Skkn using songs, games and communicative tasks in grammar lessons

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SỞ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO ĐỒNG NAI Đơn vị: Trường THPT Thống Nhất A Mã số: ................ SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM USING SONGS, GAMES AND COMMUNICATIVE TASKS IN GRAMMAR LESSONS ____________ Người thực hiện: NGUYỄN THỊ PHƯƠNG ANH Lĩnh vực nghiên cứu: PHƯƠNG PHÁP DẠY HỌC BỘ MÔN Có đính kèm: 1 đĩa CD Năm học: 2011 – 2012 0 SƠ LƯỢC LÝ LỊCH KHOA HỌC ___________________ I. THÔNG TIN CHUNG VỀ CÁ NHÂN 1. Họ và tên: NGUYỄN THỊ PHƯƠNG ANH 2. Ngày tháng năm sinh: 20/ 02 / 1976 3. Nam, nữ: Nữ 4. Địa chỉ: 1442 - Quảng Biên - Quảng Tiến - Trảng Bom - Đồng Nai 5. Điện thoại: 061 3866239 (CQ) – 061 3676295 (NR) ĐTDĐ: 01202569897 6. Chức vụ: Giáo viên 7. Đơn vị công tác: Trường THPT Thống Nhất A II. TRÌNH ĐỘ ĐÀO TẠO 1. Trình độ chuyên môn: cử nhân ngoại ngữ 2. Năm nhận bằng: 2000 3. Chuyên ngành đào tạo: Anh văn III. KINH NGHIỆM KHOA HỌC 1. Lĩnh vực chuyên môn có kinh nghiệm: Giảng dạy 2. Số năm có kinh nghiệm: 12 năm 1 BM03-TMSKKN Tên sáng kiến kinh nghiệm: USING SONGS, GAMES AND COMMUNICATIVE TASKS IN GRAMMAR LESSONS I. THE REASONS FOR THE TOPIC BEING CHOSEN English is a structure based language which has sets of grammar rules. To be successful in examinations as well as communication, learners should master those structures and grammar rules. Students are supposed to acquire structures and grammar rules in language focus lessons with a considerate amount of time. However, students often find language focus lessons boring, dry and stressful. They also find it daunting to remember so many rules. Why don’t we try teaching structures and grammar rules in more interesting ways and in context. Only by doing so can students find it easier to remember English grammar rules and be able to use the grammatical points they have learnt to do the tests as well as to express their thoughts, opinions and feelings effectively. II. REAL SITUATION BEFORE THESE SOLUTIONS ARE CARRIED OUT 1. Advantageous conditions The portion of grammar points in a test is about half. Mastering grammar means getting higher scores in the tests. This encourages students to learn grammar. Senior high school students are asked to do most of the revision in grammar lessons. They already studied these grammatical points in junior high school. 2. Difficulties High school students are not as motivated as learners in language centres. Learners in those centres study English partly because they love it and because they have a clear target to study it. Therefore, they try their best in learning. Meanwhile, high school students learn English simply because it is a subject at school. Most of my students do not like English. 9 out of 10 classes in my school major in natural science subjects. They don’t like social science subjects. English is not their favourite. Teenagers like something funny. However, some teachers think that students must be serious in studying grammar. Therefore, they like to conduct structure based, formal rather than structure-discourse match activities in grammar teaching. English language has so many grammar rules to remember. And the speaker must stick on these grammar rules to produce good English. This is so challenging. 3. Statistics 2 Grade 10 12 Total Number of students 45 120 165 Mark 5 and over total rate 16 35.5% 50 41.6% 66 40%% Under mark 5 total rate 29 64.5% 70 58.4% 99 60 % III. CONTENT 1. Underlying Principles Most of us, human beings, prefer playing to working. When we play a game, we feel happy and we engage in the activity totally. We enjoy it and we keep the memory of it for a long time. The same goes for the studying of students. When they find something interesting, their learning becomes more enjoyable and their motivation increases. If they “enjoy” their lesson, they will learn it the easy way and they will remember what they have learnt for ages. 2. Solutions Let’s have a look at the national curriculum. High school students are required to do the revision in most of the language focus lessons, which is a favorable condition to exploit songs, games and communicative tasks. In order to make a grammar lesson effective, beneficial, and interesting a teacher should use some well-developed and fascinating techniques in the classroom. We can employ the use of songs, games, and communicative tasks to make grammar lessons interesting, memorable, motivating and meaningful. There are many advantages of using songs in the classroom. Through using popular songs, which are already familiar to teenagers, the teacher can meet the challenges of the teenage needs in the classroom. Since the meaning is an important device in teaching grammar, it is important to contextualize any grammar points. Songs are one of the most enchanting and culturally rich resources that can easily be used in language classrooms. Songs offer a change from routine classroom activities. As stated by Lo and Fai Li (1998:8), learning English through songs also provides a non-threatening atmosphere for students, who usually are