What is a Fabric Finish?
A fabric finish is applied to a fabric once it
has been made to improve its appearance,
feel or other properties.
Finishing processes are carried out to
improve the natural properties or
attractiveness of the fabric and to increase
Why are fabric finishes used?
Fabric Finishes are used to improve the fabric in
some way. This could be:
improve the appearance - color, pattern or
change the texture of the fabric - embossing,
brushing or smoothing
improve the feel - softer, crisper, firmer.
improve the drape (how the fabric hangs) weighted
improve wearing qualities - crease resistance,
stain resistance, flammability, waterproof etc.
modify care requirements - easy wash, quicker
drying times, colourfast, less shrinkage.
Soften fabric or change the hand
Adds to durability
Adds to comfort
TECHNIQUES OF FINISHING DEPENDS ON:
NATURE OF FABRIC i.e. chemical
composition, state, weave etc. this
determines the transparency, luster, fullness,
weight, whiteness etc. i.e. the appearance
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FABRIC – i.e.
softness, stiffness, tensile strength,
elongation, shrinkage property, insulation etc
END USE OF MATERIAL- e.g. non shrinking,
non-creasing, crease retention, draping,
resistance to abrasion etc.
OF FABRIC TO VARIOUS
FINISHING OPERATIONS i.e. water, flame, rot
SUSCEPTIBILITY TO CHEMICAL MODIFICATIONS
FINISHING OPERATIONS DIFFER ACCORDING TO
THE PROPERTIES IMPARTED TO THE MATERIAL
According to quality:
According to the type of machinery
The appearance of fabrics is sometimes deceiving. In part, the
appearance depends on the type of fibers, the construction of
the yarns and fabrics, and the dyeing and printing involved.
However, finishes can be applied to fabrics that enhance the
basic aesthetic qualities. Aesthetic finishes influence the luster,
texture, drapability,hand and surface appearance of fabrics as
well as enhance a host of other qualities.
Aesthetic finishes change the appearance and/or hand or drape
of the fabrics.
Lustre finishes produces a change in fabrics light
reflectance by making them more shiny.
Permanent or temporary changes in surface pattern and
luster of fabrics can be achieved through a variety of
Techniques such as calendering, beetling, and burning-out
influence the resulting appearance of the fabric.
Calendering is a mechanical process that finishes fabrics
by passing them between a series of rollers. By varying the
rollers, adding any additional chemical treatment and/or
temperature, a variety of calendered finishes result,
including: glazed, ciré, embossed, Schreiner and moiré
OBJECTIVE To give soft and smooth surface to the fabric
To give luster or glaze to the fabric
To give silk like appearance
To decrease the air permeability
To flatten the slubs
general calender usually have 2 to 7 rollers
with more common being the 3 bowl
Textile calender are made with alternate
hard steel and elastic bowls
The elastic bowls are made from either
compressed paper or compressed cotton,
however a lot of modern calender are made
with a covering which is usually NYLON 6
& 6 are hard rollers
2,4,5 & 7 are soft rollers
This provision is given so that there must be
resiliency property in between two
consecutive rollers so that compression
Heating arrangement via steam circulation
The process parameters that can be
controlled during the process of calendering
are : SPEED OF FABRIC; SPEED OF ROLLERS;
SURFACE OF ROLLERS
light weight fabrics/cloth, less no. of
bowls are used in calendering and for heavy
weight fabrics more no. of bowls are used
Different types of calendered effects are:
Glazed fabrics such as polished cottons or chintz fabrics
are created by saturating the fabric in a starch, wax or
resin solution and allowing it to dry before calendering it.
If starch or waxes are used, the finish is temporary and
and if resins are used, the glaze is durable.
The speed of the metal rollers is greater than the speed of
A 10 bowl calender is used for swizzing, when the
production is very large and high glaze is required
Ciré fabrics with their glossy or wet look are produced in a
manner similar to glazing. Ciré fabrics are coated with a
wax or resin before being calendered with heated rollers.
When thermoplastic fibres are used, the fiber surface that
comes in contact with the metal roll melts and flattens
slightly and produce highly polished f/c.
Cire is a taffeta, satin or tricot, silk or silk blends f/c
Moiré fabrics have a distinctive water marked look created
in the calendering process.
Moiré is developed using either a moiré embossing roller or
a high compression calendering of two layers of ribbedbase fabric in a single pass.
One popular method of preparing moiré fabric involves
using rollers that have been engraved with a design. The
material is run between the engraved rollers with some
sections of the fabric crushed to reveal the finished design
that has a fluid or watery look. This type of application is
often used to create material styles are ideal for evening
gowns, formal capes, clutch handbags, and other types of
formal apparel and accessories for women.
Another approach to achieving a moiré fabric style is by using several
different colors in printing fabrics, allowing the colors to overlap.
The design achieves a sense of depth that varies as the eye travels
across the pattern of the fabric. Because of the crushing of
the fabric during the process, the color variation as the nap is
brushed one way or the other will create a stunning effect.
Schreiner finishes on fabrics produce soft luster and hand
by flattening the yarns and surface of a fabric through
The schreiner calender has a metal roller engraved with
200-300 fine diagonal lines per inch that are visible only
under a magnifying glass.
A schreiner finish is used on cotton sateen and table
damask to make them more lustrous and on nylon tricot to
increase its cover