Study on integrated measures to improve road traffic safety in Vietnam

  • Số trang: 23 |
  • Loại file: PDF |
  • Lượt xem: 64 |
  • Lượt tải: 0
thuvientrithuc1102

Đã đăng 15341 tài liệu

Mô tả:

INTRODUCTION 1-Background In recent years, along with the progress of economic growth and motorization, traffic accidents in Vietnam have beenat a high rate of approximately 10 deaths/100.000 residents. Road transportation is still a travel mode causing traffic accident the most in Vietnam. The number of road traffic accidents accounts for 95% of the total number of traffic accidents in the past decade. In many local areas, road transport is related to 98-99% of the number of accidents and deaths. Due to the field of traffic safety related to many others, including humans, vehicles, infrastructure, environment, legal regulations, etc., the solutions for ensuring traffic safety also require a high uniformity to show their effectiveness. 2-New contributions -Systematize and deepen more theoretical findings on road traffic safety, in particular focusing on the uniformity of the solutions for ensuring road traffic safety. - Analyze and assess the current situation of road traffic safety and the application of integrated solutions for traffic safety in Vietnam. Basing on these, finding out the systematically interactive causes of road traffic accidents in Vietnam in the present. - Propose some urgently and practically integrated solutions involving in humans, vehicles, transport infrastructure, organization and management to ensure road traffic safety in Vietnam. 3-Research scope and limits (targets) - Scope of the thesis In terms of spatial perspective:road network system in the country of Vietnam; In terms of temporal perspective:focusing on the situation and the statistics of traffic accidents over 5 recent years (mainly in the period of 2008 – 2013), integrated solutions for ensuring road traffic safety in Vietnam towards 2020 and until 2030. - Targets of the thesis:Focusing on road transport system in Vietnam with main targets such as transport infrastructure system, various drivers and vehicles. 4- Scientific and practical meanings In terms of scientific theory:Systematize and deepen more theoretical findings on road traffic safety, in particular focusing on the uniformity of the solutions for ensuring road traffic safety. In terms of practice:Analyse and assess to show some disadvantages of existing traffic safety ensuring solutions, propose some urgently and practically integrated solutions involving in humans, vehicles, transport infrastructure, organization and management to ensure road traffic safety in Vietnam 5- Research methodology The thesis applied some traditional research methods such as dialectical materialism, statistics, combination of comparisons and some other methods including road user behaviour analysis, spatial data analysis and use, modelling, systematization, interpretation, induction; analysis and summary. 6-Structure of the thesis 2 Besides the part of introduction, the overview of the status of abroad and indigenous traffic safety study, conclusions and recommendations, appendices, the thesis is structured into three chapters: Chapter 1: Literature review on road traffic safety; Chapter 2: Analysis of the current state of road traffic safety in Vietnam; Chapter 3: Proposingintegrated solutionsto ensure road traffic safety in Vietnam. OVERVIEW OF TRAFFIC SAFETY RESEARCH a. Analysis of abroad studies The thesis had summarized many reports of abroad studies in terms of speed, alcohol level, seatbelts, helmets and the use of the phone while driving, showed a clear relationship between these factors and the levels of accidents as well as property damage. The solutions may be divided into several phases: before the accident, at the field and after the accident. In each stage, there are solutions for law enforcement, education and propaganda, technical and emergency ambulance service to support travellers on the road, vehicles and the environment. b. Analysis of indigenous studies on road traffic safety in Vietnam There are many studies on traffic safety in Vietnam, in particular the overall planning of road traffic safety in Vietnam, some other studies done by Vietnamese experts in collaboration with foreign experts. However, it can be admitted that most of the proposed solutions are often focused on addressing the specific violations, while the uniformity of these solutions is not high. Summary from the overview: For the proposed solutions, it can be found that these measures are often focused on addressing the specific violations, while the uniformity of these solutions is not high. In the world, many different solutions have been studied, but there are other points that need improvement, especially in coordinating the implementation of the solutions simultaneously to achieve certain goals. The number of solutions and synchronization levels will depend on each object in a certain range. They can be considered as the disadvantages, gaps in the current studies that the thesis will focus on resolving. CHAPTER 1. LITERATURE REVIEW ON ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY 1.1. OVERVIEW OF ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY 1.1.1. Basic definition - Road Traffic: Traffic is the term used to describe the relationship between two points; used in each context regarding infrastructure system; the movement of people, goods and vehicles. - Transport is an economic activity with a human purpose to meet the needs of the relocation of the object carried. Road transport is an activity of using road vehicles for transporting people and goods on roads - Traffic safety is the state of being not dangerous, smooth and no damage for people and vehicles when travelling on routes and road sections. - The accident isan unintentional break-down, often resulting in damage to property and people. 1.1.2. Classification of road traffic accidents Road traffic accidents can be classified according to many different criteria: travel mode, accident location, age of injured people, the extent of damage to property and human; temporal aspects, and causes. 3 Figure 1.1 Classification of road traffic accidents 1.2. ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY ANALYSIS AND CALCULATION 1.2.1. Analysis and calculation of traffic accidents Quantity analysis: Absolute indicators: total number of traffic accidents; total number of dead and injured people; total property damage caused by traffic accidents Relative indicators: Number of traffic accident fatalities / 100,000 inhabitants; per 100,000 vehicles; /1.000.000 Km travelled; Accident rate: Fatalities accidents/Total deaths x 100 (%); Average number of vehicles / 1 accident Relative indicator Ka is calculated for the travel distance: = Where: : Number of traffic accidents; (case/km) [1.1] :: Travel distance To assess the severity of accidents, a coefficient KT is used: KT = [1.2] Where: nc: number of deaths, nth: number of injured people Smeed’s empirical formula: traffic accidents depend largely on population and the number of motorized vehicles: TN = f(DX, SX) [1.3] Where: TN: road traffic accidents; DS: The population of the region; SX: The number of cars Direct damagesresulting in the deterioration or destruction of facilities include: Loss of transportation; vehicle damages; road and facility damages; Ambulance and treatment for the injured people; Salaries and pensions for the victims and their families; driving obstacles. Indirect damages consist of the loss of working ability of people in a certain time; productivity damages due to vehicle being repaired; traffic accident compensation. 4 Figure 1.2 Damages due to traffic accidents Traffic safety assessment criteria: Table 1.1 Traffic safety assessment criteria No. 1 2 Factor Human Transport infrastructure Criteria Unit Performance Total number of Veh. x km, Total number of km travelled with safety Number of cases/Total number of cases Number of cases/Total number of cases Number of cases/Total number of cases 1. Number of km travelled with and without safety Veh.km, km 2. Fast driving, dangerous overtaking, lane encroachment % 3. Wrong avoiding and overtaking % 4. Over-speeding % 5. Driver training, 6. Driver testing, 7. Issuing driving licenses 8. Number of drivers fastening safety belts (for cars drivers), 9. Number of drivers wearing helmets (for motorcyclists) 10. Driving with a blood alcohol level exceeded the limits and using mobile phones 11. Number of people educated and propagandized by law Driver, Driving license Number of people, Number of driving licenses Person Total number of people Person Number Person Total amount of money 12. Mount of punishment fee collected VND 13. Motorised vehicle users without driving licenses 14. Number of km of expressways, major and minor 15. Number of km of roads having a good quality, 16. Number of km roads being maintained Person Total amount of money obtained Total (%/number of driving licenses) km Total Km, % Km, % Km, km/total; Km or % capital/demand 5 No. 3 4 5 Factor Vehicle Environment, combinations of 2-3 above factors and others General factors Criteria 17. Number of traffic accidents/100.000 Km 18. Number of black spots 19. Traffic safety by systems, types of roads 20. Traffic safety by local areas (Provinces, Regions) 21. Traffic safety by road sections (straight, curves, steeps, crossing, lane split and merge) 22. Traffic safety devices (real own, lack) 23.Total number of registered vehicles, 24. Vehicle inspection 25. Safety devices in vehicle 26. Traffic accidents by vehicle types 27. Total number of vehicles by their types 28. Natural environments by types of topography (Delta, Midland, Mountain) 29. Geographical, social, cultural environment 30. Traffic accidents in urban or suburban areas 31-34. Combination of 2-3 main factors (Humans, Infrastructure, Vehicles in traffic) 35. Due to natural disasters, climate, weather 36. Total number of motorised vehicle (car)/100.000 residents 37. Number of traffic accidents/100.000 residents Unit Performance Km Number of cases/100.000 38. Number of traffic accidents Case 39. Number of deaths 40. Number of death/ 100.000 residents 41. Number of death/ 1 million Passenger.km 42. Number of injured people 43. Number of property damage 44.Estimated total number of damage (covered) Person Km, % Case Total Total Total Total Case Piece Veh. Total Total Piece Case Total Total Veh. Total % Number of cases/Total number of annual cases Case Total number of annual cases Case, % Total number of annual cases, % Veh. Year Average yearly Total annual number of cases Total annual number Average yearly Average yearly Person VND Total annual number Total annual number VND, % Total, % of GDP Quality analysis: Used for the construction of the principle of investigating the cases of traffic accidents and the degree of influence. Analysis aims to clarify the causes and factors that caused the accident. Surveying analysis: Used for the places in which a lot of traffic accidents have occurred;they are expressed in the map that mark places having frequent traffic accident rates for traffic safety warning. Traffic safety assessment criteria: Assessment indicators for the extent of damage: 6 Human damage: This type of damage is difficult to quantify; it is expressed inthe number of deaths in the traffic accidents; The statistics of deaths was collected in different way: At the field, after 24 hours, after 6 days, 15 days; 30 days ... after the collisionshad occurred. Damages of property, facilities, support services of damage, and the social costs paid can be quantified fairly accurately because the countriescontains all the norms and cost unit for each class of specific work. Quantifying the extent of damage caused by traffic accidents All the costs related to overcoming the consequences of traffic accidents are to be charged for the above criteria. Evaluation methods: Qualitative assessment is evaluated by sense; Quantitative assessment is quantified by the specific factors and indicators. The factors and indicators may be expressed in physical unit or in cash. Causes: Drink driving; over-speeding; No wearing helmet; No fastening seatbelt; Using cell phone while driving Factors affecting traffic safety include: Human, Vehicle, Infrastructure and other environmental aspects. 