Solutions to improve the economic efficiency of agricultural land use in Yen Bai province during 2012 - 2020

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DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY ––––––––––––––– BUI NU HOANG ANH SOLUTION TO IMPROVE THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF AGRICULTURAL LAND USE IN YEN BAI PROVINCE DURING 2012 - 2020 Speciality: Agricultural Economics Code: 62 62 01 15 Ph.D THESIS SUMMARY OF AGRICULTURE THAI NGUYEN, 2013 The study was done at: COLLEGE OF ECONOMICS & BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Scientific supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tran Chi Thien The peer review 1: .................................... The peer review 2: .................................. The peer review 3: .................................. The thesis is prevented to the Council held in Thai Nguyen University at the …, … ,2013 Desertation can be found at: - National Library - Learning Resource Center, Thai Nguyen University - Library of College of Economics & Business Administration LIST OF AUTHOR’S PUBLISHED STUDY 1. Bui Nu Hoang Anh, "Land - a resource, an asset to be protected and effective use", Journal of Science - Technology, Thai Nguyen University, Volume 60, Number 12/1 2009, tr. 114-118. 2. Bui Nu Hoang Anh, "The economic situation - Yen Bai province's social and solutions for sustainable growth", Journal of Development Economics, National Economics University, No. 162 of 2010, Tr. 100-108. 3. Bui Nu Hoang Anh, "Economic efficiency of some agricultural land use types in Yen Bai province" Journal of Economics & Business Administration, Number 1, May 3/2011, p. 72-78. 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Justification How to use agricultural land to ensure food security and sustainable development in the climate change along with the pressure of population growth, the process of industrialization and modernization is becoming a matter of urgent problems in developing countries. Vietnam so far is basically an agricultural country. Agriculture, rural, farmers in Vietnam have been and will be an important position in the economy of the country. From an agricultural economy focused heavily subsidized switch to market economy, our country is facing a series of economic, social and environmental problems. To achieve the goal of sustainable development, Vietnam needs to improve the efficiency of agricultural land use, thereby increase income for local people, improve landscaping, protect environment and ecology. Pressure of the urbanization process and population growth make our country farmland decline rapidly in both quantity and quality. People have been exploited without any reasonable measures to protect this precious resource. In this context, the effects of climate change and sea level rise scenario makes arable land in the coastal plain region increasingly narrow, the potential for soil research, learn some types of agricultural land use, assessing the appropriateness of the type of land use that as a basis to propose solutions appropriate land use, effective in mountainous areas is the problem and strategic and urgent local and national targets to ensure food security, sustainable development. Yen Bai is a mountainous province of northern Vietnam. Land of Yen Bai is very diversity, agricultural land accounts for nearly 80% of the total land area, but most of the area is steep. Despite the relatively large area but complex terrain, mostly hilly, educational level is not high, the exploitation of land resources in general and in particular agricultural land for production is limited. Production underdevelopment, economic efficiency is not high, while main source of income of the people here depend on agriculture. So people's lives in the province is difficult, strenuous. By 2012, income per 2 capita of only 16.6 million, only 53.9% of the average income of the country. Want to improve the living standards of the people, need to implement multiple synchronization solutions, which improve the economic efficiency of agricultural land use. To ensure food security, poverty reduction and sustainable development in such a sloping mountainous province of Yen Bai, there is a need for research on agricultural land. From that fact, to assess the economic efficiency of agricultural land use and to propose solutions to improve the efficiency of this land type, "Solutions to improve the economic efficiency of agricultural land use in Yen Bai province during 2012 - 2020" has been chosen to study. 2. Objectives - To systematise theoretical and factual basis of improve the economic efficiency of agricultural land use; - To analyse the economic efficiency of different agricultural land use types; - To analyse the factors affecting the economic efficiency of agricultural land use in Yen Bai; - To propose some solutions to improve the economic efficiency of agricultural land use in Yen Bai province. 3. Study Object and scope 3.1. Object The economic efficiency of different agricultural land use types and related issues. 