Textile finishes - what is fabric finishes

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PRESENTED BY: RUCHI BHUTANI What is a Fabric Finish?  A fabric finish is applied to a fabric once it has been made to improve its appearance, feel or other properties.  Finishing processes are carried out to improve the natural properties or attractiveness of the fabric and to increase its serviceability. Why are fabric finishes used?  Fabric Finishes are used to improve the fabric in some way. This could be: improve the appearance - color, pattern or sheen.  change the texture of the fabric - embossing, brushing or smoothing  improve the feel - softer, crisper, firmer.  improve the drape (how the fabric hangs) weighted  improve wearing qualities - crease resistance, stain resistance, flammability, waterproof etc.  modify care requirements - easy wash, quicker drying times, colourfast, less shrinkage.  Provide aesthetic value  Soften fabric or change the hand  Adds to durability  Adds to comfort  Provide safety  Improves performance TECHNIQUES OF FINISHING DEPENDS ON:  NATURE OF FABRIC i.e. chemical composition, state, weave etc. this determines the transparency, luster, fullness, weight, whiteness etc. i.e. the appearance  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FABRIC – i.e. softness, stiffness, tensile strength, elongation, shrinkage property, insulation etc  END USE OF MATERIAL- e.g. non shrinking, non-creasing, crease retention, draping, resistance to abrasion etc.  RECEPTIVITY OF FABRIC TO VARIOUS FINISHING OPERATIONS i.e. water, flame, rot proofing etc  SUSCEPTIBILITY TO CHEMICAL MODIFICATIONS FINISHING OPERATIONS DIFFER ACCORDING TO THE PROPERTIES IMPARTED TO THE MATERIAL  Aesthetic finishes  Functional finishes According to quality:  Temporary  Semi permanent  Permanent According to the type of machinery  Chemical finishes  Mechanical finishes  The appearance of fabrics is sometimes deceiving. In part, the appearance depends on the type of fibers, the construction of the yarns and fabrics, and the dyeing and printing involved. However, finishes can be applied to fabrics that enhance the basic aesthetic qualities. Aesthetic finishes influence the luster, texture, drapability,hand and surface appearance of fabrics as well as enhance a host of other qualities.  Aesthetic finishes change the appearance and/or hand or drape of the fabrics.     Lustre finishes produces a change in fabrics light reflectance by making them more shiny. Permanent or temporary changes in surface pattern and luster of fabrics can be achieved through a variety of finishing techniques. Techniques such as calendering, beetling, and burning-out influence the resulting appearance of the fabric. Calendering is a mechanical process that finishes fabrics by passing them between a series of rollers. By varying the rollers, adding any additional chemical treatment and/or temperature, a variety of calendered finishes result, including: glazed, ciré, embossed, Schreiner and moiré fabrics. OBJECTIVE To give soft and smooth surface to the fabric  To give luster or glaze to the fabric  To give silk like appearance  To decrease the air permeability  To flatten the slubs  In general calender usually have 2 to 7 rollers with more common being the 3 bowl calender  Textile calender are made with alternate hard steel and elastic bowls  The elastic bowls are made from either compressed paper or compressed cotton, however a lot of modern calender are made with a covering which is usually NYLON 6  1,3 & 6 are hard rollers  2,4,5 & 7 are soft rollers  This provision is given so that there must be resiliency property in between two consecutive rollers so that compression remain uniform.  Heating arrangement via steam circulation chamber  The process parameters that can be controlled during the process of calendering are : SPEED OF FABRIC; SPEED OF ROLLERS; SURFACE OF ROLLERS  For light weight fabrics/cloth, less no. of bowls are used in calendering and for heavy weight fabrics more no. of bowls are used  Different types of calendered effects are: SURFACE GLAZING CIRE EFFECT MOIRE EFFECT SCHREINEER EFFECT EMBOSSING EFFECT     Glazed fabrics such as polished cottons or chintz fabrics are created by saturating the fabric in a starch, wax or resin solution and allowing it to dry before calendering it. If starch or waxes are used, the finish is temporary and and if resins are used, the glaze is durable. The speed of the metal rollers is greater than the speed of the f/c. A 10 bowl calender is used for swizzing, when the production is very large and high glaze is required    Ciré fabrics with their glossy or wet look are produced in a manner similar to glazing. Ciré fabrics are coated with a wax or resin before being calendered with heated rollers. When thermoplastic fibres are used, the fiber surface that comes in contact with the metal roll melts and flattens slightly and produce highly polished f/c. Cire is a taffeta, satin or tricot, silk or silk blends f/c    Moiré fabrics have a distinctive water marked look created in the calendering process. Moiré is developed using either a moiré embossing roller or a high compression calendering of two layers of ribbedbase fabric in a single pass. One popular method of preparing moiré fabric involves using rollers that have been engraved with a design. The material is run between the engraved rollers with some sections of the fabric crushed to reveal the finished design that has a fluid or watery look. This type of application is often used to create material styles are ideal for evening gowns, formal capes, clutch handbags, and other types of formal apparel and accessories for women. Another approach to achieving a moiré fabric style is by using several different colors in printing fabrics, allowing the colors to overlap. The design achieves a sense of depth that varies as the eye travels across the pattern of the fabric. Because of the crushing of the fabric during the process, the color variation as the nap is brushed one way or the other will create a stunning effect.    Schreiner finishes on fabrics produce soft luster and hand by flattening the yarns and surface of a fabric through calendering. The schreiner calender has a metal roller engraved with 200-300 fine diagonal lines per inch that are visible only under a magnifying glass. A schreiner finish is used on cotton sateen and table damask to make them more lustrous and on nylon tricot to increase its cover
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