1.2.2. Analysis of the causes relating to traffic accidents The causes affecting directly traffic safety include: Drink driving, over speeding, no helmet, no seatbelt, using your phone while travelling 1.3. INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS FOR ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY IMPROVEMENT 1.3.1. Overview of integrated measures Uniformity is a working engagement of parts or stages creating a more rhythmic performance of a perfect whole.Uniformity is expressed on many different point of views in terms of time, space, processors, affected subjects, content,... Integrated solution is a combination of individual measures, according to certain criteria above such as time, space, managers, affected subjects and the contents of the solution to achieve certain results of management bodies. Integrated solutions in transport field: Their uniformity is expressed as an integration between elements in transport system; an integration between elements in the same transport mode; an integration of contents; a cooperation between travel modes; a temporal and spatial integration; an integration between managed subjects. Figure 1.3 Integrated measures in transport field 7 1.3.2. Safety measures for humans Solutions before accident: solutions for human aspects; solutions of fastening seatbelts; education, propaganda and sanctions; solutions when driving; Solutions after accident: first aid, rescue, emergency, emergency medical services at the field; responses to emergency situations. Uniformity in human factor is the main factor causing the accident. Human factors include all staff in the field of the state management, enterprise management, driver’s assistants, repairers and road users. Human factors exist in vehicle factor; in infrastructure system; in planning; in the design; in construction; in the operation and exploitation; during maintenance. 1.3.3. Safety measures for infrastructure Solutions before accident and at the field: In terms of infrastructure planning; planning solutions for transport modes; Land use planning; Design and construction of infrastructure; before operation; during operation process; Transport infrastructure maintenance process. Solutions for the current infrastructure system after accident: When the accident occurs, it is necessary to have first aid system enough to handle the situation and coordinate with the participation of travel modes. 1.3.4. Safety measures for vehicles Solutions before accident: Vehicles, which are permitted to operate in reality, must meet the technical criteria of traffic safety. Performing standardized technical conditions; strengthening inspection and supervision; raising awareness of the drivers;application of new materials to improve the driver's visibility. Solutions at the field: Crash reducing system includes airbags and damping devices Solutions after accident: Developing a design relating to danger escape 1.3.5. Summary of integrated solutions for ensuring traffic safety Summary of integrated solutions: In various conditions, many different solutions may be applied to achieve certain goals. Level 1: Minimum: for people, facilities, infrastructure and environment Level 2: Low medium: Implementation with partners indirectly related to traffic safety; Level 3: Medium: Implementation more with the subjects as participants in traffic; Level 4: Good: Implementation of the solutions at this level could bring the overall effect at a high level in the whole system; Level 5: Maximum: Almost no country can implement measures simultaneously, therefore, a reasonable divergence should have been done Integrated solutions for human factor P.1: Level of controlling vehicles for drivers and driving licenses, the way of treatment and handling various situations; P.2: Measures for drivers’ assistants; P.3: Measures for maintainers and repairers; P.4: Indirect labours and managers in the transport enterprises; P.5: Road users; P.6: State management: Government, Ministry of Transport, Department of Transport, P.7: Passengers. Integrated solutions for infrastructure system 8 I.1 : The planning solutions; I.2: Design: applying the high road safety standards in the designs; I.3: Construction; I.4: Monitoring/supervision; I.5: Traffic safety testing; I.6: Operation and exploitation; I.7: Maintenance; I.8: Inspection after accident; I.9: First aid system. Integrated solutions for vehicles V.1: Vehicle design; V.2: System of national standards; V.3: Periodic testing for technical characteristics of vehicle; V.4:Inspection skills for technical characteristics of vehicles; V.5: Vehicle management. Other solutions O.1: State management and organization system of traffic safety; O.2: Travel culture; O.3: Economic tools; O.4: Education; O.5: International context. The factors and their mixture levels are presented as following: Figure 1.4 Summary of integrated solutions for ensuring traffic safety 1.4. Lessons of failure and of success to ensure traffic safety 1.4.1. Lessons of success The countries developed a sustainable transport system, which has the appropriate ratios for personal transport and public transport, as well as urban development according to land use patterns to support for public transport, are the successful cases. 9 1.4.2. Lessons of failure The countries only focusing on measures to improve the safety for motorized transport system have high accident rates. It is the fact that traffic safety need to be addressed by the contents being out of the sector of road transport (rail, marine, air), as well as non-motorized transport and public transport. 1.4.3. Traffic safety enhancing lessons drawn to Vietnam: It is essential to have a traffic safety management authority to coordinate the implementation of traffic safety integrated solutions. Government shall direct ministries and relevantagencies; Focusing on solving black spots; strengthening law enforcement and violation handling; Directing to reduce traffic accidents in the targeted areas; Dissemination of traffic safety laws; traffic safety education at schools and training institutions; Developing public transport system, restricting the number of private vehicles. 2. CHAPTER 2.ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE OF ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY IN VIETNAM 2.1. ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN THE WORLD 2.1.1. The statistics of traffic accidents By population: European region, Japan, Australia and North America have a very low traffic accident rate, South Africa and some countries have very high rate. The developed countries have good infrastructure system, high quality of driver training and testing system, high educational level of people, high technical standards of vehicles. By the number of vehicles: For damagescaused by traffic accidents per capita and the travelling amount (veh.km) in several countries around the world it can be seen that developed countries have a lower rate of loss than that of developing countries. Besides, the percentage of damage relates directly to the percentage of motorized vehicle ownership in the countries. Relationship between the averageincome per capita and the level of traffic safety also depends on many other factors such as the level of motorized vehicle ownership; the highermotorized vehicle ownership,the higher probability of accidents. By the extent of damage Loss of the economycaused by accidents can be up to 3%. Countries belonging to low and average income group havethe number of motorized vehicles of 53% of the total; and they account for 92% of the total number of deaths in the world. People who are easy to meet with accidents include pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclist;they account for 50% of the total number of people killed. 2.1.2. Some integrated solutions for traffic safety improvement in the world Accident is a very diverse mixture, a combination of human factors, vehicles, infrastructure and other factors. When a black spot is created by a combination of several factors, the solutions should have a high uniformity. 57% caused by the drivers, 27% caused by transport infrastructure and drivers, 6% caused by the drivers and vehicles, 3% by roads, 3% caused by three factors, 2% caused by vehicles and 1% caused bytransport infrastructure and vehicles. 10 Solutions for Traffic Safety are applied very diversely in many countries, including 4Cs [Communication, Cooperation, Collaboration and Coordination] and 4Es[Engineering, Education, Enforcement and Emergency]. 2.2. ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN VIETNAM 2.2.1. Overview of economic-social conditions in Vietnam Vietnam, located on the Indochinese peninsula, has estimated population of 89.7 million in 2013 with a population density of 270 persons / km2. Economic growth rate is approximately 6% per year. Vietnam has a convenient location for transport, with a long coastline, and the South China Sea which is the most important area for international shipping. Vietnam has potentials to develop a multi-modal transport system and it may become a goods transfer hub in the region and in the world. 2.2.2. Introduction of transport system in Vietnam Road network: Total road length is 258 200 km; including national highway, provincial roads, urban roads, specialized roads; The average density of 0.78 km/km2 and 2,94 km / 1,000 inhabitants. Road network covers throughout the country, but poor quality; the number of national highways is limited. In urban centers, streets with a non-homogeneous width limit their usability and exploitation. Railway, waterway and air transport network: Railway network has a total length of 3.143km, including trunk lines; feeder lines and station lines, railway density of 9.5 km / 1000km2, outdated and degraded infrastructure Inland waterway transport: Vietnam has 2,360 canals and rivers with the total length of 198,000 km; those which could be exploited account for 21.16% of the total length. Marine Transport: Includes 55 seaports with their average transit capacity of 434 million tons / year. Vehicles In the period of 2006-2012, that the number of the types of cars rose too quickly leaded to a situation of oversupply, a harsh competition between transport enterprises. The new vehicles become increasingly innovative; however, the number of outdated and uncomfortable vehicles remains a high percentage of 23.3%. This is one of the causes of losing road traffic safety. There are 1,837,436 cars and 40 million motorcycles. Car density in Vietnam is still very low in comparison with the world (20 vehicles/1000 inhabitants), while the number of motorcyclesaccounts for the highest rate in the world (approximately 500 vehicles/1000 inhabitants). Traffic safety organization and management system 11 . Figure 2.1 Traffic safety management model in the provinces National level: National traffic safety committee is a body assisting the Prime Minister to solve problems related to traffic safety; Ministry of Transport (Directorate for roads of Vietnam/Traffic safety department/Transport department) is an unit related directly to the central management of traffic safety Local level: Provincial traffic safety committees are joint organizations directing the cooperation of the implementation of measures to ensure traffic safety and reduce traffic jams. They use private seals and open private accounts at the State Treasury 2.2.3. Overview of road traffic safety in Vietnam Main cause of traffic accidents is from human behaviours such as drink driving, over speeding violations, encroaching traffic lanes, traffic flow, broken-up law - even fighting against people on duty, etc. Although manygeneral solutions are applied widely across the country, each local government is applying some specific measures, including: Operation and exploitation: Rationalization of speed limit signs, traffic lane arrangement, establishment of "Special Task Force 141" to perform duties of patrol, controlling, handling traffic safety violations, no permit using alcohol for officials. State management and organization model: Attach the leaders’ responsibilities to traffic safety improvements 2.3. ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN NINH BINH PROVINCE 2.3.1. Overview of Ninh Binh province Ninh Binh is a province in the Red River Delta area with its area of 1378.1 km2 and its population of 926 995 people in 2013, as well as the population density of 673 people / km2. Current transportation situation of Ninh Binh province 12 Road network: has the total length of 2451 km, including Expressways; National Highways; Urban Roads: District roads; communal roads; specialized roads; embankment paths. The routesare linked together to create a continuous transportation system and support each other in the circulation, economic and social development. Inland waterways: There are 4 throughoutroutes with a total length of 155,5km. Local inland waterway includes 12 routes with a total length of 143,3km. There are 3 main river ports managed by the central government and other 13 ports managed by the local government. Railways: The local section of North – South railway is 21,6km in length with 4 stations being upgraded. Traffic accidents in Ninh Binh: Most of traffic accidents occur on the roads, which is the target of the study. From 2006 until now, the damage has tended to decrease but remained relatively high level. The number of accidents over the years is not high but the death rate is high, primarily for motorcyclists. The severity of traffic accident is significant because the number of deaths per case is always greater than 1. The current situation of Traffic Safety of Ninh Binh province need be paid more attention. Analysis of accident causes Causes of accidents and deaths are not onlyno wearing helmets and over-speeding, but also other factors relating to humans. Traffic accident causes include: Group 1: Regarding transport infrastructure system, traffic accidents occur mainly on highways, provincial roads, rural roads; Group 2: The increase of the number of vehicles rises the traffic density; Group 3: Traffic safety awareness of road users. Group 4: Legal consciousness of the drivers. Group 5: Transport management and inspection bodies. Analysis of the behaviours and attitudes of motorcyclists: The thesisanalysed data collection of interview survey to understand more about not only vehicle ownership and use of people but also the choice between transport modes. The survey was carried out on many diverse subjects, large scale, with respondents in many places. Travel cost: is a very important factor affecting the choice of a motorbike trip; Safety on the road: is concerned by all of the respondents; Environment: The majority of respondents do not care about environmental benefits. Freight transport capacity: motorcycles can be used to transport goods 2.4. ANALYSIS OF INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS TO ENSURE TRAFFIC SAFETY FOR VIETNAM IN GENERAL AND NINH BINH IN PARTICULAR The synchronization degree ofthe solutions applied in Vietnam is still low, in which: In terms of human: Only focusing on the management of drivers in transport business operations, the management of driver files driving has not been effectively implemented, there is no way of managing information about vehicle owners and users, not updating the information effectively in case of switching owners. In terms of travel behaviour: Only having propaganda but inappropriate punishment leads that fact that some people do not follow traffic safety regulations. 13 In terms of infrastructure: Only focusing on the process before use, when using and after the accident. In terms of vehicles: No management of vehicles according to a specific address (specifically for motorbikes); technical inspection of motorcycles is completely overlooked. In terms of other factors: Education system is falling into a vicious circle, while children are trained with standard lessons of participating in traffic at school, but it can easily be observed that there are a lot of violations on the road, even for parents when travelling on the road without any punishment. This creates conflicts betweenthe thoughts of students, andfinally leading to a psychologywhich is acceptable to the reality, disregarding of traffic safety regulations. In terms of integrated solutions being implemented in Ninh Binh province: there are many limits, the solutions are not suitableto the subjects (Due to lack of funding), no temporal uniformity (Mostly applied at the stage of exploitation, while the planning stage has not been paid attention yet), no synchronous technology, no synchronization in contents (Only focusing on some problems, due to limited resources). There are many integrated solutions in term of theoretical perspective; however, the solutions applied in Vietnam and Ninh Binh have low uniformity of content (lack of measures), specially being implemented popularly and simultaneously while subjects managed have very different characteristics. 3. CHAPTER 3. PROPOSING INTEGRATED MEASURES TO ENSURE ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY IN VIETNAM. 3.1. POINT OF VIEWS AND OBJECTIVES FOR PROPOSING INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS 3.1.1. Point of views and objectives of road transport development Point of view of road transport development: As a critical part of economic and social infrastructure system, it should be prioritized for development investment to meet the requirements of industrialization, modernization of the country and contribute to ensure national security. Objectives of road traffic development: Meeting the needs of freight and passenger transport with good quality and reasonable prices, ensuring safety and convenience, controlling and reducing traffic accidents 3.1.2. Objectives and orientations for ensuring road traffic safety Objectives for ensuring road traffic safety: Sustainable development of solutions and policiesfor road traffic safety meet current and future requirements; reduce traffic accidents and congestions sustainably Orientations for ensuring road traffic safety: Education and advocacy; Institutional policies; Transport infrastructure and road traffic organization 3.2. BASIS OF PROPOSING INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS To propose solutions, the thesis based on the following contents: • The theoretical studies of road traffic safety in Chapter 1 – Literature review • The results of the analysis of the current state of road traffic safety in Vietnam in Chapter 2. • The results of specific analysis of the planning work, law enforcement, ownership and use of motorcycles (are the primary means now accounting for 85% in traffic flow) in different regions of Vietnam. • The strategic orientations and plans of Government and the Ministry of Transport for transport and communication as well as Traffic Safety. 