3.2. Scope 3.2.1. Spatial limitation Study site: Yen Bai province. Field survey were conducted in 3 districts characterized by three regions: The low region: Yen Binh district; The middle region: Van Chan district; 3 The upland region: Mu Cang Chai district. 3.2.2. Time range - Secondary data: collected during the period 2000 - 2011; - Primary data: Surveys were conducted in the period 2008 - 2011; - The solution was studied and proposed up to 2020. 3.2.3. Limits on Content - Evaluating the economic efficiency of some major agricultural land use types; - Basic solutions to improve economic efficiency in the use of agricultural land. 4. Study questions 1. How is the economic efficiency in agricultural land use in Yen Bai province? 2. What factors affect the economic efficiency of agricultural land use in Yen Bai? 3. What solution should be implemented to improve the economic efficiency of agricultural land use in Yen Bai in the future? 5. The new scientific findings 1. A perspective on adherence efficiency of agricultural land use with food security issues and sustainable development in the context of climate change has been further confirmed. New perspective on the role of agriculture in the uplands in ensuring food security, land degradation, water maintenance, climate regulation and mitigation has been strengthened. 2. A concept of "economic efficiency in the agricultural land use" was formulated and used to cater for this study. 4 3. The dissertation is the first study on economic efficiency in the agricultural land use in mountainous Yen Bai Province have a combination of traditional research methods with modern research methods, qualitative with the quantitative approach. 4. The cause of agricultural land use situation has been argued, a fixed-effects model (FEM) has been built to analyze the factors affecting the economic efficiency of agricultural land use and system of the comprehensive solutions to improve the economic efficiency of agricultural land use in a mountainous province in the context of agriculture is facing many challenges have been proposed. Chapter 1 SCIENTIFIC BASIS In this chapter, the thesis codified and clarified the theoretical issues of agricultural land (concept, agricultural land classification, role and economic characteristics of agricultural land, and the point of use type of agricultural land use), the effectiveness, economic efficiency and economic efficiency in the use of agricultural land to the concept, content, nature, methods of identification, the influencing factors and evaluation criteria of economic efficiency in the use of agricultural land. In practical basis, the authors present the results of research on effective use of agricultural land in the world and in Vietnam. In Vietnam, the authors analyze and clarify the status of land use efficiency is not high agriculture through specific aspects such as agricultural land, loss of agricultural land, the status efficiency agricultural land before the great challenges of food security, the impact of land policy on the efficiency of agricultural land use. Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Situation assessment studies and economic efficiency in the use of agricultural land in the world and in Vietnam has also been mentioned, and 5 lessons has been summarized. Comments drawn from theoretical studies and practical economic effects of agricultural land use: - Land resources in general, in particular agricultural land is limited and the situation has been shrinking in size, has been declining in quality due to the effects of both natural and human. The pressures of population growth, increased demand for agricultural products along with the process of urbanization, industrialization and the land is very large. To ensure food security, food and sustainable development to improve economic efficiency in the use of agricultural land. - The method to study the effect of agricultural land use is diverse, can apply different approaches in the different study areas. - To propose solutions to improve economic efficiency in the use of agricultural land, the study pointed out many factors that affect the effective use of resources, including subjective factors and objective, both natural and social factors that impact both positive and negative. - Economic efficiency in agricultural land use in each country is different, but the search for solutions to improve economic efficiency in the use of this resource is essential for all countries, especially that developing countries such as Vietnam. Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1. Study site choosing: 3 areas (lowland and upland areas between) with 3 representatives represent districts based on altitude above sea level (Yen Binh, Van Chan, Mu Cang Chai) have been chosen. Each district selected three society, in every society selected 3 villages/hamlets in each village/hamlet 12 households selected for the survey. After synthesis and processing of data, 270 households to ensure information reliability is used in the study. 