tense when learning English in a formal classroom setting. Since they provide authentic texts, they are motivating. In consequence, if selected properly and adopted carefully, a teacher should benefit from songs in all phases of teaching grammar. Songs may be used for the presentation or the practice phase of the grammar lesson, to review or introduce grammar points. Songs can be used with several techniques. Some examples of these techniques are:  Gap fills or cloze texts  Focus questions  True-false statements  Put these lines into the correct sequence  Dictation  Add a final verse 3 Circle the antonyms/synonyms of the given words  Discuss Working with grammar can be frustrating for students and teachers. Concepts of grammar, such as tenses, sentence structure, types of sentences and word composition can be difficult for students to understand. Playing grammar games in the classroom provides valuable practice while keeping the atmosphere fun and engaging. While playing games, the learners’ attention is on the message, not on the language. In a way, students acquire language unconsciously since their whole attention is engaged by the activity. The use of games is a more effective way to teach grammar than structured formal lessons. According to Arif Saricoban and Esen Metin, they help students learn how to apply the knowledge they've learned. Grammar games increase motivation and excitement, cooperation and competition in the classroom. The latest concern of the foreign language teachers is to make the students use the language communicatively. Games and problem-solving activities, which are taskbased and have a purpose beyond the production of correct speech, are the examples of the most preferable communicative activities. Such activities highlight not only the competence but also the performance of the learner. They are the indispensable parts of a grammar lesson, since they reinforce a form-discourse match. In such activities the attention is on the discourse context. In short, the use of songs, games and communicative tasks in language classrooms provides many advantages. They entertain and relax the learners while they are learning or practicing a structure, and they often eliminate the students’ negative attitude towards learning. Through providing authenticity and context they make the grammar points more understandable and easy. As language teachers, we can benefit from using songs, games and communicative tasks since our concern is to motivate the students and draw their utmost attention on the subject during teaching. Syllabus overview  Unit 1 2 3 4 ENGLISH 10 - The present simple - Adverbs of frequency - The past simple - Wh- questions - Gerund and to infinitive - The past perfect - The past perfect vs. the past simple - The + adjective ENGLISH 11 - Infinitive with to - Infinitive without to ENGLISH 12 Tense revision - Present simple indicating past time - Tense revision: past simple, past progressive and past perfect - Infinitive and gerund - Passive infinitive and gerund - Gerund and present Tense revision Reported speech Passive voice 4 - Used to + infinitive - Which as a connector 5 6 7 8 9 - The present perfect - The present perfect passive - Who, which, that - The present progressive with a future meaning - Be going to - The present perfect - Because of and in spite of - Reported speech: statements - Conditional sentence type 1 - Should - Conditional sentence type 2 10 - The passive voice 11 - Conditional sentence type 3 12 - To infinitive to talk about purposes - Wh-questions 13 - Attitudinal adjectives - It is/was not until…. that - A/an and the - Will vs. be going to - Will: making predictions - Will: making offers (omitted) 14 15 participle - Perfect gerund and perfect participle (omitted) Conditional sentences - Reported speech with gerund Relative clauses - Conditional types 1 and 2 - Conditional type 3 - Conditional in reported speech - Pronouns one(s), someone, anyone, no one, everyone (omitted) - Defining relative clauses (revision) - Non-defining relative clauses (revision) Relative pronouns with prepositions Relative clauses replaced by participles and to infinitives (revision) - Relative clauses (revision) - Omission of relative pronouns - Cleft sentences (omitted) Prepositions and articles Modal verbs: may, might, must, mustn’t, needn’t Modals in the passive voice Transitive and intransitive verbs (omitted) - Comparative + and + comparative - The + comparative, the + comparative Phrasal verbs - Could/ be able to Phrasal verbs 5 16 - Comparatives and superlatives - Tag questions - It is said that… - People say that… Adverbial clause of time 3. Illustrations 3.1. Tenses a. Exploiting songs - Past tense: Teacher can jumble the verses and ask student to rearrange them after listening to the song. After that teacher can ask students to underline all the verbs in simple past tense and state the uses of the simple past. This exercise can be done in presentation stage. "Yesterday" by The Beatles Yesterday, all my troubles seemed so far away Now it looks as though they're here to stay Why she had to go I don't know she wouldn't say Oh, I believe in yesterday Suddenly, I'm not half the man I used to be Oh, I believe in yesterday There's a shadow hanging over me. I said something wrong, now I long for yesterday Yesterday, love was such an easy game to play Now I need a place to hide away Oh, I yesterday came suddenly Why she had to go I don't know she wouldn't say Yesterday, love was such an easy game to play I said something wrong, now I long for yesterday Now I need a place to hide away Oh, I believe in yesterday Mm mm mm mm mm mm mm The correct answer: Yesterday, all my troubles seemed so far away Now it looks as though they're here to stay Oh, I believe in yesterday Suddenly, I'm not half the man I used to be There's a shadow hanging over me. Oh, I yesterday came suddenly Why she had to go I don't know she wouldn't say I said something wrong, now I long for yesterday Yesterday, love was such an easy game to play Now I need a place to hide away Oh, I believe in yesterday Why she had to go I don't know she wouldn't say 6 I said something wrong, now I long for yesterday Yesterday, love was such an easy game to play Now I need a place to hide away Oh, I believe in yesterday Mm mm mm mm mm mm mm Another song that can be used for past simple is “Hotel California” by Eagles. Teacher can leave out some verbs and asks students to fill in the gaps. This exercise should be done in practice stage. On a dark desert highway, cool wind in my hair Warm smell of colitas, rising up through the air Up ahead in the distance, I (1)____ a shimmering light My head grew heavy and my sight grew dim I had to stop for the night There she (2)____ in the doorway; I heard the mission bell And I was thinking to myself, ’this could be heaven or this could be hell’ Then she (3)____ up a candle and she showed me the way There were voices down the corridor, I thought I (4)___ them say... Welcome to the hotel California Such a lovely place Such a lovely face Plenty of room at the hotel California Any time of year, you can find it here Her mind is tiffany-twisted, she (5)___ the Mercedes bends She got a lot of pretty, pretty boys, that she calls friends How they dance in the courtyard, sweet summer sweat. Some dance to remember, some dance to forget So I (6)___ up the captain, ’please bring me my wine’ He (7)___, ’we haven’t had that spirit here since nineteen sixty nine’ And still those voices are calling from far away, Wake you up in the middle of the night Just to hear them say... Welcome to the hotel California Such a lovely place Such a lovely face They livin’ it up at the hotel California What a nice surprise, bring your alibis 7 Mirrors on the ceiling, The pink champagne on ice And she (8)___ ’we are all just prisoners here, of our own device’ And in the master’s chambers, They (9)___ for the feast The stab it with their steely knives, But they just can’t kill the beast Last thing I remember, I was Running for the door I had to find the passage back To the place I (10)___ before ’relax,’ said the night man, We are programmed to receive. You can checkout any time you like, But you can never leave! Answers: 1. saw 6. called 2. stood 7. said 3. lit 8. said 4. heard 5. got 9. gathered 10. was - Present continuous Teacher can use the song “Lemon tree” by Fool’s Garden for Present continuous. Teacher takes out some lines and ask students listen and put them in the correct places. Eg: a. I'm wasting my time b. I'm sitting here c. I'm driving around in my car d. I'm steppin' around in the desert of joy e. I'm waiting for you I'm sitting here in the boring room It's just another rainy Sunday afternoon (1) _______________________________________ I got nothing to do I'm hanging around I'm waiting for you But nothing ever happens and I wonder (2) __________________________________ I'm driving too fast I'm driving too far I'd like to change my point of view I feel so lonely (3) ______________________________________ 8 But nothing ever happens and I wonder I wonder how I wonder why Yesterday you told me 'bout the blue blue sky And all that I can see is just a yellow lemon-tree I'm turning my head up and down I'm turning turning turning turning turning around And all that I can see is just another lemon-tree (4) _______________________________ I miss the power I'd like to go out taking a shower But there's a heavy cloud inside my head I feel so tired Put myself into bed While nothing ever happens and I wonder Isolation is not good for me Isolation I don't want to sit on the lemon-tree (5) ___________________________________ Baby anyhow I'll get another toy And everything will happen and you wonder I wonder how I wonder why Yesterday you told me 'bout the blue blue sky And all that I can see is just another lemon-tree I'm turning my head up and down I'm turning turning turning turning turning around And all that I can see is just a yellow lemon-tree And I wonder, wonder I wonder how I wonder why Yesterday you told me 'bout the blue blue sky And all that I can see, and all that I can see, and all that I can see Is just a yellow lemon-tree Answer: 1. I'm wasting my time 2. I'm driving around in my car 3. I'm waiting for you 4. I'm sitting here 5. I'm steppin' around in the desert of joy - present perfect b. Using games 9 - Present continuous Teacher can do a pantomime for students to guess. Students work in groups to answer the question “What am I doing?”