Some suggestions for correcting errors made by english non - major first year students at hpu of pronouncing ending sounds

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BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG ------------------------------- ISO 9001:2008 KHÓA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP NGÀNH: TIẾNG ANH Sinh viên Giảng viên hướng dẫn : Hoàng Thùy Linh : ThS. Nguyễn Thị Huyền HẢI PHÒNG - 2013 BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG ----------------------------------- SOME SUGGESTIONS FOR CORRECTING ERRORS MADE BY ENGLISH NON-MAJOR FIRST YEAR STUDENTS AT HPU OF PRONOUNCING ENDING SOUNDS KHÓA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP ĐẠI HỌC HỆ CHÍNH QUY NGÀNH: TIẾNG ANH Sinh viên : Hoàng Thùy Linh Lớp : NA 1301 Giảng viên hướng dẫn: ThS. Nguyễn Thị Huyền HẢI PHÒNG - 2013 BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG -------------------------------------- NHIỆM VỤ ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP Sinh viên: Hoàng Thùy Linh Mã SV: 1357510003 Lớp: NA1301 Ngành: Tiếng Anh Tên đề tài: Some suggestions for correcting errors made by English non - major first year students at HPU of pronouncing ending sounds NHIỆM VỤ ĐỀ TÀI 1. Nội dung và các yêu cầu cần giải quyết trong nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp ( về lý luận, thực tiễn, các số liệu cần tính toán và các bản vẽ). …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. 2. Các số liệu cần thiết để thiết kế, tính toán. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. 3. Địa điểm thực tập tốt nghiệp. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP Người hướng dẫn thứ nhất: Họ và tên:............................................................................................. Học hàm, học vị:................................................................................... Cơ quan công tác:................................................................................. Nội dung hướng dẫn:............................................................................ Người hướng dẫn thứ hai: Họ và tên:............................................................................................. Học hàm, học vị:................................................................................... Cơ quan công tác:................................................................................. Nội dung hướng dẫn:............................................................................ Đề tài tốt nghiệp được giao ngày 25 tháng 03 năm 2013 Yêu cầu phải hoàn thành xong trước ngày 29 tháng 06 năm 2013 Đã nhận nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Đã giao nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Người hướng dẫn Sinh viên Hải Phòng, ngày ...... tháng........năm 2013 Hiệu trưởng GS.TS.NGƯT Trần Hữu Nghị PHẦN NHẬN XÉT CỦA CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN 1. Tinh thần thái độ của sinh viên trong quá trình làm đề tài tốt nghiệp: …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. 2. Đánh giá chất lượng của khóa luận (so với nội dung yêu cầu đã đề ra trong nhiệm vụ Đ.T. T.N trên các mặt lý luận, thực tiễn, tính toán số liệu…): …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. 3. Cho điểm của cán bộ hướng dẫn (ghi bằng cả số và chữ): …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. Hải Phòng, ngày … tháng … năm 2013 Cán bộ hướng dẫn (Ký và ghi rõ họ tên) NHẬN XÉT ĐÁNH GIÁ CỦA NGƯỜI CHẤM PHẢN BIỆN ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP 1. Đánh giá chất lượng đề tài tốt nghiệp về các mặt thu thập và phân tích tài liệu, số liệu ban đầu, giá trị lí luận và thực tiễn của đề tài. ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. 2. Cho điểm của người chấm phản biện : ……………………….. (Điểm ghi bằng số và chữ) Ngày.......... tháng......... năm 2013 Người chấm phản biện ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my gratitude to all those who gave me the possibility, support and helpful advice to complete this graduation paper. First of all, I want to thank my instructor, Ms Nguyen Thi Huyen from Foreign Language Department at HPU for guiding me how to do the research in the effective way. Her guidance helped me in all the time of research and writing of this thesis. Besides my instructor, I want to thank Ms Dang Thu Hien who gave me a lot of helpful advice during the time of researching. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Miss Nguyen Quynh Hoa from Foreign Language Department for her help and encouragement. My sincere thank also goes to Ms Tran Ngoc Lien, Dean of Foreign Language Department for her permission to take part in her classes to give survey questionnaire to students. I also want to thank all the members of NA1301. They were always stand by me when I felt down and helped me feel better, gave me motivation to complete this graduation paper. Last but not least, I would like to thank my family, my mother for giving birth to me and supporting me spiritually throughout my life. TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS....................................................................................... CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ...................................................................... 