3.2. Information collection: The secondary data for this study were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Research Institute, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, Agricultural Extension Center, GSO, seminars and abroad, the research was published. 6 The primary information collected through household interviews surveys, focus group discussions, consultations of experts. The primary information to be investigated in 4 years (2008-2011). 3.3. Methods of information synthesizing and analysis: The information collected is synthesized by the method of distribution, statistical tables and graphs. After synthesis, the information is analyzed by a combination of traditional research methods with modern methods, qualitative methods with quantitative. That's the method: the sequence of time; extended intervals; SWOT analysis; method "problem tree"; analysis of project cash flow and forecasting methods. Categories and methods of data analysis mixture (data table) is used to analyze the factors affecting the economic efficiency of agricultural land use in the province of Yen Bai. 3.4. Participatory approach: This approach to PRA tools were used during the study. We made 6 groups with 60 participants respectively in the selected communes to collect survey information on the status of agricultural land use and the preferred solution to improve the economic efficiency of agricultural land use mainly. 3.5. The system of research targets and criterias: research indicator system consists of 4 groups: Group targets reflect on the process of agricultural production; indicators reflect the economic results of agricultural land use; Group only This reflects the economic efficiency of agricultural land use; indicators reflect the financial performance of perennial LUT (production cycle). Chapter 4 FINDINGS 4.1. Overview of Yen Bai province 4.1.1. Natural Conditions Mountainous province of Yen Bai is located inland, is one of 13 provinces in the northern mountainous region with steep terrain and most complex divided our country. Average slope 25-300, where the slope is more than 450. The climate is sub-tropical monsoon climate zone 5, the 7 average temperature is 22 - 230C, rainfall 1500-2200 mm / year average humidity 83-87%, facilitating the development of agriculture - forestry. 4.1.2. Social-Economic characteristics There have been 9 administrative units with a total of 180 communes, wards and townships including 70 upland and 62 communes with special difficulties are invested in programs of economic development - social state, have 2 highland district Tram Tau Mu Cang Chai (H'mong minority accounts for over 80%) in 61 poor districts, particularly the country's difficulties. Provincial population in 2010 was ... people, over 50% are ethnic minorities. Outdated infrastructure, especially infrastructure for production and rural infrastructure. Agricultural production is underdeveloped economic structure slowly shifting. Quality of life is low, large wealth disparity between the low and high areas. Province's biggest advantage is the sparse population density, land mass, abundant flora and fauna, capable of sustainable agricultural development. The major difficulty is the province's complex terrain, poor transportation, low literacy levels, extreme weather, natural disasters occur often seriously affected agricultural production and reduce economic efficiency health in agricultural land use. 4.2. Status of agricultural land use 4.2.1. Overview of agricultural land in Yen Bai province: In 2010, the total land area of the province is 689,949.05 hectares, of which agricultural land accounts for 79.59%. Compared with 2006, agricultural land increased by 26479.59 ha, structural increase 3.71%, but private land 1665.48 hectares agricultural production declined during this period. 4.2.2. Characteristics of agricultural land in the province: Agricultural land in three study areas with steep slopes, steep slopes under 150 (grade I and grade II) is favorable for agricultural production accounts for the low rate (3% - 20%), slope above 150 is not favorable for agricultural production accounts for a high rate (30% - 48%). Agricultural land of the study area fluctuated with time and fluctuations of the agricultural soils in different regions are not the same. 8 4.2.3. The fluctuation of agricultural land Agricultural land: In 2010, agricultural production land area of 397.11 hectares, but the low rise structure fell 11.39 ha compared to 2000. In the middle, down 733.71 hectares of this land, the structure fell 2.85%. In the highlands, in 2010 agricultural production increased land 3253.39 hectares, but the structure is still down 8.2% compared to 2000. 