14 3.3. ADDITIONAL ANALYSIS TO SUPPORT FOR PROPOSING INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS Classification of objects affected by proposed measures In fact, many cities having a very solid foundation for traffic infrastructure, travel culture, human consciousness, will require different solutions in comparison with new urban areas although they may belong to the same group when using classification criteria applied in Vietnam. Each area will require different traffic safety solutions. In the areas outside the urban scope, including suburban and adjacent and rural, the problems of losing traffic safety often occur on expressways, national highways, provincial roads…; thus, the most important solution is to conduct a reasonable plan to avoid following the same path of failure of preceding cities, while in the urban areas having very good traffic conditions, solutions for institutional system and, transport enterprises are more important. The classification of areas to apply traffic safety solutions is different from the way of urban classification currently applied in Vietnam. Under this new approach, the thesis classified regions/areas on the territory of Vietnam into 5 categories. Analysis of the regions/areas For group I: Most of them have been planned for a long time, and oriented to the models of sustainable development (urban railways, mass transit or public transport, etc.) For group II: Some have already had the plans and recently oriented to the models of sustainable development (urban railways, mass transit, etc.) For group III: Start or just planning for transport and traffic safety For group IV: Lack of some plans of transport and traffic safety For group V: Lack of the majority of plans of transport and traffic safety According to the analysis in chapter 2, the rate of road traffic accidents is very high. However, the proportion of road traffic accidents isrelated closely to the existing modal share, and the weakness of rail and air transport is a cause of imbalances between transport modes to increase demand for road transport, causing pressure and creating many problems for road traffic safety. Analysis of law enforcement For group I: Because people have been living in the urban lifestyle and highly industrialized life for a long time, along with a high law-abiding consciousness, they also have a good awareness of travelling and ensuring traffic safety, thus it is easier to apply solutions to ensure traffic safety. For group II: Because people have been living in the urban lifestyle and highly industrialized life for a long time, along with a high law-abiding consciousness, they also have quite a good awareness of travelling and ensuring traffic safety, thus it is easier to apply solutions to ensure traffic safety. For group III: Because people have been living in the urban lifestyle and highly industrialized life for a certain time, along with a pretty good law-abiding consciousness, they also have a normal awareness of travelling and ensuring traffic safety, thus it is quite convenient to apply solutions to ensure traffic safety. For group IV: Because residents have just changed to urban lifestyles and have been working in industrial environments for a short time, along with a limited law-abiding consciousness, the application of solutions to ensure traffic safety get into more trouble. For group V: Because people are not living in the urban lifestyle, not working in highly industrialized environment, along with a limited traffic law-abiding consciousness, so the application of safety measures faces many difficulties. 15 Table 3.1 Classification of objects affected by proposed measures Type of objects Type I Specific description The big cities of Vietnam, have ever been urban centres under the French domination, urban centres during the war against America, Ho Chi Minh City Hanoi (Old Quarter Area) Traffic safety characteristics People have had living habits and urban lifestyle for a very long time Have had a good traffic consciousness, running on the right lanes, following traffic signals and in sequence for a long time (from 1954 to present) Good transport infrastructure development, good traffic lane rearrangement, high density of traffic signal lights Da Nang Type II The big cities of Vietnam, have ever been urban centres under the French domination, urban centre during the war against America, People have hadlivinghabits and lifestyles in urban areas, quite a good traffic consciousness (There is a significant percentage of people not following lanes, signal lights, not in sequence in a long time) Expanded areas of Hanoi, Hue, Hai Phong, Nam Dinh, Expanded areas of HCMC New booming mechanized vehicles from 1990 to present Urban centres and industrial parks in the period of “Doi Moi” Type III Remaining urban type of II, III (except for these cities above) Quite good transport infrastructure development, good traffic lane re-arrangement, fairly high density of traffic signal lights People have had habits and lifestyles in urban, medium consciousness of traffic participation, with a significant proportion not followingthe right lane, traffic signal, in sequence in a long time, New booming mechanized vehicles from 1990 to present Limited transport infrastructure development, pretty good traffic lane re-arrangement, fairly high density of traffic signal lights People have just had living habits and urban lifestyle, Recently development cities Type IV Urban type of IV and IV Medium awareness of traffic participants, a high percentage of them not followingthe right lanes, traffic signal lights, in right sequence in a long time. New booming mechanized vehicles from 2000 to present Limited transport infrastructure development, pretty good traffic lane re-arrangement, low density of signal lights People do not have living habits and urban lifestyle Low awareness in traffic participation Type V Outskirts and Rural area There is a very high proportion of peoplenot followingthe right lanes, traffic signal lights, in sequence in a long time, New booming mechanized vehicles from 2005 to present Limited transport infrastructure development, almost no 16 Type of objects Specific description