or in groups. And, they must be able to maintain motivation and focus for complex projects. However, the researchers have suggested that teachers often have their own teaching preference, influenced by their own learning style preference. Both Reid (1995) and Willing (1988, p.6) cited in Peacock (2001) suggest that all teachers have 11
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