1 1. Rationale............................................................................................................ 1 2. Aims of the study .............................................................................................. 2 3. Research methods.............................................................................................. 2 4. Scope of the study ............................................................................................. 3 5. Significance of the study ................................................................................... 3 CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND ......................................... 4 2.1. English pronunciation .................................................................................... 4 2.1.1. What is pronunciation?............................................................................ 4 2.1.2. The importance of English pronunciation ............................................... 5 2.2. English sounds ............................................................................................... 6 2.2.1. Vowel sounds .......................................................................................... 6 2.2.1.1. Definition ............................................................................................. 6 2.2.1.2. Classification and Description of vowels............................................. 6 2.2.2. Consonant sounds .................................................................................... 9 2.2.2.1. Definition ............................................................................................. 9 2.2.2.2. Classification and Description of consonants ...................................... 9 2.3. English ending sounds.................................................................................. 13 2.3.1. Definition............................................................................................... 13 2.4. Pronunciation errors ................................................................................. 15 2.4.1. What is pronunciation error? ................................................................. 15 2.4.2. Ending sounds errors ............................................................................. 16 2.5. Existing studies on some common mistakes about final consonants that English learners in Vietnam tend to make .......................................................... 17 CHAPTER 3: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION ............................................. 19 3.1. Survey questionnaires .................................................................................. 19 3.1.1. Participants ........................................................................................... 19 3.1.2. Purposes of the survey questionnaires ................................................. 19 3.1.3. Design of the survey questionnaires .................................................... 20 3.1.4. Data collection instrument ................................................................... 20 3.1.5. Data analysis procedure ....................................................................... 21 3.2. Data analysis ................................................................................................ 21 3.2.1. Students’ attitudes toward English ending sound pronunciation ........ 21 3.2.1.1. Students’ attitude toward English pronunciation .............................. 21 3.2.1.2. Students’ frequency of pronouncing ending sounds ......................... 22 3.2.1.3. Problems related to ending sounds faced by English non-major first year students at HPU .............................................................................. 23 3.2.1.4. Students’ perceptions about reasons for their difficulties related to ending sounds ................................................................................................. 27 3.2.2. Teachers’ techniques in teaching pronunciation in class ..................... 28 3.2.3. Students’ expectations toward teachers in pronunciation class ........... 29 3.2.3.1. Students’ preferred techniques by teachers in pronunciation class .. 29 3.2.3.2. Students’ expectations toward teachers in class ............................... 31 3.3. Discussion .................................................................................................... 31 CHAPTER 4: SUGGESTIONS FOR STUDENTS TO CORRECT ENDING SOUNDS ERRORS .......................................................................... 33 4.1. Suggested tips to 5 common ending sounds errors /ð/, /θ/, /tʃ/, /dʒ/, /ʃ/ ..... 33 4.2. Suggested techniques for students to correct ending sounds errors ............ 35 4.2.1. Games ................................................................................................... 35 4.2.1.1. Odd one out ....................................................................................... 35 4.2.1.2. IPA Bingo ......................................................................................... 