3 shows the comparison, the low-rise area of agricultural production, but at least the structure fell the most, in the most high-rise area, in the middle of the area, but increased more restructuring decreased less than lowlands. Forest land: 2010, lowland forest land of 24160.93 ha up, the structure rose 11.68% compared to 2000. In the middle, in 2010 increased forest land 9866.66 hectares, 3.13% structural increase over 2005. In the highlands, in 2010 compared to 2000, the area of forest land that rose 51028.97 hectares, up 8.2% on the structure, but if we only consider the period from 2005 to 2010, the area saw 2010 region's forest land 518.92 ha, down 2.63% on the structure. 3 Comparing the period 2000-2010 shows, upland forest land increased in most of the area, but the increase at least restructuring, while the forest land in the most low-rise structure but at least the area has increased. Aquaculture Land (Aquaculture): On the lowlands, comparing 2010 with 2000 shows: 74.78 ha land aquaculture increased in size, the structure fell 0.28%. In the middle, also during this period, increasing aquaculture area 195.91 hectares, up 0.23% of the structure, and upland soils increased only 3.95 ha, the structure rose 0.004% . Thus, in the three regions, the area between aquaculture is the fastest growing area, the lower is the strongest areas of aquaculture in the province, but has the advantage of wide Thac Ba reservoir thousands of hectares, so the further expansion of area were not interested in investing in depth to improve productivity, quality seafood. Upland area and the structure will increase at least as natural conditions in this area is not suitable for the development of aquaculture. Other agriculture land: This land kind is very little variation in all 3 regions. In the period 2005 - 2010, lowland area increased only 0.24 hectares, up 0.0004% of the structure. In mountainous area fell 0.5 hectares 9 agricultural land other, the structure fell 0.001%. In the middle of the area and the soil structure is not changed. 4.2.4. The major plants and aquatic Ther have five major crop groups: Group crops, groups of crops, groups of crops, fruit group; forest trees. The plant is distributed over the different seasons of the year. Basically, the seasonality of major crops in the same area, only rice and some fruits such as longan, litchi, orange, mango, grapefruit upland differences with the remaining 2 due weather conditions, climate and farming practices in a number of localities in the region. Area, yield and production Although the growing season is quite the same, but due to the area and productivity of crops in regions that do not yield the same result in the study area are also differences. - In low areas: Research shows that productivity of major crops is relatively stable and tends to increase over the years. The output of all crops increased in the period 2000 - 2010, most growth is available, then the corn, fruit, tea and rice. Production increased due to the increase of both area and yield, but mainly due to the expansion of the area. The area of the plant that has been extended to higher productivity is a confirmed fact initially agricultural land has gradually been used more effectively. The region has Thac Ba lake with dozens fish species, catches annual average of about 2,000 tons. Aquaculture area tends to expand more and more, but performance tends to decrease over time due to artisanal mining with explosives and electrical impulses. Water pollution from cassava processing factories in the region have reduced breeding productivity. However, production has increased due to the increase of the area is more than enough to compensate for the decline of productivity. - In the middle: After 10 years, the structure of plant area has been a big change. In 2010, the largest area of tea, then the rice, then the corn. Tea is plant growth in the area of fastest growth rate of productivity of the forest trees have the fastest growth rate in 10 years time, then to aquaculture and to 10 corn. In fact, it shows the type of use of agricultural land has been under intensive investment. Along the same crops, but yields between different regions in lowland productivity. The most obvious difference is in the forest during the period 2008-2010. Yield Forestry and 8 years in the age between about 1.8 times higher than the yield of the same type forest in the lowlands. However, in aquaculture, by contrast, aquaculture production in lowland areas is higher than in between 1.7 to 2.3 times. This somewhat gradually reveals the advantages of each region. - In the highlands: In the period 2000 - 2010, rice production increased the most, followed by maize, tea and preliminary investigation. Rice production increased due to an increase in both area and yield, but yield increases more. Unlike rice, maize yields increased quite a lot compared to other crops and also due to the increase of both area and yield, but the increase due to greater expansion area. Similar to corn, medlar production increased significantly during this period mainly due to area expansion (4.17 times). Forestry production increased in 10 years by both area expansion and productivity enhancing investments. The forest is mainly people in the area is planted pine needles and medlar. Unlike forest trees of the middle and lower areas, two crops after 8 years to bring