Tài liệu ôn thi tiếng anh vào lớp 10 hay

  • Số trang: 25 |
  • Loại file: PDF |
  • Lượt xem: 68 |
  • Lượt tải: 0
dangvantuan

Đã đăng 42473 tài liệu

Mô tả:

TµI LIÖU tiÕng anh ¤N THI VµO LíP 10     Tæng hîp c¸c d¹ng ng÷ ph¸p c¬ b¶n vµ träng t©m C¸c bµi tËp kÌm theo ( Tr¾c nghiÖm ) Mét sè ®Ò thi tham kh¶o vµo líp 10 Dïng cho tÊt c¶ c¸c ®èi t-îng häc sinh KiÕn thøc c¬ b¶n PhÇn I Ch-¬ng I tõ lo¹i vµ c¸c thµnh phÇn chÝnh trong c©u I. Tõ lo¹i : 1. Danh tõ ( N ) : Nãi chung Danh tõ trong tiÕng Anh còng gièng nh- trong tiÕng ViÖt ,nã chØ kh¸c vÒ mÆt ch÷ viÕt mµ th«i VÝ dô trong tiÕng ViÖt : ng«i nhµ th× tiÕng Anh lµ: a house + Danh tõ cã thÓ ®-îc dïng lµm Chñ ng÷ , T©n ng÷ + Danh tõ th-êng ®i kÌm bëi c¸c m¹o tõ ( a,an,the…) hay c¸c tÝnh tõ së h÷u ( my ,his ,her…) 1.1. Ph©n lo¹i Danh tõ : Danh Tõ §Õm ®-îc Sè Ýt Kh«ng ®Õm ®-îc Sè nhiÒu ……….. ……………….. DT chØ ng-êi chØ vËt ………… nghÒ nghiÖp 1.2. Danh tõ ®Õm ®-îc sè Ýt – sè nhiÒu : - ChuyÓn DT sè Ýt sang sè nhiÒu : + Th«ng th-êng muèn chuyÓn tõ DT sè Ýt sang sè nhiÒu ta bá “a / an” tr-íc DT ®ã råi thªm “s” vµo sau DT vd : a book books an orange oranges + NÕu DT cã ch÷ c¸i cuèi cïng lµ : _ch,_sh, _o,_x, _s,_ss, th× ta thªm “es” vd : a bench benches a class classes + NÕu DT ®ã cã ch÷ c¸i cuèi cïng lµ “f” th× chuyÓn “ f” thµnh “ves” vd : shelf shelves + Tr-êng hîp ®Æc biÖt : DT ®ã chuyÓn thµnh tõ kh¸c vd : foot feet tooth teeth * Mét sè DT lu«n ë d¹ng sè nhiÒu : people , parents , shoes , clothes ,boots * Mét sè DT lu«n ë d¹ng sè Ýt : family , everyone , the sun , the moon …… * Mét sè DT kh«ng ®Õm ®-îc : water , sugar , coffee , information , rice , …….. 1.3 Danh tõ víi tõ chØ sè l-îng , khèi l-îng , c©n ®ong ®o ®Õm : M¹o tõ NghÜa Lo¹i danh tõ D¹ng c©u a an mét mét mét vµi,mét chót Ýt nµo,chót any nµo,… nµo Mét sè tõ chØ sè l-îng some sè Ýt sè Ýt(cã ch÷ c¸i ®Çu tiªn lµ 1 nguyªn ©m) sè nhiÒu/Kh«ng ®Õm d-îc K§,P§,NV K§,P§,NV K§ sè nhiÒu,sè Ýt/Kh«ng ®Õm d-îc P§,NV Lots of/ a lot of NhiÒu Sè nhiÒu / kh«ng ®Õm ®-îc K§,P§,NV Many NhiÒu Sè nhiÒu K§,P§,NV Few / a few Vµi ,mét vµi ®Õm ®-îc sè nhiÒu K§ 2 Little / a little Chót , mét chót Kh«ng ®Õm ®-îc 2. TÝnh tõ (ADJ) vµ Tr¹ng tõ (ADV) : * TÝnh tõ : Gåm tÝnh tõ ng¾n vµ tÝnh tõ dµi 2.1 VÞ trÝ cña tÝnh tõ trong c©u : + §øng sau ®éng tõ tobe + §øng tr-íc Danh tõ vµ bæ nghÜa cho Danh tõ + §øng sau ®éng tõ liªn kÕt : feel , sound, seem…. K§ vd : I am tall vd : This is a big school vd : She feels hot 2.2. TrËt tù cña tÝnh tõ ®øng liÒn nhau trong c©u : NÕu trong c©u cã nhiÒu tÝnh tõ ®øng gÇn nhau th× ph¶i tu©n theo trËt tù sau : tÝnh chÊt kÝch th-íc mµu s¾c + N Vd : I live in a beautiful small white house * Tr¹ng tõ : Gåm : - Tr¹ng tõ chØ thêi gian : everyday , in the morning….. - Tr¹ng tõ chØ n¬i chèn : here , there , inside - Tr¹ng tõ chØ tÇn suÊt : always , often.. - Tr¹ng tõ thÓ c¸ch…..: well , fast , quickly…. - Chóng ta l-u ý nhÊt víi tr¹ng tõ tÇn suÊt vµ thÓ c¸ch : + ADV tÇn suÊt ®øng sau TOBE , tr-íc §éng tõ th-êng + ADV thÓ c¸ch th-êng ®øng sau ®éng tõ th-êng ®Ó bæ nghÜa cho ®éng tõ Vd : He speaks English fluently + ADV thÓ c¸ch cã thÓ ®øng tr-íc ADJ Vd : He is completely kind 3. Giíi tõ (PREP) : * Mét sè giíi tõ c¬ b¶n vµ c¸ch sö dông : 3.1. Giíi tõ chØ thêi gian : a. IN ( vµo ) Dïng víi : + C¸c buæi trong ngµy : in the morning,in the afternoon,in the evening + Th¸ng hoÆc N¨m : in June, in 2009 C¶ th¸nh vµ n¨m : in June 2009 + C¸c mïa : in the summer,in the winter …….. + Kho¶ng thêi gian : in a few minutes , in two weeks…….. b. ON Dïng víi: + C¸c thø trong tuÇn : on Monday, on Sunday………., on Sunday mornings… + Ngµy trong th¸ng,c¶ ngµy vµ th¸ng : on 12 th, on 20 July + on the weekend + go on vacation c. AT Dïng víi : + Giê : at 7 o’ clock + at night , at noon , at Christmas , at midnight , at midday d. Mét sè giíi tõ kh¸c : + after 6 o’ clock + before : before meal + between…….and…………. + from………….to…………. 3.2. Giíi tõ chØ vÞ trÝ : a. IN Dïng víi : + Tªn th«n,x·,huyÖn,tØnh,n-íc + in the country,in the city + in the house.in the park,in the garden,……….. + in a factory, in a hospital,…… b. ON : 3 + on the table, on the second floor, on a farm, + on………..street : on Ba Trieu street c. AT : + at home.at school, at work ,at a bus stop + at ( sè nhµ) street : at 10 Ba Trieu street 3.3. Mét sè giíi tõ kh¸c : - between , near, next to ,opposite , behind, to the left of ,to the right of, in front of, after(sau) ,before(tr-íc) , from……..to…….(tõ…..®Õn…) , by , without …. - Giíi tõ cã thÓ ®øng sau mét sè §éng tõ , Adj…: vd : look after , kind of , amount of……….. 