Traffic safety characteristics distribution lane division, no traffic lights, bad and narrow roads, many alleys, self-development model There are many accidents occurring in the places. Analysis of vehicle ownership Analysis results shows that any Vietnamese person has a common psychology that he/she wants to own a vehicle. Whether it is a motorcycle, bicycle or car, people often want a ownership and do not want to use rental services. Along with improving the quality of public transport services, it is essential to have other solutions influencing behaviour of ownership and especially behaviour of using individual vehicles in the communities. Analysis of vehicle use The results of data analysis show that motorcyclists (who is subjects accounting for the largest proportion in traffic flow in Vietnam) have attitude and different points of views for different issues. Thus, this is a basis for proposing solutions to fit together with reality in the future. 3.4. PROPOSING INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS TO ENSURE ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY IN VIETNAM Based on the above analysis, the thesis proposes a process of suggesting solutions that Vietnam should access and use in the period from the present to 2020 and oriented towards 2030. Uniformity of the proposed solutions is focused on several aspects below: Synchronization of contents: This is the most important component which ensures these solutions mentioning the whole critical issues in the field of traffic safety, including human, infrastructure, vehicles and other factors. Internal synchronization of each factor: For human factor, there is synchronization not only between the drivers, businesses, state management authorities, but also in the stages of building strategies, planning, construction, implementation, organization and operation of the organization controlling activities in the transport system. Spatial synchronization: It is ensured that the objects having various characteristics of traffic safety will get the right solutions to maximize their effectiveness and impacts. Temporal synchronization: The proposed solutions have been integrated for a long time, from the stage of planning, forecasting, design and supervision to the stage of organization, operation and maintenance. Technological synchronization: the uniformity of equipment applied during implementation stage will be remained. A combination of specific measures in the general integrated solution aims to optimize and maximize the effectiveness of each solution in accordance with the conditions of the object managed; minimize investment requirements in terms of resources, in principle taking advantage of the lessons learned from the leading cities and countries in solving problems of traffic safety. The integrated solutions proposed are based on the following process: Defining the objectives of ensuring road traffic safety in Vietnam with the specific schedules Analysing the characteristics of future transport system, the international trends and the lessons of success in the field of traffic safety. 17 Analysing the characteristics of the objects applied with the proposed measures in Vietnam Finding out the specific traffic safety characteristics of each object Designing integrated solutions suitable to the traffic safety characteristics of the objects Considering the impacts of the solutions Determining the conditions to implement these integrated solutions described above. The factors and their mixture levels are presented as following: Figure 3.1 Summary of integrated solutions for ensuring traffic safety On this basis, the integrated solutions for enhancing road traffic safety in Vietnam are presented in detail in the following sections. Summary of integrated solutions: In various conditions, many different solutions may be applied to achieve certain goals. Level 1: Minimum: for people, facilities, infrastructure and environment Level 2: Low medium: Implementation with partners indirectly related to traffic safety; Level 3: Medium: Implementation more with the subjects as participants in traffic; Level 4: Good: Implementation of the solutions at this level could bring the overall effect at a high level in the whole system; Level 5: Maximum: Almost no country can implement measures simultaneously, therefore, a reasonable divergence should have been done 18 Integrated solutions are builtfor humans, infrastructure, vehicles and other factors; these factors affect the integrated solutions to ensure traffic safety. Regarding infrastructure, including network planning; design, construction, supervision, safety inspection before exploitation, operation, maintenance, safety inspection after the accident and first aid system. Of which,operation and exploitation play a very important role in ensuring traffic safety; therefore, the thesis will focus on analysing and calculating to determine a reasonable speed for the vehicles during operation process corresponding to each condition of road. During operation process of the vehicles on the road, there are two vehicles in the same way,a safe distance between them is defined as following: S1 lp u Sh l0 Figure 3.2 Safety distance between 2 vehicles Driving sight distance can be determined through the formula: S1 = lpu + Sh + l0[3.1] Where: lpu – The distancea vehicle travels in the duration when the driverreacts psychologically,which is an interval from the time when the driverrecognizes the obstacles to the time when realizing the impact of effective braking to achieve a status of full braking, Tpu - Reaction time of the driver. Reaction time of the driveris usually from 0.3 (s) to 2 (s). However, as recommended by the National Traffic Safety Committee of the US, reaction time of 2.5 (s) should be taken to calculate. V1 - Car speed before braking, m/s; Sh – The distance a vehicle travels during braking, If the speed is measured in km/h, then: Sh V12 V22 k. 254 i , (m) [3.2] Where: V1: is the speed before braking, V2: is the speed after braking l0 - Safety distance, usually taken from 5 – 10 metres. Safety distance between two vehicles on the road is calculated as follows: S1 = lpu + k. V12 V22 + l0 = 254 i + k. V12 V22 + l0[3.3] 254 i From 2 formulas according to the diagram above, there are some following cases: A vehiclerunning on the higher speed road sectionV1 and then changing to the limited speed road section V2 encountersthe situation described in the diagram 1 with overtaking prohibited rule, according to road traffic law, the safety distance between vehicles running on the same road is given, how much the speed limit for V2 should be in order to ensure traffic safety. 