productivity and high income for growers (with prices 6.000VND/kg result, each original 8 year old medlar for about 600.000VND income). Aquaculture productivity in this region is lower than the middle and lower regions, but the output is still increasing due to the growing area of expansion. Although it has been extended, but the aquaculture area of this region is only 1/67 the area of aquaculture and the area between 1/98 the lowland area. In fact, it has once again confirmed the strength and forestry planting restrictions in aquaculture upland. The type of agricultural land used primarily With more than 30 plants and a variety of seafood and seasonal distribution combinations, arranged in the form of agricultural land use. In the study area, the main types are: rice cultivation, rice cultivation combined with dry plants, specialized crop, fruit trees, tea plantations, forest planting 11 and aquaculture. Due to natural conditions and a variety of reasons such as: farming practices, investment capital, capacity consumption, ... so the choice of type of agricultural land use in different regions. - In the low: Survey results showed that 90 households in the area, lychees specialized type of crop (spring beans - beans seasons) and fruit trees (apricot, plum, litchi) is applied in over 90% of households in the region. Approximately 60% - 80% of households in selected areas of cultivation of rice, combine rice with upland crops (2 crops of rice - 1 corn crop) cultivation or color (3 for vegetables) proved that it is the type of land use is common and appropriate to the region. Type of rice with upland crops combined with the rotation of two crops of rice, a few vegetables are applicable for most (just over 20% of households in selected areas) so hard and lost a lot of conversion work to do land. The other type is applied in the range of 40% - 60% of households in the region. More than 40% of households selected types of aquaculture, sturgeon is a pet bring high economic value to the people. White Halibut, Tilapia unisexual, rejuvenated, Sesame ... were people really loved it and extended surface area for release. - In the middle: Research shows that this kind of fruit trees (orange), and specialized crop grown tea (sweet potatoes 2 cases) was applied in most of the households in the region (90% - 100% of households ). Type of rice cultivation (spring wheat - winter rice), specialized crop (corn spring spring season maize or beans - beans of the season) is over 80% of households applying. Similarly in lowland rice types associated with upland crops (2 crops - vegetables for winter 1) applies at least as much work as land, only 20% of households have more options. Type of upland rice cultivation fell, fell to 50/90 selected households. Type of forest trees (mostly banyan, acacia, eucalyptus and bamboo Bat) were selected in 47/90 households (52%). - In the highlands: Other than the low and middle regions, upland only 18 types of agricultural land use. The level of application forms in this region are also clear differences. The results are synthesized in Table 4:26 12 shows the percentage of households applying different types of food crops, food and fruit is very high (around 80% - 100%). Although this type is the most widely applicable than in the other two areas, but food production, lower food, thousands of families have fallen into poverty each year of study. The reason is that in this region is high as 90% of Mongolia's population, farming practices backward cultivation traditional still applies 100% of households in the investigation leading to low productivity, ease of cultivation land degradation due to leaching. Type subsistence production has shown quite clearly in this area, not the type of commodity production in agriculture and intensive, so in most households to grow crops for food and to grow flax clothing and types of fruit trees are also applicable in all the households in the region. Type of forest trees in accordance with the natural conditions of the region and is applied in 84/90 households. If in the lower and middle regions of the tea plant is common in 80% of households in the area and planted in touch with more than 40% of households are in the ratio 2 of them have applied this type of just over 20%. Only 13/90 households applied forms of aquaculture with a total area of 4 ha. This fact once again shows that aquaculture is not suitable for the kind of high. The rotation formula and seafood are also options in 3 different areas. The guarantee of food crops, food is almost the same, but there are differences in the types of crops, forestry and aquatic products. The difference in the rotation formula of the type of land use has exposed its own strength as well as the suitability of each type of livestock, crops in each region. 