4. §éng tõ : - Cã 3 lo¹i ®éng tõ : 1/ §éng tõ “ tobe” : be am , is , are was , were 2/ §éng tõ th-êng : go , see , eat , have , come , buy….. 3/ §éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu : can , could , may , might , should , have to , would…. - C¸c ®éng tõ nµy ®-îc biÕn ®æi ( chia ) cho phï hîp víi th× , chñ ng÷ hoÆc cÊu tróc cña c©u II. C¸c thµnh phÇn chÝnh trong c©u : 1. Chñ ng÷ (S) : - Chñ ng÷ cã thÓ lµ §¹i tõ nh©n x-ng : I , we , she …. - Chñ ng÷ cã thÓ lµ Danh tõ chØ ng-êi , vËt - Chñ ng÷ cã thÓ lµ mét tõ hay mét côm tõ 2. T©n ng÷ (O) : - Cã 7 t©n ng÷ (xem b¶ng d-íi) vd : I saw him last night - T©n ng÷ cã thÓ lµ danh tõ , côm danh tõ vd : He bought a lot of flowers yesterday - T©n ng÷ cã thÓ lµ Danh tõ riªng vd : I will meet Hoa tomorrow §¹i tõ nh©n Ng«i/Sè §éng tõ tobe TÝnh tõ së §¹i tõ së T©n ng÷ x-ng h÷u h÷u I NhÊt/ Ýt My Mine me am ( I’m ) We NhÊt/nhiÒu Ours us are (We’re) Our You Hai Yours you are (You’re) Your They Ba / nhiÒu Theirs them are (They’re) Their He Ba / Ýt His him is (He’s ) His She Ba / Ýt Hers her is (She’s ) Her It Ba / Ýt its it is (It’s ) Its Tuú theo tõng tr-êng hîp mµ chuyÓn ®æi 1 ng-êi,1 vËt Ba / Ýt is cho hîp lÝ 2 ng-êi,2 vËt Ba /nhiÒu are ( nam hay n÷,sè Ýt hay sè nhiÒu…..) trë nªn Lµm chñ ng÷,sau nã th-êng lµ :tobe ,®éng tõ th-êng , ®éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu , trî ®éng tõ §TNX th-êng ®øng ®Çu c©u - §-îc chia theo chñ ng÷ C¸ch dïng Dïng ®Ó chØ sù së h÷u vÒ ng-êi hay vËt thuéc vÒ ai ®ã,ng-êi nµo ®ã. Sau TTSH ph¶i lµ danh tõ Chó ý tr-êng hîp ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt 4 §-îc dïng ®Ó thay thÕ cho TTSH + danh tõ khi danh tõ ®ã ®· ®-îc nh¾c ®Õn Cã nghÜa gièng nh§TNX nh-ng ®-îc dïng ®Ó thay thÕ cho §TNX trong 1 sè tr-êng hîp.T©n ng÷ th-êng ®øng sau §éng tõ th-êng,giíi tõ Së h÷u c¸ch Thªm ( ‘s ) vµo ®»ng sau danh tõ hoÆc tªn riªng. NÕu lµ danh tõ sè nhiÒu th× ph¶i ®æi thµnh ( s’ ) Dïng nhTTSH nh-ng chØ dïng víi danh tõ hoÆc tªn riªng Ch-¬ng II C¸c th× vµ ®éng tõ I.DÊu hiÖu nhËn biÕt vµ C¸c quy t¾c : - DÊu hiÖu nhËn biÕt c¶u c¸c th× - C¸ch chia vµ tr×nh bµy ®¸p ¸n - C¸c quy t¾c quan träng : + Quy t¾c thªm “ s , es” sau ®éng tõ ( víi th× HT ®¬n ) + Quy t¾c thªm “ - ing” ( víi th× HTTD ) + Quy t¾c thªm “ ed “ ( víi th× Qu¸ khø ) + Quy t¾c ph¸t ©m ®u«i “ e,es” ; “ ed” + B¶ng ®éng tõ bÊt quy t¾c (kho¶ng 100 ®éng tõ th-êng gÆp ) 1. DÊu hiÖu nhËn biÕt : 1.1 .Th× hiÖn t¹i th-êng: + every ( day,week,morning……) : hµng ngµy , hµng tuÇn…. + after school : sau giê häc + free time : thêi gian r¶nh rçi + each : mçi + C¸c tr¹ng tõ tÇn suÊt : Always,usually,often,sometimes,never……. + Hµnh ®éng diÔn t¶ sù thËt hiÓn nhiªn 1.2.Th× hiÖn t¹i tiÕp diÔn: + now : b©y giê + at the moment : vµo lóc nµy + at present : hiÖn b©y giê + at this time : vµo thêi ®iÓm nµy + while: trong khi + Look ! nh×n k×a + Listen ! : nghe nµy 1.3.Th× t-¬ng lai gÇn: * C¸ch dïng: + Dïng ®Ó diÔn t¶ ý ®Þnh,kÕ ho¹ch hoÆc quyÕt ®Þnh tr-íc lóc nãi + DiÔn t¶ hµnh ®éng sÏ x¶y ra ë t-¬ng lai gÇn + Dù ®o¸n sù viÖc ( ch¾c ch¾n x¶y ra ) dùa vµo dÊu hiÖu ë hiÖn t¹i * D©ó hiÖu: + next ( Monday , week , summer…) : Thø Hai tíi , tuÇn tíi , mïa hÌ tíi…. + tomorrow : Ngµy mai + this ( summer, weekend…) : mïa hÌ nµy , cuèi tuÇn nµy + tonight : tèi nay + DÊu hiÖu cô thÓ nµo ®ã 1. 4. Th× t-¬ng lai th-êng : + next (week,Monday,year…..) + tomorrow + tonight + in the future(trong t-¬ng lai) + soon + later + hope + thêi gian trong t-¬ng lai( in 2011). * So s¸nh gi÷a T-¬ng lai th-êng vµ T-¬ng lai gÇn : + Gièng nhau : §Òu diÔn t¶ hµnh ®éng sÏ x¶y ra trong t-¬ng lai + Kh¸c nhau : Th× t-¬ng lai gÇn diÔn t¶ hµnh ®éng ch¾c ch¾n sÏ s¶y ra dùa vµo nh÷ng dÊu hiÖu cô thÓ Vd : There are many black clouds in the sky . It ( rain ) > It is going to rain Vd : I have bought a new book. I ( read ) > I am going to read 1.5. Th× Qu¸ Khø th-êng : 5 + yesterday : H«m qua + last ( Sunday , week , summer…..) : Chñ nhËt tr-íc , tuÇn tr-íc , mïa hÌ tr-íc……….. + ( a day , two weeks ….) ago : 1 ngµy tr-íc ®©y , 2 tuÇn tr-íc………. + in + thêi gian trong qu¸ khø + Mèc thêi gian trong qu¸ khø 1.6. Th× Qu¸ khø tiÕp diÔn: * C¸ch dïng : DiÔn t¶ hµnh ®éng s¶y ra t¹i mét thêi ®iÓm cô thÓ trong qu¸ khø DiÔn t¶ hµnh ®éng ®ang s¶y ra th× hµnh ®éng kh¸c xen vµo DiÔn t¶ hµnh ®éng cïng ®ang s¶y ra trong qu¸ khø + At + giê cô thÓ trong qu¸ khø ( at 10 o’ clock last night ) + At this time + dÊu hiÖu trong qu¸ khø ( at this time yesterday ) + While ( trong khi ): While + S1 + was / were + V(ing) , S2 + was/were + V(ing) + When (khi , th×..) When + S1 + V(past) , S2 + was/were + V(ing) hoÆc S1+ was/were + V(ing) when S2 + V(past) 1.7.Th× hiÖn t¹i hoµn thµnh : C¸ch dïng : * DiÔn t¶ hµnh ®éng x¶y ra trong qu¸ khø kh«ng nhí râ vÒ thêi gian * DiÔn t¶ hµnh ®éng võa x¶y ra : th-êng ®i kÌm víi just , lately , recently * Hà nh ®éng lÆp ®i lÆp l¹i hay thãi quen : several times , four times , three times….. * Diễn tả mối liªn hÖ gi÷a qu¸ khứ với hiện tại :before , so far , up till now , up to the present , it’ s the first time , ever , yet , already , * Diễn tả hà nh động xảy ra trong qu¸ khứ vẫn cßn tiếp tục đến hiện tại : since , for DÊu hiÖu : DÊu hiÖu since For Already yet never nghÜa Tõ,tõ khi ®-îc,kho¶ng Råi,®· råi Ch-a,vÉn ch-a Ch-a tõng,ch-a bao giê D¹ng K§,P§,NV K§,P§,NV K® P®,nv K®,nv vÞ trÝ Tr-íc mèc thêi gian Tr-íc kho¶ng thêi gian Cuèi c©u hoÆc tr-íc PII Cuèi c©u Tr-íc PII ever before just Recently lately Till now Up to now Up to the present Till now Several times It is ( first,second..) times ®· tõng Tr-íc ®©y,tr-íc ®ã Võa , v÷a míi GÇn ®©y , míi ®©y K®,nv K§,P§,NV K§ , NV K®,p®,nv Tr-íc PII Cu«i c©u Tr-íc PII Cuèi c©u,sau chñ ng÷ Cho ®Õn b©y giê K®,p®,nv Cuèi c©u Vµi lÇn råi LÇn ®Çu tiªn,lÇn thø hai……… K§ , NV K®,nv Cuèi c©u ®Çu c©u,cuèi c©u 2. C¸c quy t¾c : 2.1 . Quy t¾c thªm “ s,es” + NÕu S lµ ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt th× ®éng tõ ®-îc chia b»ng c¸ch thªm “ s , es “ + Nh÷ng ®éng tõ cã ch÷ c¸i cuèi cïng lµ : __sh , __ch , __o , __ss th× thªm “ es” + have chuyÓn thµnh has + §éng tõ cã ch÷ c¸i cuèi cïng lµ “ y” ,tr-íc “ y” lµ mét phô ©m th× chuyÓn “ y” thµnh “ i” vµ thªm “ es” Vd : fly > flies 2.2. Quy t¾c thªm “ ing” : 6 + Th«ng th-êng ta chØ viÖc thªm ®u«i “ ing” sau ®éng tõ + NÕu ®éng tõ cã ch÷ c¸i cuèi cïng lµ “ e “ , ta bá e” råi thªm “ ing” + NÕu ®éng tõ cã ch÷ c¸i cuèi cïng lµ 1 phô ©m , tr-íc phô ©m ®ã lµ 1 nguyªn ©m th× ta gÊp ®«i phô ©m ®ã nªn råi thªm “ ing” (trõ phô ©m Y) 2.3 Quy t¾c thªm “ ed “ : + th«ng th-êng ta chØ viÖc thªm ed vµo sau ®éng tõ + NÕu ®éng tõ cã ch÷ c¸i cuèi cïng lµ e + NÕu ®éng tõ cã ch÷ c¸i cuèi cïng lµ 1 phô ©m , tr-íc phô ©m lµ 1 nguyªn ©m th× ta gÊp ®«i phô ©m ®ã lªn råi thªm ed + NÕu ®éng tõ cã ch÷ c¸i cuèi cïng lµ y , tr-íc nã lµ 1 phô ©m th× ta chuyÓn y thµnh i råi thªm ed 2.4 Quy t¾c ph¸t ©m ®u«i “ s, es” - ES ®-îc ph¸t ©m lµ /iz/ khi nã ®øng sau ch , sh , s , ss , ce , ge , se , x - §u«i ‘ S “ : “ s “ ®-îc ®äc lµ “ s” khi nã ®øng sau c¸c ©m ho¾c ch÷ c¸i sau : + / p / p , pe + / f / f , fe , gh , ph + / t / t , te , + / k / k , ke + / / th - §u«i S ®-îc ph¸t ©m lµ /z/ khi nã nh÷ng tõ cßn l¹i 2.5 Quy t¾c ph¸t ©m ®u«i “ ED” : - ED ®-îc ph¸t ©m lµ /id/ khi nã ®øng sau : t vµ d - ED ®-îc ph¸t ©m lµ /t/ khi nã ®øng sau ch÷ c¸i : p , f , ph , gh , s , x , ce , sh , ch , k - ED ®-îc ph¸t ©m lµ /d/ khi nã ®øng sau nh÷ng ©m cßn l¹i II. §éng tõ TOBE : - §éng tõ TOBE ®-îc chia ë d¹ng nguyªn thÓ lµ “ be” - Tïy theo tõng th× vµ chñ ng÷ mµ nã ®-îc chia nh- sau : + Th× HTT vµ HTTD : am , is , are ( xem trang 4 ) + Th× T-¬ng lai : will be , shall be + Th× Qu¸ Khø : was , were + Th× HTHT : have/has been + Trong cÊu tróc víi WISH , ®éng tõ tobe ®-îc dïng lµ WERE - Tõ lo¹i ®i kÌm víi ®éng tõ tobe lµ ADJ hoÆc N hay ADV §«i khi còng cã thÓ lµ V(3/ed) víi d¹ng c©u bÞ ®éng III. §éng tõ th-êng : - Tïy theo th× vµ chñ ng÷ vµ cÊu tróc c©u, ®éng tõ ®-îc chi ë c¸c d¹ng sau + HTT : Ng«i Thø 3 sè Ýt : V(s,es) Trî §T : does C¸c ng«i kh¸c : V(inf) Trî §T : do + HTTD : am , is , are + V(ing) + QKT : V(ed) , V(bqt) Trî §T : did + QKTD : was , were + V(ing) + T-¬ng lai : will , shall + V(inf) + HTHT : have , has + V(3/ed) , V(bqt) + §TKT : V(inf) + Theo cÊu tróc c©u : V(inf) , V(ing) , to V(inf) (xem phÇn c¸c d¹ng cña ®éng tõ ) - §i kÌm víi ®éng tõ th-êng cã thÓ lµ ADV , O… (xem thªm c¸ch chia vµ tr×nh bµy) IV. §éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu (§TKT) : - Can ; Could : cã thÓ - May ; Might : cã thÓ , cã lÏ - Have to ; has to ; had to: ph¶i (lµm g× ®ã do yÒu cÇu kh¸ch quan) - Must : ph¶i ( b¶n th©n ph¶i lµm ®iÒu ®ã ) - Should ; had better ; ought to : nªn - Will ; shall ; would : sÏ Sau §TKT lµ ®éng tõ ë d¹ng nguyªn thÓ ( be ; V(inf) ) 7 PhÇn II kiÕn thøc träng t©m Ch-¬ng I C¸c d¹ng cña ®éng tõ A. Kh¸i qu¸t : - D¹ng cña ®éng tõ ®-îc biÕn ®æi trong c¸c th× - Ngoµi ra nã ®-îc biÕn ®æi theo cÊu tróc ng÷ ph¸p - Khi biÕn ®æi theo cÊu tróc th× nã th-êng ë c¸c d¹ng sau : + Danh ®éng tõ : V( ing ) + §éng tõ nguyªn thÓ kh«ng “ to” : V(inf) + §éng tõ nguyªn thÓ cã “ to” : to + V(inf) B. C¸c d¹ng cña ®éng tõ trong cÊu tróc : 1. Danh ®éng tõ : V(ing) - §éng tõ cã d¹ng V(ing) khi nã 1.1 §-îc dïng lµm chñ ng÷ trong c©u : vd : Learning English is difficult Häc TiÕng Anh th× khã 1.2 §øng sau mét sè ®éng tõ ( v1 ) sau : * CÊu tróc : S + V1 (chia theo th×) + V(ing) Like Dislike Love Hate Enjoy Avoid Stop Mind Admit Miss Consider Finish Imagine Deny Suggest Practice Regret Keep Spend Can’ t stand Find smell 1.3 §øng sau giíi tõ sau : - NÕu ®éng tõ ®øng sau giíi tõ th× th-êng ®-îc chia ë d¹ng V(ing) trõ giíi tõ “ to” * CÊu tróc : S + tobe(chia) + ………… giíi tõ + V(ing) Good at Interested in Excited about Fed up with Instead of Tired of Pround of * CÊu tróc : S+ V(chia) + Suceed Look Insit Think Dream Apologise giíi tõ in forward to on of / about of for + 8 V(ing) Get used to * CÊu tróc : S+ V(chia) + O + giíi tõ + Accuse of Suspect of Congratulate on Prevent from Stop from Thank for Forgive for Warm against * Sau mét sè giíi tõ kh¸c : - before , after , by , without * Trong cÊu tróc: - S + prefer(s) + V(ing) + to + V(ing) + What about + V(ing) ? 1.4 Trong mét sè thµnh ng÷ : - It is no use / good + V(ing) - There is no point in + V(ing) - It is (not) worth + V(ing) : th¹t lµ ®¸ng, kh«ng ®¸ng lµm g× ®ã - S + have(chia) difficulty in + V(ing) - It is waste of time / money…. + V(ing) : thËt lµ l·ng phÝ… - S + spend(chia) time + V(ing) - Mét sè ®éng tõ ë d¹ng “ ing” khi nã ®i víi ®éng tõ “ go” - S + go(chia) + V(ing) 1.5 Sö dông trong hiÖn t¹i ph©n tõ : Vd : I can see a boy . He is playing soccer > I can see a boy playing soccer 2. §éng tõ nguyªn thÓ kh«ng “to” : V(inf) - §éng tõ ®-îc chia ë d¹ng nguyªn thÓ kh«ng “ to” khi : 2.1 §øng sau ®éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu : S + §TKT + V(inf) - §TKT gåm : can , could , may , might , must , should , would , have to 2.2 Sau mét sè ®éng tõ : * CÊu tróc : S+ V(chia) + O+ V(inf) Help Let Make See Feel Hear Taste Notice 2.3 Trong c¸c cÊu tróc sau : - Let’ s + V(inf) - Why don’ t we + V ? - S + would rather + V + than V : thµ lµm viÖc nµy h¬n lµm viÖc kia - in order to + V - so as to + V - S + would rather (not) + V 9 V(ing) - S + had better ( not ) + V - Don’ t + V ! 3. §éng tõ nguyªn thÓ cã “to” : - §éng tõ nguyªn thÓ cã “ to” khi : 3.1 §øng ®Çu c©u ®Ó chØ môc ®Ých : To V….. , Vd : To become a good students , I must try my best 3.2 §øng sau mét sè ®éng tõ : * CÊu tróc : S+ V(chia) + to + V Agree prefer Promise Manage Learn(how) Decide Arrange Afford Hope Seem Fail Attemp Offer Plan Dare Tend Pretend want * CÊu tróc : S+ V(chia) + O to + V Want Ask Expect Help Mean Intend Would like Would prefer Tell Remind Force Persuade Warn Invite Teach Advise Encourage Allow Permit 3.3 Trong cÊu tróc : Tõ ®Ó hái + to + V( inf ) 4. C¸c tr-êng hîp ®Æc biÖt : 4.1 start : - S + start(chia) + V(ing) : - S + start(chia) + to + V(inf) : 4.2 remember : - S + remember(chia) + V(ing) : nhí l¹i ®iÒu g× ®· lµm - S + remember(chia) + to + V(inf) : nhí sÏ lµm viÖc g× ®ã ( tr-íc khi lµm nã ) 4.3 see : - S + see(chia) + O + V(inf) : nh×n , chøng kiÕn ai ®ã lµm g× tõ ®µu ®Õn cuèi - S + see(chia) + O + V(ing) : nh×n thÊy ai ®ã ®ang lµm (dë dang )viÖc g× ®ã - mét sè ®éng tõ sau còng ®-îc dïng t-¬ng tù : watch , listen , hear .Riªng smell vµ find th× chØ dïng V(ing) 4.4 try : - S + try(chia) + V(ing) : thö lµm g× ®ã - S + try(chia) + to + V(inf) : cè g¾ng lµm g× ®ã 4.5 need : - S + need(chia) + to + V(inf) : Ai ®ã cÇn ph¶i lµm viÖc g× - S + need(chia) + V(ing) : ai ®ã , c¸i g× ®ã cÇn ®-îc lµm g× ®ã ( mang nghÜa bÞ ®éng ) 4.6 afraid : - S + tobe(chia) + afraid to + V(inf) : Ai ®ã sî lµm viÖc g× ®ã - S + tobe(chia) + afraid of + V(ing) : Ai ®ã e / sî ®iÒu g× ®ã sÏ x¶y ra 4.7 stop : 10 - S + stop(chia) + V(ing) : dõng lµm viÖc g× ®ã - S + stop(chia) + to + V(inf) : dõng lµm viÖc nµy l¹i ®Ó lµm viÖc kh¸c Ch-¬ng II C©u trùc tiÕp gi¸n tiÕp 1. C©u gi¸n tiÕp ( indirect speech ) : - Lµ c©u mang tÝnh chÊt t-êng thuËt l¹i , kÓ l¹i …lêi nãi cña ng-êi nµy cho ng-êi kh¸c nghe - Tuú theo ng÷ c¶nh mµ ta sö dông tõ t-êng thuËt cho ®óng 2. Mét sè qui t¾c khi chuyÓn tõ c©u trùc tiÕp sang gi¸n tiÕp : 2.1 Qui t¾c lïi th× vµ tõ : Trùc tiÕp Th× This these now here today tomorrow yesterday can may Have / must will my I me You ( lµm chñ ng÷ ) You ( lµm t©n ng÷ ) Gi¸n tiÕp Lïi 1 th× That Those Then There That day The following day/ the next day The day before Could Might Had to Would His / her / my He / she / I Him / her / me He / she / I / they / we Me / him / her Ghi chó Xem thªm ë 2.2 ®©y – kia Nh÷ng c¸i nµy – nh÷ng c¸i kia B©y giê – sau ®ã ë ®©y – ë kia H«m nay – h«m ®ã Ngµy mai – ngµy kÕ tiÕp H«m qua – ngµy h«m tr-íc Ph¶i Tuú tõng tr-êng hîp mµ chuyÓn ®æi cho ®óng víi nghÜa , vµ t×nh huèng cña c©u(xem 2.2) 2.2 C¸ch chuyÓn ®æi mét sè thµnh phÇn khi chuyÓn sang gi¸n tiÕp : - D¹ng tæng qu¸t cña c©u trùc tiÕp : “………………………” S + said to/told/asked…+ C©u trùc tiÕp ng-êi nãi ®éng tõ t-êng thuËt O ng-êi nghe * NÕu c©u trùc tiÕp cã : We , I , me , us , my , our th× nh÷ng tõ nµy ph¶i chuyÓn ®æi phô thuéc vµo S * NÕu c©u TT cã : you , your th× chóng ph¶i chuyÓn ®æi phô thuéc vµo O (ng-êi nghe ) * Tr-íc khi chuyÓn ®æi ta ph¶i ®Ó ý xem t¹i vÞ trÝ cÇn chuyÓn ®æi(ë c©u gi¸n tiÕp) cÇn tõ lo¹i nµo th× ta ph¶i chuyÓn ®æi sang tõ lo¹i ®ã (xem trang 4 ) Vd : “ Can you help me with my luggage ?” She said to him Ph©n tÝch : + §©y lµ c©u ®Ò nghÞ .CÊu tróc cÇn dïng lµ : S + asked + O + to + V(inf) + you phô thuéc vµo him,theo cÊu tróc trªn sau ASKED ta cÇn 1 O ,trong khi ®ã you lµ §¹i tõ nh©n x-ng lµm S.V©þ ta ph¶i chuyÓn you thµnh O t-¬ng øng lµ him + me phô thuéc vµo she,nh-ng t¹i vÞ trÝ ®ã(sau help) ph¶i dïng 1 O mµ she l¹i lµ §TNX VËy ta ph¶i chuyÓn §TNX she thµnh O t-¬ng øng cña nã.§ã lµ her + my phô thuéc vµo she.t¹i vÞ trÝ ®ã cÇn TTSH.vËy ph¶i chuyÓn my theo she thµnh her VËy víi c©u trªn ta lµm nh- sau : “ Can you help me with my luggest ?” She said to him 11 She asked him to help her with her luggage 2.2 Mét sè l-u ý khi chuyÓn tõ trùc tiÕp sang gi¸n tiÕp : - Th«ng th-êng ta hay dïng c¸c tõ sau : said , told , asked , beg , order , ... tuú theo t×nh huèng - NÕu ta ®ang t-êng thuËt mét ®iÒu g× ®ã lu«n ®óng , 1 s- thËt hiÓn nhiªn , 1 ch©n lÝ th× ta kh«ng cÇn lïi th× cña ®éng tõ * Nh÷ng cÊu tróc th-êng dïng ®Ó t-êng thuËt : - S + told + O + (not ) to + V(inf) = B¶o ( ra lÖnh ) ai ®ã lµm ( kh«ng lµm ) viÖc g× ®ã - S + asked + O + (not) to + V(inf) = §Ò nghÞ ( yªu cÇu ) ai ®ã lµm ( kh«ng lµm ) viÖc g× ®ã - S + advised + O + (not) to + V(inf) = Khuyªn ai ®ã lµm ( kh«ng lµm ) viÖc g× ®ã - S + warned + O + (not) to + V(inf) = C¶nh b¸o ai ®ã lµm ( kh«ng lµm ) viÖc g× ®ã - S + invited + O + to + V(inf) = Mêi ai ®ã lµm viÖc g× ®ã - TOLD vµ ASKED cã thÓ dïng nh- nhau trong nh÷ng cÊu tróc d-íi ®©y 3. C¸c tr-êng hîp chuyÓn : 3.1 NÕu c©u trùc tiÕp lµ c©u mÖnh lÖnh kh¼ng ®Þnh : Trùc tiÕp : “ V ………….. “ Gi¸n tiÕp : S + told + O + to + V(inf)……………. 3.2 NÕu c©u trùc tiÕp lµ c©u mÖnh lÖnh phñ ®Þnh : Trùc tiÕp : “ Don’t + V …….. “ Gi¸n tiÕp : S + told + O + not to + V(inf)………………. - NÕu c©u trùc tiÕp mang tÝnh chÊt c¶nh b¸o , r¨n ®e th× dïng “ warned “ thay cho “ told” 3.3 NÕu c©u trùc tiÕp lµ lêi yªu cÇu ë d¹ng kh¼ng ®Þnh : Trùc tiÕp :“ Please + V ……….“ hoÆc “ Would / Will / Can / Could + S + V……………? “ Gi¸n tiÕp : S + asked + O + to + V(inf)………….. 3.4 NÕu c©u trùc tiÕp lµ lêi yªu cÇu ë d¹ng phñ ®Þnh : Trùc tiÕp : “ Please + don’t + V +………….“ Gi¸n tiÕp : S + asked + O + not to + V(inf)…………. 3.5 NÕu c©u trùc tiÕp lµ lêi khuyªn : - C©u trùc tiÕp lµ lêi khuyªn th-êng cã c¸c tõ sau : should / had better / ought to / Why don’t….. C©u gi¸n tiÕp : S + advised + O + (not) to + V(inf) S + said (that) + S should / had better / ought to + V(inf) should / had better / ought to + not 3.6 NÕu c©u trùc tiÕp lµ c©u trÇn thuËt , c©u kÓ b×nh th-êng : Trùc tiÕp : “ S + V(chia) …………….. “ ( c©u mang tÝnh chÊt b×nh th-êng ) Gi¸n tiÕp : S1 + said + S2 + V(chia lïi 1 th× ) 12 NÕu S1 vµ S2 lµ 1 ng-êi S1 + said that + S2 + V(chia lïi 1 th× ) NÕu S1 vµ S2 lµ 2 ng-êi kh¸c nhau ( xem thªm phÇn 4 ) 3.7 NÕu c©u trùc tiÕp lµ d¹ng c©u hái Yes / No ( d¹ng ®¶o ) : Trùc tiÕp : “ Are / Is / Do / Does / Did / Can / Will / …+ S + V……….? “ Gi¸n tiÕp : S + asked + O + if / wether + S2 + V(chia lïi 1 th× ) 3.8 NÕu c©u trùc tiÕp lµ c©u hái cã tõ ®Ó hái : Trùc tiÕp : “ Tõ hái + tobe + S + …………….? “ Gi¸n tiÕp : S + asked + O + Tõ hái + S2 + was / were Trùc tiÕp : “ Tõ hái + do/does/did/will/have + S + V ? “ Gi¸n tiÕp : S + asked + O + Tõ hái + S2 + V(chia lïi 1 th× ) ( Víi 3.6 , 3.7 , 3.8 S2 ch×nh lµ S cña c©u trùc tiÕp ) 4. Chó ý : * §Ò bµi cã thÓ viÕt : ( Víi §éng tõ TOBE ) ( Víi §éng tõ Th-êng) “…………………….” He said to me hay He said to me “……………………..” hay “ ……………………..” said he to me - Dï viÕt theo c¸ch nµo th× vÉn chØ lµ mét * Trong d¹ng c©u trÇn thuËt :NÕu trong c©u xuÊt hiÖn 2 – 3 ®èi t-îng ( S , O hoÆc TTSH..) mµ chóng kh«ng cã sù liªn hÖ chuyÓn ®æi lÉn nhau ( nh- phÇn 2.2 ®· nªu ) th× ta th-êng dïng cÊu tróc sau : S + told + O + that + S +…………………….. HoÆc S + said to + O + that + s +…………………… Vd : “ Tuan is a sudent “ . She said to me ( ta thÊy Tuan , she vµ me kh«ng cã sù liªn hÖ víi nhau ) She told me that Tuan was a student She said to me that Tuan was a student 13 Ch-¬ng III D¹ng bÞ ®éng I. Kh¸i niÖm : * ThÓ chñ ®éng : Chñ ng÷ cña c©u lµ ng-êi (hoÆc vËt) thùc hiÖn,g©y ra hµnh ®éng * ThÓ bÞ ®éng : Chñ ng÷ cña c©u lµ ng-êi (hay vËt) nhËn hµnh ®éng,chÞu t¸c ®éng tõ hµnh ®éng II C¸c kiÕn thøc liªn quan : - N¾m râ vÒ c¸c th× ®· häc - Sù chuyÓn ®æi gi÷a : §TNX T¢N NG÷ I me We us You you They them He him She her it it * C¸c tr-êng hîp kh¸c S vµ O ®-îc gi÷ nguyªn - §éng tõ “ tobe” cña c¸c th× : Th× tobe HiÖn t¹i th-êng+ HiÖn t¹i tiÕp diÔn Am , is , are T-¬ng lai th-êng Will be Qu¸ khø th-êng + Qu¸ khø tiÕp diÔn Was , were HiÖn t¹i hoµn thµnh Have been , has been Qu¸ khø hoµn thµnh Had been III. C¸c b-íc chuyÓn tõ C©u chñ ®éng sang C©u bÞ ®éng : - X¸c ®Þnh th× cña c©u - X¸c ®Þnh d¹ng - X¸c ®Þnh chÝnh x¸c t©n ng÷ ( cña c©u chñ ®éng ) B1 : LÊy t©n ng÷ (cña c©u chñ ®éng) lµm chñ ng÷ (cña c©u bÞ ®éng) B2 : T×m ®éng tõ tobe t-¬ng øng cho chñ ng÷(cña c©u bÞ ®éng) B3 : ChuyÓn ®éng tõ(cña c©u chñ ®éng) sang qu¸ khø ph©n tõ(cña c©u bÞ ®éng) B3 : ViÕt bæ sung c¸c tõ sau qu¸ khø ph©n tõ (nÕu cã) B4 : LÊy chñ ng÷ (cña c©u chñ ®éng) lµm t©n ng÷ (cña c©u bÞ ®éng) vµ viÕt sau tõ BY * Chó ý : - X¸c ®Þnh t©n ng÷ : T©n ng÷( O ) th-êng ®øng sau ®éng tõ ( V ) vµ lµ ®èi t-îng chÞu t¸c ®éng chÝnh tõ hµnh ®éng ®ã - NÕu chñ ng÷ (trong c©u chñ ®éng ) lµ : everyone , someone , somebody , everybody , anyone , people…th× ta kh«ng cÇn viÕt BY + O trong c©u bÞ ®éng n÷a IV. C¸c d¹ng bÞ ®éng : * KÝ hiÖu : - NV1 : c©u hái kh«ng cã tõ hái - NV2 : c©u hái cã tõ ®Ó hái - PII : ®éng tõ ph©n tõ II 1 D¹ng bÞ ®éng cña th× hiÖn t¹i th-êng : a. K§ : C©u C§ S + V(s/es) 14 + O b. P§ c. NV1 : d. NV2 C©u B§ S + tobe(chia) + PII C§ S + don’t / doesn’t + V(inf) + B§ S + tobe + not + PII + by + O C§ Do / Does + S + V(inf) + O? B§ Tobe + S + PII + by + O ? C§ Tõ hái + do / does + S + V + B§ Tõ hái + tobe PII + by + O ? + S + 2. D¹ng bÞ ®éng cña th× hiÖn t¹i tiÕp diÔn : + K§ : S + tobe + being + PII + by + O + P§ : S + tobe + not + being + PII + by + O + NV1 Tobe + S + being + PII + by + O ? + NV2 Tõ hái + tobe + S + being + PII + by + O ? 3. D¹ng bÞ ®éng cña th× t-¬ng lai th-êng : + K§ : S + will + be + PII + by + O + P§ : S + will not + be + PII + by + O + NV1 Will + S + be + PII + by + O ? +NV2 Tõ hái + will + S + be + PII + by + O ? 4. D¹ng bÞ ®éng cña th× qu¸ khø th-êng : + K§ : S + was / were + PII + by + O + P§ : S + wasn’ t / weren’ t + PII + by + O + NV1 Was /Were + S + PII + by + O ? + NV2 Tõ hái + was /were + S + PII + by + O ? 5. D¹ng bÞ ®éng cña th× qu¸ khø tiÕp diÔn : + P§ : S + was / were + being + PII + by + O + P§ : S + wasn’ t / weren’ t + being + PII + by + O + NV1 Was / Were + S + being + PII + by + O ? + NV2 Tõ hái + was / were + S + being + PII + by + O ? 6. D¹ng bÞ ®éng cña th× hiÖn t¹i hoµn thµnh : + K§ : S + have / has + been + PII + by + O + P§ : S + haven’ t / hasn’ t + been + PII + by + O + NV Have / Has + S + been + PII + by + O ? + NV2 Tõ hái + have / has + S + been + PII + by + O ? 7. D¹ng bÞ ®éng cña th× qu¸ khø hoµn thµnh : + K§ S + had been + PII + by + O + P§ : S + had not been + PII + by + O + NV1 Had + S + been + PII + by + O ? + NV2 Tõ hái + had + S + been + PII + by + O ? 8. D¹ng bÞ ®éng cña ®éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu : 15 + by + O O O? - C¸c ®éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu : can , could , may , must , have to , ought to , should , would , will , might .. + K§ S + §TKT + be + PII + by + O + P§ S + §TKT + not + be + PII + by + O + NV1 §TKT + S + be + PII + by + O ? + NV2 Tõ hái §TKT + S + be + PII + by + O ? 9. D¹ng bÞ ®éng trong c©u cã 2 t©n ng÷ : - C©u chñ ®éng th-êng cã d¹ng sau : S + V(chia) + O1 + O2 gi¸n tiÕp ) Víi tr-êng hîp nµy ta cã 2 c¸ch chuyÓn s¹ng bÞ ®éng + C¸ch 1 : Dïng t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp lµm Chñ ng÷ - C©u C§ : S + V(chia) + O1 + O2 - C©u B§ : S + tobe(chia) + PII + O2 + C¸ch 2 : Dïng t©n ng÷ gi¸n tiÕp lµm chñ ng÷ : + V(chia) + O1 - C©u C§ : S - C©u B§ : S + tobe(chia) + PII ( O1 lµ t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp , O2 lµ t©n ng÷ + by + O + O2 + to + O1 + by + O 10. D¹ng bÞ ®éng víi “ It was said that………” + C©u chñ ®éng : S1 + said / thought / believed / ….. + that + S2 + V(chia) - C©u bÞ ®éng 1 : It was said that + S2 + V(chia) - C©u