36 4.2.1.3. Minimal Pair Slap ............................................................................. 37 4.2.1.4. Crazy ed- cards ................................................................................. 37 4.2.1.5. Crazy s- cards .................................................................................... 38 4.2.1.6. Number dictation .............................................................................. 39 4.2.1.7. Tongue twister .................................................................................. 39 4.2.1.8. The Restaurant Menu ........................................................................ 40 4.2.1.9. Large – Group Interviews ................................................................. 42 4.2.1.10. The Memory Game ......................................................................... 43 4.2.2. Training your ears by listening to music................................................... 44 4.2.3. Recording yourself .................................................................................... 46 4.2.4. Reading pronunciation books.................................................................... 47 4.2.5. Watching pronunciation videos on Youtube............................................. 48 4.2.6. Pronouncing the consonants only ............................................................. 50 4.2.7. Practicing in front of the mirror ................................................................ 50 4.2.8. Monitoring................................................................................................. 51 4.3. Exercises for practicing ending sounds........................................................ 51 4.3.1. Odd one out exercise ............................................................................ 51 4.3.2. Circle the words ending with /dʒ/ ........................................................ 53 4.3.3. Practicing ending sounds with minimal pair final /t/ and /d/ ............... 53 4.4. Conclusion.................................................................................................... 53 APPENDICE ........................................................................................................... APPENDIX 1 ........................................................................................................... APPENDIX 2 ........................................................................................................... REFERENCES ........................................................................................................ CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale In recent years, English has become one of the most popular languages in all over the world and in Vietnam as well. Besides, English plays an important role in the period of intergration. Thus, it has become a second language in Vietnam. Of the four basic skills in English, speaking seems to be paid great attention by ESL learners. Nevertheless, there is a large percentage of Vietnamese people who speak English making mistakes with pronunciation. While learning English, there are a number of problems relating to pronunciation errors that ESL learners tend to make: intonation, word, sentence stress, especially ending sounds. However, Vietnamese students who study English have their own problems. In order to study these problem in depth, this research will go into details of pronunciation errors concerning ending sounds of English non-major 1st year students at Haiphong Private University. As can be seen, if ESL learners want to speak English correctly and fluently, it is necessary to pay attention to ending sounds. Vietnamese is a kind of language which has single words with no ending sounds while these sounds play a very important role in English. It is particularly difficult for native English to identify the words being spoken without pronouncing ending sounds. As a matter of fact, ending sounds errors are very typical and popular to Vietnamese students, especially English non-major 1st year students at Haiphong Private University. Therefore, it was a motivation for the author of the reasons to discuss. Hopefully, this study will help students grow awareness of problems that they might have not noticed before and raise some suggestions to correct errors. 1 2. Aims of the study The purpose of this research is to help English non-major 1st year students at Haiphong Private University realize mistakes when pronouncing ending sounds. Besides, it will help them raise awareness of their pronunciation problems. Moreover, this research also aims to help these students improve speaking skill and ending sounds pronunciation. This study will focus on two issues. The first one is to find out the ending sounds errors of English nonmajor first year students at HPU. The second one is to give out the suggestions for students to correct these errors. Here are the two research questions of the study: Research questions: 1) What are the ending sound errors that English non-major 1st year students at Haiphong Private University are likely to make? 2) What can the students do to improve English pronunciation, especially ending sounds? 