4.2.5. Economic efficiency of some agricultural land use types At the low: As a result, the economic efficiency of some types of agricultural land use in the region is shown in the table below 4:28. The data in the table indicate that aquaculture is the type of use of agricultural land to bring the highest economic efficiency shown in all indicators as GO, VA, MI, GTNC, MI / IC, GO / IC and VA / IC. If we only consider GO separate targets, the type 13 of rice combined with upland crops (2 crops - potatoes 1 case) brings high value second type of aquaculture, but this type the costs are quite high, intermediate targets GO / IC and VA / IC is not high. Specialty pomelo output value is not the second highest, but low cost and pomelo less labor than rice and color so high value on work, GO / IC and VA / IC of the type of crop fruit (grapefruit specialty) higher rice combined with dry plants and some other kind of choice in the region. Considering individual targets GO / IC aquaculture is the type of land use to bring the highest efficiency (GO / IC = 14.5 times), then the type of fruit trees (grapefruit specialty) with GO / IC = 8.2 times and effective type of economy is the lowest for 2 seasons crop potatoes (GO / IC = 2.8 times). Table 4:28. Economic results and efficiency of some agricultural land use types in the lower (Up to 1 ha in 2011) T T LUT Targets 1 Rice cultivation 2 Spring Rice - Rice season Combine rice with upland crops (spring rice - rice season frozen potatoes) Crop (spring potato potato season) Crop (spring corn) Planting fruit trees (grapefruit) Growing fruit (pineapple) Cassava Perennial crops (tea) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 IC (mill) VA (mill) 29,20 9,70 19,50 19,30 36,50 2,00 3,00 2,00 52,40 16,40 36,00 34,80 43,80 2,10 3,20 2,20 18,20 30,00 1,60 2,80 1,80 6,50 MI (mill) GTNC MI/IC GO/IC VA/IC (mill) (times) (times) (times) GO (mill) 11,80 10,10 16,10 45,00 5,50 10,60 9,20 34,00 5,50 39,50 34,00 150,00 1,70 6,20 3,00 8,20 2,00 7,20 25,90 9,00 16,90 15,70 35,00 1,70 2,90 1,90 13,30 3,10 10,20 9,00 30,00 32,50 10,20 22,30 19,90 32,00 89,60 6,20 83,40 78,40 261,30 2,90 1,90 12,60 4,30 3,30 3,20 2,20 14,50 13,50 Source: Author's calculations from survey data In the middle: 4:29 table below summarizes the results and economic performance of some kind of use of agricultural land mainly in the middle. The data in the table shows, both in terms of production value, efficiency and equity indicators GO / IC, VA / IC, type of tea plantations bring high economic 14 efficiency, followed by maize, fruit trees, rice, aquaculture, .... Tea is confirmed to be strong in this region than in the low and high areas. Then the corn plant, this plant is very suitable for this region and is an important condition for the development of animal husbandry. Potatoes Atlantic is in the testing phase, the high levels of investment and productivity, should provide good quality production values pretty, but by this stage the cost should not bring high economic efficiency . On the value of the type of land use usually takes less labor is higher. In terms of capital efficiency, the type of tea plantations, maize, fruit trees with high efficiency, and type of planting cassava with lower performance. At the time of investigation, potato Atlantic has the lowest performance, but should still future development of this crop by increasing productivity, and decreasing production costs to meet market demand (Table 4:29). Table 4:29. Economic results and efficiency of some agricultural land use types in the midle region (Up to 1 ha in 2011) T T LUT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Targets Rice cultivation (Spring Rice - Rice season) Crops (Summer Corn - autumn and winter Corn) Cassava Crop (Sweet Potatoes) Crop (Atlantic Potatoes) Perennial crops (tea) Planting fruit trees Aquaculture GO (mill) IC (mill) VA (mill) MI GTNC MI/IC GO/IC VA/IC (mill) (mill) (times) (times) (times) 50,00 9,71 40,29 32,30 36,46 3,33 84,16 6,70 77,46 63,55 28,76 9,49 12,50 5,95 15,30 6,52 37,10 19,40 8,55 7,70 8,78 7,90 17,70 15,93 46,70 36,00 30,00 1,29 1,21 0,82 142,00 10,70 131,30 118,17 35,00 11,04 130,00 45,00 7,14 3,93 22,30 23,13 5,60 4,70 44,40 39,96 23,75 18,45 5,15 4,15 12,56 11,56 2,10 2,35 1,91 1,44 1,35 0,91 13,27 12,27 3,98 4,92 7,93 5,05 Source: Author's calculations from survey data At the upland region: Figures in the 4.30 table below shows that, in the upland agriculture land use types, both in terms of production value, value added, mixed income, the value date, effective capital utilization as well as a number of economic performance indicators other types of forest trees bring value and most effective, then to the type of tea plantations, and the type of crop 15 (corn), the lowest effective specialized type of crop to plant soybeans. Type of crop (soybean) bring high economic efficiency due to relative commercialization and investment in fertilizer, care should yield poor quality. Soybean plants are grown primarily for the purpose of anti-fading, soil improvement, not intensive investment to increase productivity. Despite the fact that people in the area planted many trees to meet the demand for food, clothing and food for local practices remain heavily self-sufficiency, but this study combined with the results of scientific