bÞ ®éng 2 : S2 + was / were + said + to + V(inf) * NÕu vÕ sau “that” cña c©u chñ ®éng ë th× qu¸ khø th-êng th× khi dïng c©u bÞ ®éng d¹ng 2 , sau “to” ta ph¶i thªm “have” cßn V chuyÓn thµnh PII 11. D¹ng bÞ ®éng víi “make” : (Ai ®ã bÞ sai khiÕn ,b¾t buéc lµm viÖc g× ®ã ) + C©u chñ ®éng : S + make(chia) + O1 + V(inf) + O2 + C©u bÞ ®éng : S + tobe(chia) +made 16 + to + V(inf) + O2 + by + O Ch-¬ng IV §iÒu -íc I.C¸c d¹ng c©u ®iÒu -íc : 1. §iÒu -íc ë hiÖn t¹i : - Dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t mong -íc cña ai ®ã vÒ mét ®iÒu g× ®ã kh«ng cã thËt hoÆc kh«ng thÓ x¶y ra hay kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®-îc ë hiÖn t¹i - CÊu tróc : * Víi ®éng tõ “ tobe” D¹ng K§ S + wish(es) + S + were +………….. D¹ng P§ S + wish(es) + S + were not………… * Víi ®éng tõ th-êng D¹ng K§ S + wish(es) + S + V(past) D¹ng P§ S + wish(es) + S + didn’t + V(inf) * Víi th× tiÕp diÔn : S + wish(es) + S + tobe + V(ing) + Chó ý : §éng tõ “ tobe” were ®-îc dïng víi tÊt c¶ c¸c ng«i 2. §iÒu -íc trong t-¬ng lai : - DiÔn t¶ mong muèn ®iÒu g× sÏ s¶y ra hoÆc muèn ai ®ã lµm ®iÒu g× ®ã - CÊu tróc : * Víi ®éng tõ “ tobe” K§ S + wish(es) + S + would /could /should be +…………….. P§ S + wish(es) + S + would /could /should + not + be +………… * Víi ®éng tõ th-êng K§ S + wish(es) + S + would /could/should + V(inf) P§ S + wish(es) + S + would /could/should + not + V(inf) 3. §iÒu -íc ë qu¸ khø : - DiÔn t¶ mong -íc vÒ ®iÒu g× ®ã ®· x¶y ra trong qu¸ khø hoÆc sù hèi tiÕc vÒ mét ®iÒu g× ®ã ®· kh«ng x¶y ra - CÊu tróc : * Víi ®éng tõ “ tobe” K§ S + wish(es) + S + had been +…………….. P§ S + wish(es) + S + had + not + been +………… * Víi ®éng tõ th-êng K§ S + wish(es) + S + had PII P§ S + wish(es) + S + had + not + PII * Chó ý : Ta cã thÓ dïng If only (gi¸ nh- ) / would rather that (thÝch h¬n) ®Ó thay cho S + wish(es) II. Mét sè tr-êng hîp kh¸c (Th-êng ®-îc sö dông trong d¹ng viÕt l¹i c©u ): D¹ng C©u cho s½n cã d¹ng : 1 S + am / is / are + ……………………. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 S + am / is / are + not………………... S + V(s/es) …….. S + don’t / doesn’t + V(inf) …….. S + can + V(inf) S + can’t + V(inf) S + have to / has to / must + V(inf) S + don’t have to / mustn’t + V(inf) doesn’t S + will + V(inf) S + will not + V(inf) 9 10 * Chó ý : C©u viÕt l¹i víi wish S’ + wish(es) + S + were not +……………… S’ + wish(es) + S + were + ……………. S’ + wish(es) + S + didn’t + V(inf) ……. S’ + wish(es) + S + V(past) ……. S’ + wish(es) + S + couldn’t + V(inf) S’ + wish(es) + S + could + V(inf) S’ + wish(es) + S + didn’t have to + V(inf) S’ + wish(es) + S + had to + V(inf) S’ + wish(es) + S + wouldn’t + V(inf) S’ + wish(es) + S + would + V(inf) S ®øng sau wish(es) ë c©u viÕt l¹i chÝnh lµ S lÊy tõ c©u cho s½n S’ lµ chñ ng÷ ®-îc gîi ý ®Ó viÕt l¹i,cã thÓ trïng hoÆc kh«ng trïng víi S ë c©u cho s½n Th-êng c©u cho s½n ë d¹ng kh¼ng ®Þnh th× c©u viÕt l¹i ë d¹ng phñ ®Þnh vµ ng-îc l¹i 17 Ch-¬ng V c©u ®iÒu kiÖn I. Lý thuyết. - Một câu điều kiện thường có hai mệnh đề là mệnh đề chính và mệnh đề phụ . Mệnh đề phụ có thể đặt trước hoặc mệnh đề chính. II. Các loại câu điều kiện : - Có 3 loại câu điều kiện: 1.Câu điều kiện 1 : - điều kiện có thể xảy ra . If + S + V(HT) + O , S + Will/ Shall + V(inf) + O S + V(s,es) + O * eg: If I have time, I shall visit you. Jonh usually walks to school if he has enough time. If she eats much, she will be over weight. 2. Câu điều kiện 2 : - điều kiện có thật ở hiện tại. If + S + V(past) + O, S + would/ could + V(inf) + O  note: Tobe dùng Were cho tất cả các ngôi * eg: If I had much money , I would buy a new bicycle. If you practised English every day , you could speak it fluently. If I were you, I would not tell him about that. 3. Câu điều kiện 3: - điều kiện không có thật ở quá khứ. If + S + had + V(3,ed) + O, S + would/ could + have + V(3,ed) + O * eg: If he had driven more carefully, he could have had fewer accidents. 