3. Research methods To achieve the above mentioned aims, the study employs the following methods of study: Firstly, reference book and previous researches related to ending sounds are review to get background knowledge of English pronunciation, ending sounds. Secondly, a survey is conducted for two Toeic level 1 classes at HPU with a view to finding out their problems, evaluations of the matter and the difficulties that they have as well as the expectations towards pronunciation. Last but not least, all the necessary information needed for the findings of the survey will be collected through the observation and interview with students. 2 4. Scope of the study In English, there are many problems related to pronunciation errors. However, this study does not aim to cover all problems with pronunciation errors of the ESL learners. Within the time limitation, the research just focuses on five common ending sounds errors of 60 English non-major first year students at Haiphong Private University, that is, /ð/, /θ/, /tʃ/, /dʒ/, /ʃ/. 5. Significance of the study It is undeniable that English is one of the most important subjects in all school. At Haiphong Private University, all students from different departments have to learn English and they have to pass the Toeic exam at the end of the semester. It can be clearly seen that, four skills in learning English are also important but the most important one must be speaking skill. However, this is the skill that students often afraid of. To English non-major first year students at Haiphong Private University, their speaking skill seems to be pretty bad, especially in pronouncing ending sounds. The thesis is intended to point out the ending sounds errors that students tend to make and the solutions to solve the problems. The research is a useful reference for students to learn English pronunciation and correct ending sounds errors. Consequently, chapter 1 has dealt with the content of the study. Rationale, aims, research methods and questions, scope and significance of the study were gave out to introduce and to be a basis for analysis in the next parts. In chapter 2, the theoretical background of pronunciation, ending sounds errors, previous studies…will be thoroughly presented. 3 CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Theoretical background provides readers with the relevant literature of the study by introducing some key concepts necessary for the best understanding of this research. This chapter explains various aspects related to the topic of pronunciation, especially ending sounds. It is started with a brief description of pronunciation and its importance, general knowledge about English sounds, English ending sounds and then show some previous studies on some common mistakes about final consonants that English learners in Vietnam tend to make. 2.1. English pronunciation 2.1.1. What is pronunciation? Pronunciation is one of the subjects in English that each student has to learn at least one time. There are a lot of definitions of pronunciation and each one is different from each other. First of all, according to definition in Oxford Dictionaries, pronunciation was defined as: the way in which a word is pronounced. Besides, pronunciation was also put as “the way in which a language is spoken” (Oxford Advance Learner’s Encyclopedic, 1992:718). The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 8th ed (2008) makes clear pronunciation is “the way in which a language or a particular word or sound pronounced”. According to Wikipedia Dictionaries, there was another definition of pronunciation: “Pronunciation refers to the ability to use the correct stress, rhythm, and intonation of a word in a spoken language. A word can be spoken in different ways by various individuals or groups, depending on many factors, such as: the area in which they grew up, the area in which they now live, if they have a speech or voice disorder, their ethnic group, their social class, or their education.” 4 In the AMEP Fact sheets that have been funded by the Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs through the AMEP Special Project Research Program, pronunciation was defined as: “The production of sounds that we use to make meaning. It includes attention to the particular sounds of a language (segments), aspects of speech beyond the level of the individual sound, such as intonation, phrasing, stress, timing, rhythm (suprasegmental aspects), how the voice is projected (voice quality) and, in its broadest definition, attention to gestures and expressions that are closely related to the way we speak a language. Each of these aspects of pronunciation is briefly outlined below, and references for further study are suggested.” 