research on soil, agronomic other, it can be stated that best suits highland forest. Table 4:30. Economic results and efficiency of some agricultural land use types in the upland region (Up to 1 ha in 2011) T T LUT Targets GO (mill.) IC (mill.) VA (mill.) MI (mill.) 1 Rice (Spring Rice - Rice 29,40 10,20 19,20 17,30 season) 2 Crop (Summer Corn - 32,50 3,50 29,00 26,10 autumn and winter Corn ) 3 Cassava 14,50 6,00 8,60 7,70 4 Crop 13,30 6,60 6,70 6,10 (Sweet Potatoes) 5 Crop 15,50 8,40 7,10 6,40 (Soybean) 6 Perennial crops (tea) 102,00 9,50 92,50 83,30 7 Planting fruit trees 20,00 5,60 14,40 13,00 8 Aquaculture 21,20 7,50 13,70 12,30 9 Forestry Planting 130,00 8,00 122,00 120,00 GTNC MI/IC GO/IC VA/IC (mill.) (times) (times) (times) 35,30 1,70 2,90 1,90 40,50 7,50 9,30 8,30 43,80 1,30 2,44 1,40 34,00 0,90 2,03 1,00 32,00 0,80 1,90 0,90 60,00 8,80 10,70 9,70 30,00 2,30 3,60 2,60 45,00 1,60 2,80 1,80 150,00 15,00 16,30 15,30 Source: Author's calculations from survey data A major challenge for forest development in this area is the lack of high food and food for everyday life. Challenges that require research and development solutions agro - forestry or forestry - farming combine to ensure goals get short-term culture (Table 4:30). 16 Economic efficiency of some perennial Fruits and tea are perennial crops, for harvest many times. To evaluate the effectiveness of this plant correctly, we use NPV and IRR criteria for a period of 15 years and at r = 9%, equivalent to the bank rate at the time of the study. Based on data on output, prices, revenues and expenses for this perennial plants in three regions, we calculated the following indicators: a) Net Present Value (NPV) - NPV result for grapefruit and tea at lowland at r = 9%, respectively 44935.123 and 36728.241 million million. This result shows that it continues to produce two kinds of perennials at low lying. - In the middle, at r = 9%, NPV of fruit and tea respectively 53847.354 million and 4.28 million. The results show that should continue to produce fruit and tea in this region. However, combined with other research methods, we can see fruit trees should continue to produce in the middle is citrus fruit. - In the highlands, the NPV result for fruit and tea at r = 9% is -6.49 14231.173 million and million. Based on the calculated results, should not continue to expand the types of fruit growing in this region. Compare the NPV at 3 shows, the fruit trees in low NPV for the highest value, then the area between the high and the low. As for tea, NPV in the area between the highest value, then the lower and lowest in the uplands. b) Coefficient Internal Return rate (IRR) The value r1 = r2 = 7.5% and 12%, the result of IRR value of most crops are positive and r = 9% larger than that should still maintain the LUT with fruit trees and tea in the lower and middle regions. Particularly in the highlands, fruit IRR and NPV = 7.11% = -6.49 shows that in terms of economic efficiency, not to maintain LUT with fruit trees in the uplands. In summary, the results of analysis by several methods combined with secondary data has been compiled from FAO Statistical Yearbook Stat and Yen Bai provinces, we see economic efficiency in the use of agricultural land in the province of Yen Bai is not high. Both animal performance, crop, prices of most agricultural products and income of the farmers of the 17 province of Yen Bai are lower than average in the country and the world. To improve economic efficiency in the use of agricultural land, need to specify the factors that affect this issue. 4.3. FACTORS AFFECTING THE ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND USE 4.3.1. The factors influencing To identify and analyze the factors that affect the efficiency of agricultural land in the study area, we selected 126 that a survey variables that affect us in varying degrees. The selected variables including quantitative variables and qualitative variables. To achieve the research objectives, we have chosen the method for synthesis of 6 Categories factor synthesis. The test results showed that all six factors are statistically significant. After selection and verification, the results obtained from the application and processing methods Categories by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. 4:35 The table below illustrates the results of a number of variations on this method. Table 4:35. Illustrating the results of Cronbach's Alpha for a number of variables Cronbach's Synthesis Variable Component Variables Conclusion Alpha 1. Fertility 2. Usages 3. Cooperation, transfer 4. Capacity, ability - Soil pH - Organic Matter - The usefulness of P - Land Respiratory - Living habits - Farming practices - Community Collaboration - Infrastructure Construction Investment - Technology transfer - Technology Application - Crops & livestock diversification - The role of cooperation - Credit Access - Markets Access 1.000 1.000 0.807 0.924 acceptable acceptable good acceptable Source: Summary of survey data processing
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