19 From the above formulas, the calculation is: [3.4] Inferred: Sight distance (S1) and vehicle speed (V1) are related to each other and the braking distance to ensure traffic safety. When V1 is high, V2need to be as small as possible, the braking distance will be larger and the longer sight distance is required or driving at low speed V1 if there is a short sight distance or if V1 remains high, it is easy to lead to accidents. In conditions of limited visibility at night or in rain and fog, it is necessary to reduce vehicle speed V1 more than that on the daytime or no rain or fog. To ensure safety when vehicles are operating on the road, the velocity V2 is calculated for the actual following cases: Table 3.2- Suburban roads without fixed separated strips V1 Frictional Type of vehicle K S1 (m) (Km/h) coefficient Cars and9-seat van (for passenger transport) 70 1.2 0.3 35 Light truck under 3.500 kg, 10 - 30 seat bus 60 1.3 0.3 30 (for passenger transport) Heavy truck more than 3.500 kg, >30-seat bus 50 1.4 0.3 30 (for passenger transport), 2-3-wheel-motorbike Motorbike, trailer, semi trailer, vehicles 40 1.4 0.3 30 pulling others Table 3.3 - Suburban roads with fixed separated strips V1 Frictional Type of vehicle K S1 (m) (Km/h) coefficient Cars and 9-seat van (for passenger transport) 80 1.2 0.3 45 Light truck under 3.500 kg, 10 - 30 seat bus 70 1.3 0.3 35 (for passenger transport) Heavy truck more than 3.500 kg, >30-seat bus (for passenger transport), 2-3-wheel60 1.4 0.3 30 motorbike Motorbike, trailer, semi trailer, vehicles 50 1.4 0.3 30 pulling others V2 (km/h) 80.00 69.79 57.46 44.98 V2 (km/h) 87.78 79.27 69.13 57.46 Through the specific calculation process, the thesis proposed the deceleration rates compared to the permitted speed in the following conditions: Condition 1 – Driving speed at night (from 6pmon the previous day to 6am on the latter day) is reduced by 15 to 20% of the permitted maximum speed. Condition 2 – Driving speed in rain or fog is reduced by 20 to 25% the permitted maximum speed. Condition 3 – Driving speed in rain or fog at night (from 6pm to 6am) is reduced by 25 to 30% of the permitted maximum speed. Take the regulated speed of 40-100 km /h to take speed limits in account as following Table 3.4 - Vehicle speed is limited by specific conditions 20 Vehicle speed regulated in normal conditions (Km/h) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 Vehicle speed in the condition no.1 (Km/h) 80 - 85 70 - 75 65 -70 55- 60 45 - 50 40 - 45 30 - 35 20 - 25 Vehicle speed in the condition no.2 (Km/h) 75 - 80 65 - 70 60 - 65 50 - 55 45 - 50 35 - 40 30 – 32 22 – 25 Vehicle speed in the condition no.3 (Km/h) 70 - 75 60 - 65 55 - 60 45 - 50 40 - 45 30 - 35 25 - 30 20 - 22 On the basis of object classification for the application of the solutions,the thesis proposed integrated solutions for these groups from level 1 to 5 as following: Proposed measures for Group I:Measure descriptions: Within the areas having a very good level of travel consciousness, the integrated solutions should focus on transport enterprises, state management authorities and passengers. Investment management of infrastructure construction, technical testing for vehicles, andtraffic safety management and organization system.Measure effectiveness: These solutions will make a change for those being businesses, state management authorities, in the context that the community has good awareness and habits in traffic. Proposed measures for Group II:Measure descriptions: Within the areas having a very good level of travel consciousness, the integrated solutions should focus on drivers, transport enterprises, state management authorities and passengers. Investment management of infrastructure construction, technical testing for vehicles, and traffic safety management and organization system.Measure effectiveness: These solutions will make a change for those being businesses, state management authorities, in the context that the community has good awareness and habits in traffic. Proposed measures for Group III: Measure descriptions: Within the new development areas, the integrated solutions should focus on drivers, transport enterprises, state management authorities and passengers. Besides, the contents of planning should be implemented as soon as possible. Measure effectiveness: These solutions will make a basic change for the entire transport and communication system in these areas via planning rationally and sustainable transport system to ensure traffic safety. Proposed measures for Group IV: Measure descriptions: Within the new development areas, the integrated solutions should focus on drivers, transport enterprises, state management authorities and passengers. Measure effectiveness: These solutions will make a basic change for the entire transport and communication system in these areas via planning rationally and sustainable transport system to ensure traffic safety. Proposed measures for Group V: Measure descriptions: Within the new development areas, the integrated solutions should focus on planning, improving state management system relating to traffic safety, education system and other solutions for humans, infrastructure and vehicles Measure effectiveness: Rural areas will require a suitable approach to traffic safety, where these solutions will help ensure the conformity between them and their targeted subjects, thereby making the solutions feasible and effective. Difficulties and challenges to Vietnam Due to no a successful model in practice in Vietnam, that the regulators, businesses and citizens will be too careful to be decisiveenough leads to difficulties of getting success in reality. This closed circle should be removed by the determination ofthe implementation of a successful non-motorized traffic model in a local place.
- Xem thêm -