2.1.2. The importance of English pronunciation In order to speak English correctly and fluently, pronunciation should be paid attention to. It plays an important role in speaking English. Many non-native speakers have studied grammar for many years but are unable to speak like native speakers due to their inability to pronounce the sounds of words properly. Many cases of misunderstanding in communication were caused by the mispronouncing of words or the improper intonation. According to the AMEP Fact sheets, learners with good pronunciation in English are more likely to be understood even if they make errors in other areas, whereas learners whose pronunciation is difficult to understand will not be understood, even if their grammar is perfect. Many adult learners find pronunciation one of the most difficult aspects of English to acquire, and need explicit help from the teacher (Morley 1994; Fraser 2000). 5 2.2. English sounds 2.2.1. Vowel sounds 2.2.1.1. Definition In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as English “ah!” [a:], pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis. According to Roach (2000:10), vowels are “sounds in the production of which there is no obstruction to the flow of air as it passes from the larynx to the lips”. Vowel is a major sound in a word, which part brings senses. In a word, just only vowel link together can make a meaning word, but if lacking vowels (semivowels), those word have no meaning. According to English phonetics and phonology, vowel was defined as below:“ Vowel is a speech sound in which the air stream from the lung is not blocked in any way in the mouth or throat and which is usually pronounced with the vibration of the vocal cords.” 2.2.1.2. Classification and Description of Vowels: Monophthongs According to the length of the sounds: Short vowels: /i/ /e/ /ʌ / Long vowels: /i:/ / ɔ/ /æ/ / ʊ/ /u:/ /ə/ /ɜ:/ /ɔ/ /a:/ According to the height of the tongue body in the mouth: High vowels: The tongue is high in the mouth. / i, i: , ʊ, u: / Mid vowels: The tongue neither high nor low in the mouth. / e, ɔ: , ə, ɜ:/ 6 Low vowels: The tongue below its rest position. / æ, ʌ , ɔ , a:/ According to front / back position of the tongue. Front vowels: The front of the tongue is raised. / i, e, æ, i: / Central vowels: Neither the front nor the back of the tongue is raised. / ə, ɜ: , ʌ / Back vowels: The back of the tongue is raised. / u: , ʊ , ɔ , a: , ɔ: / According to the degree of lip rounding. Rounded vowels: The corner of the lips are brought towards each other and the lips pushed forwards. /u: , ʊ , ɔ , ɔ: / Spread: The corners of the lips moved away from each other as for a smile. / i, e, æ , i: / Neutral: The lips neither sounded nor spread. / ə , ɜ: , ʌ , a: / Hereunder is the vowel chart: Figure 1: English Vowel (IPA chart) 7 Diphthongs A diphthong , literally "two sounds" or "two tones", also known as a gliding vowel, refers to two adjacent vowel sounds occurring within the same syllable. Technically, a diphthong is a vowel with two different targets: that is, the tongue moves during the pronunciation of the vowel. For most dialects of English, the phrase "no highway cowboys" contains five distinct diphthongs. There are 2 types of diphthongs: closing and centering diphthongs. Closing diphthongs: Three ending in ‘ɪ’: eɪ, aɪ, ɔɪ Two ending in ‘ʊ’: əʊ, aʊ Example: eɪ: paid, pain, face, shade, age, wait, taste, paper aɪ: tide, time, nice, buy, bike, pie, eye, kite, fine ɔɪ: void, loin, voice, oil, boil, coin, toy, Roy əʊ: load, home, most, bone, phone, boat, bowl aʊ: loud, gown, house, cow, bow, brow, grouse Centering diphthongs: Three ending in ‘ə’ : ɪə, eə, ʊə Example: ɪə : beard, weird, fierce, ear, beer, tear eə : aired, cairn, scarce, bear, hair, ʊə : moored, tour, lure, sure, pure 8 2.2.2. Consonant sounds 2.2.2.1. Definition According to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Encyclopedic (1992:192), consonants are “speech sounds made by completely or partly stopping the flow of air breathed out through the mouth”. In Wikipedia Dictionary, it is said that “the number of consonants in the world’s languages is much greater than the number of consonant letters in any one alphabet”. In English phonetics and phonology (Roach, 2000:10), the term consonant can be defined as “sounds in which there is obstruction to the flow of air as it passes the larynx to the lips”. One more collected definition from the lectures: The production of sounds, consonant was defined as: “Consonant sounds are the sounds, in the production of which one articulator moves towards another or two articulators come together obstructing the air stream and the air stream can’t get out freely.” 2.2.2.2. Classification and description of consonants According to Marianne, Donna and Janet (1996:42,43), the consonants system was classified according to place and manner of articulation. Here are classification and description of consonants according to place of articulation. According to the slide share by Hai Ha Do (Feb, 2013), place of articulation was defined as “the location of the obstruction of the air stream in the articulation of consonants. It describes the point at which the articulators actually touch or at their closest.” Hereunder are the description of consonants according to place of articulation: Bilabials: are the sounds made with the two lips pressed together or coming together. /b, p, w, m/ Labio-dentals: are the sounds which are produced with the lower lip touching the upper front teeth. /f, v/ 9
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