` E.g. Threading a needle and sewing on a button Washing dishes, and perhaps breaking one. Bowling. Reading a newspaper while eating breakfast. Combing your hair. … c. Communicative task - Present perfect Teacher can give out some cards with hints and ask students to ask and answer the question “Have you ever ….?” Students are required to supply true answers in full with the right form of the main verb. E.g. Feed the lion Break a window Hide from the police Teach English Win a lottery Steal anything Hold a snake … - Simple present Students work in pairs. One says something contrary to the fact, the other listens and correct the false information. E.g.: A: The sun rises in the west. B: No. it’s not true. It rises in the east. 3.2. Conditionals a. With songs Teacher can ask students to listen and do the gap filling then elicit the verb tense used in if clause and main clause, the usage of this type of conditional. - Type 2: Because I Love You by Shakin Stevens If I …(1)… down on my knees and I pleaded with you If I …(2)… a million oceans just to be with you Would you ever let me down? If I …(3)… the highest mountain just to hold you tight If I …(4)… that I would love you every single night Would you ever let me down? Well I'm sorry if it sounds kinda sad, it's just that Worried, so worried that you let me down * Chorus: Because I love you, love you 10 Love you, so don't let me down If I swam the longest river just to call your name If I said the way I feel for you would never change Would you ever …(5)… around Well I'm sorry if it sounds kinda bad, just that Worried, cuz' I'm so worried that you let me down * Chorus Teacher can also exploit the song “NOTHING'S GONNA CHANGE MY LOVE FOR YOU” by Air Supply for conditional sentences by asking them to underline once the conditional type 1 and underline twice the conditional type 2. If I had to live my life without you near me The days would all be empty The nights would seem so long With you I see forever oh so clearly I might have been in love before But it never felt this strong Our dreams are young and we both know They'll take us where we want to go Hold me now Touch me now I don't want to live without you Chorus : Nothing's gonna change my love for you You ought to know by now how much I love you One thing you can be sure of I'll never ask for more than your love Nothing's gonna change my love for you You ought to know by now how much I love you The world might change my whole life through but Nothing’s gonna change my love for you If the road ahead is not so easy Our love will lead the way for us Like a guiding star I'll be there for you if you should need me You don't have to change a thing I love you just the way you are So come with me and share the view I'll help you see forever too Hold me now 11 Touch me now I don't want to live without you b. With games Perfect couple game Teacher divides the class into halves. One half writes “if clauses” into a pieces of paper. The other writes “main clauses”. Teacher collects the two halves at random then read out the complete sentence. Students listen and vote the perfect matching. This game can spark laughter among students. c. Communicative task Teacher can give hints then ask students to discuss the questions “Under what conditions would you ………….? Exceed the speed limit while riding your motorbike. Lie to your mother. Steal food. Carry a friend on your back for a long distance. Quit class - Type 2: Students sit in pairs, one speaks out the situation, the other gives advice, beginning with if I were you … A: I’m not good at English. B: if I were you, I would spend more time learning it. - Type 1: Teacher gives hints. Students work in pair and take it in turn to tell the peer their plan for the future. Study hard => go to university => have a good job => earn a lot of money => … Eg: If I study hard, I will go to university. If I go to university, I will have a good job. … 3.3. Relative clause a. Using songs Teacher can ask students to listen and underline the relative clauses and the participles replacing relative clauses in the verses. “That’s why you go away” by Michael learns to rock Baby won't you tell me why there is sadness in your eyes I don't wanna say goodbye to you Love is one big illusion I should try to forget but there is something left in my head You're the one who set it up now you're the one to make it stop I'm the one who's feeling lost right now Now you want me to forget every little thing you said 12 but there is something left in my head [Chorus] I won't forget the way you're kissing The feeling's so strong were lasting for so long But I'm not the man your heart is missing That's why you go away I know You were never satisfied no matter how I tried Now you wanna say goodbye to me Love is one big illusion I should try to forget but there is something left in my head [Chorus] Sitting here all alone