4. Chú ý : Unless = if…not ( nếu không ) Eg: Unless it rains, we will go to the movie. ( If it does not rain , we will go to the movies) III .Bảng tóm tắt câu điều kiện. Loại Mệnh đề chính Mệnh đề phụ 1 Will Can + V (inf) V(s,es) May Shall 2 Could Would + V (inf) V(past) Should were Might 3 Could Would + have + V(3,ed) Had + V(3,ed) 18 Should Ch-¬ng VI mÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ I. Kh¸i niÖm : - MÖnh ®Ò lµ m«t phÇn cña c©u . MÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ ( hay MÖnh ®Ò tÝnh tõ ) cho chóng biÕt ng-êi hay vËt nµo mµ ta muèn ¸m chØ II. Ph©n lo¹i : - C¸c mÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ ®-îc sö dông víi : §¹i tõ quan hÖ : WHO , WHOM , WHOSE , WHICH , THAT Tr¹ng tõ quan hÖ : WHEN , WHERE , WHY Giíi tõ + §¹i tõ quan hÖ III. MÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ víi : 1. §¹i tõ quan hÖ : 1.1 WHO : ng-êi mµ………. - Dïng ®Ó thay thÕ cho danh tõ hoÆc ®¹i tõ ( ®èi t-îng ) chØ ng-êi lµm CHñ ng÷ trong c©u thø hai * NÕu ®èi t-îng lµ O cña c©u thø nhÊt vµ lµ S cña c©u thø hai th× ta chØ viÖc bá S ®ã ®i vµ thay b»ng WHO vd: I know the boy . He is playing the piano O S I khow the boy who is playing the piano * NÕu ®èi t-îng lµ S cña hai c©u : ta thay S cña c©u thø hai b»ng WHO vµ ®Æt c©u ®ã sau S cña c©u thø nhÊt Vd : The man came here yesterday . He is waiting on the room S S The man came here yesterday who is waiting on the room The man who is waiting on the room came here yesterday 1.2 WHOM : ng-êi mµ - Dïng ®Ó thay thÕ cho ®èi t-îng chØ ng-êi lµm O trong c©u thø hai * NÕu ®èi t-îng lµ O cña hai c©u : - Ta bá O cña c©u thø hai vµ thªm WHOM vµo sau O cña c©u thø nhÊt Vd : I met the girl . You helped her yesterday I met the girl whom you helped yesterday * NÕu ®èi t-îng lµ S cña c©u thø nhÊt , lµ O cña c©u thø hai : - Ta bá O ®i , thªm WHOM vµo ®Çu c©u råi ®-a toµn bé c©u thø hai lªn ®øng sau S cña c©u thø nhÊt Vd : The woman is my aunt . We saw her last week The woman whom we saw last week is my aunt . - Chó ý : whom cã thÓ ®-îc bá 1.3 WHOSE : ….cña ng-êi mµ…. - Dïng ®Ó thay thÕ cho TÝnh tõ së h÷u , së h÷u c¸ch ( cña c©u sau ) - Cã thÓ thay cho vËt ( Whose = of Which ) - VÞ trÝ : ®øng gi÷a hai Danh tõ * NÕu ®èi t-îng lµ S cña hai c©u : thay TTSH cña c©u thø 2 b»ng Whose vµ chuyÓn c¶ c©u ®ã sau S cña c©u thø 1: Vd : The man is a doctor . His shirt is white . The man whose shirt is white is a doctor * NÕu ®èi t-îng ®øng cuèi c©u thø nhÊt , ®Çu c©u thø hai : thay TTSH b»ng whose Vd Can you see the girl ? Her dress is blue 19 Can you see the girl whose dress is blue ? 1.4 WHICH : c¸i mµ…… a. Which dïng ®Ó thay thÕ cho tõ chØ vËt lµm S trong c©u thø hai : - NÕu ®èi t-îng lµ S cña hai c©u : thay S cña c©u thø 2 b»ng WHICH vµ chuyÓn c©u ®ã ®øng sau S cña c©u thø 1: Vd The book is very interesting. It is written in English The book which is written in English i s very interesting - NÕu ®èi t-îng lµ O cña c©u thø nhÊt , S cña c©u 2 : thay S cña c©u 2 b»ng WHICH Vd Can you give me the pen ? It is on the table Can you give me the pen which is on the table ? b. Which dïng ®Ó thay thÕ cho vËt lµm O trong c©u thø hai : - NÕu ®èi t-îng lµ S cña c©u 1, O cña c©u 2 : thay O cña c©u 2 b»ng Which vµ chuyÓn lªn ®Çu c©u 2 sau ®ã ®Æt c¶ c©u 2 ®øng sau S cña c©u 1 : Vd : The book is very interesting . I read it yesterday The book which I read yesterday is very interesting - NÕu ®èi t-îng lµ O cña 2 c©u : chuyÓn O cña c©u 2 thµnh which vµ ®-a lªn ®Çu c©u 2 Vd : I didn’ t find the pen . I bought it last week I didn’ t find the pen which I bought last week 1.5 THAT : mµ…. - Dïng ®Ó thay thÕ cho c¶ ng-êi vµ vËt lµ S hay O cña c©u thø hai * THAT th-êng ®-îc sö dông trong c¸c tr-êng hîp sau :  Khi ®èi t-îng gåm c¶ ng-êi vµ vËt : Ex: The girls and flowers that he painted were vivid.  Sau d¹ng so s¸nh nhÊt hoÆc sau S cã nh÷ng tõ nh- : the first, the last, the only, the very, any, all, nothing, anything, everything, few, nobody, … Ex : You are the person that I have been looking for. * THAT kh«ng ®-îc dïng trong c¸c tr-êng hîp sau :  §¹i tõ quan hÖ cã giíi tõ : The house in which / in that I live is my father’ s  Trong mÖnh ®Ò kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh : Viet Nam, which / that is in the south-east Asia, exports rice. 2. Tr¹ng tõ quan hÖ : 2.1 WHEN : khi mµ…. - Dïng ®Ó thay thÕ cho tõ hoÆc côm tõ chØ thêi gian : day , time , year , Monday…… - When ®-îc thay thÕ cho : on/in/at + which ( in/on/at + tõ , côm tõ chØ thêi gian ) - C¸ch lµm : ta chØ viÖc chuyÓn “ in/on/at + tõ , côm tõ chØ thêi gian” thµnh WHEN ( Tuú theo tõng tr-êng hîp mµ chuyÓn ®æi nh- c¸c §Þa tõ quan hÖ ) 2.2 WHERE : n¬i mµ….. - Dïng ®Ó thay thÕ cho tõ hoÆc côm tõ chØ n¬i chèn : city , village , place….. - Where ®-îc thay thÕ cho “ in/on/at + n¬i chèn” ( in/on/at + which) ( Tuú theo tõng tr-êng hîp mµ chuyÓn ®æi nh- c¸c §Þa tõ quan hÖ ) 2.3 WHY : t¹i sao… - Dïng ®Ó nèi c©u khi c©u tr-íc cã tõ “ the reason” - VÞ trÝ : ®øng ngay sau tõ “ the reason” Vd : I don’ t khow the reason . He didn’ t go to school I don’ t khow the reason why he didn’ t go to school 20
- Xem thêm -