in the middle of nowhere Don't know which way to go There ain't so much to say now between us There ain't so much for you There ain't so much for me anymore [Chorus] 3.4. Gerund and infinitive a. Songs Teacher can use this song at the presentation stage to explain when to use to infinitive and gerund “Say You Will” by Tokyo Square Say you will, say you will be mine I just keep missing you tonight I feel so unsure, I feel so alone I just don't dare to open my eyes Into deep, going in too deep I can't get you out of my mind Baby no matter just how hard I try I don't want to be alone tonight Won't you be my guilding light Lead the way to be by your side Won't you be my star tonight I need more than a neon light Say you will… 13 Another song can be used for gerund, to infinitive and bare infinitive is “Proud Of You” - Fiona Fung Love in your eyes Sitting silent by my side Going on holding hands Walking through the nights Hold me up hold me tight Lift me up to touch the sky Teaching me to love with heart Helping me open my mind I can fly I'm proud that I can fly To give the best of mine Till the end of the time Believe me I can fly I'm proud that I can fly To give the best of mine The heaven in the sky Stars in the sky Wishing once upon a time Give me love make me smile Till the end of life Hold me up hold me tight Lift me up to touch the sky Teaching me to love with heart Helping me open my mind I can fly I'm proud that I can fly To give the best of mine Till the end of the time Believe me I can fly 14 I'm proud that I can fly To give the best of me The heaven in the sky Can't you believe that you light up my way No matter how that ease my path I'll never lose my faith See my fly I'm proud to fly of high Show you the best of mine Till the end of the time Believe me I can fly I'm singing in the sky Show you the best of mine The heaven in the sky Nothing can stop me Spread my wings So wide 3.5. Passive voice Communicative task Teacher can ask student to do peer work. Student A speaks out a sentence. Student B listens and changes it into passive voice if possible. After 5 sentences, they will change the role. Eg: Student A: Thomas Eve Edison invented the bulb. Student B: The bulb was invented by Thomas Eve Edison. Student A: Lisa is sitting at the table. Student B: no passive 3.6. Comparison Game: Teacher forms class into 4 groups and conduct a “general knowledge quiz”, using comparison. Students listen and decide true or false. The quickest with the most correct answers is the winner. Eg: 1. The pacific is larger than the Atlantic. T (63,750,000/ 31,830,000 sq miles) 2. The river Nile is the longest river in the world. T (4000 miles) 15 Cue Text Cue Text 3. The Amazon is longer than the Mekong. T (3,900 / 2,600 miles) 4. The Trường Sơn is the highest mountain in Vietnam. F (Hoàng Liên Sơn) 5. Everest is the highest mount in the world. T (29,002 feet) 6. Sahara is the smallest desert in the world. F (the largest) 7. Angel water fall (Venezuela) is as high as Cam Ly water fall. F(Angel is the highest water fall in the world with 979 m) 8. Greenland island is bigger than Madagascar. T 9. Mercury is nearer the sun than the earth is. T 10. The blue whale is smaller than the dolphin. F( the blue whale is the biggest animal on the earth.) 3.7. Reported speech Game: Teacher divides students into groups of three and chooses one leader (student A) for each group. Only the leader of each group looks at the hand-out given to her/him. Student A: (whispers to student C): What do you like? Student B: (asks student C): What did student A want to know/ ask you/ say? Student C: (responds aloud): He/ She asked me what I like. 4. More resources from the Internet Teacher can create some board games, using the templates below. These templates can be used for practice and reproduction of any grammar points. a. Talking Football How to play 1. Prepare a list of Main Texts to be practiced. For example, if the simple past tense is in focus, teacher chooses a number of verbs as Main Text. (For example, read, eat, go, dance, visit etc.) then type the Main Text in the spaces. Teacher also prepares a set of Cue Text. Cue Texts combine with main texts to build sentences. For example in practising simple past tense the Main Texts could be the verbs and the Time adverbials the Cue Text. For example Verb = watched, Time adverbial = Yesterday. The student should combine both words in a sentence as such: Yesterday I watched a football match. 2. Students are expected to combine the Main Texts with the Cue Texts at the side to make sentences. The two teams or players would toss a coin to decide who starts first, or do Rocks, Paper and Scissors. The winner starts combining a cue word and a key word to make sentences. For example Last summer + visit => Last summer I visited my grandma. 3. The other team or player must listen carefully to spot the mistakes. If there is any mistake, that player gets one yellow card and move back one step. Then the other team takes it in turn to combine the cue words and the key words to make sentences. Both teams (players) keep advancing until they meet on their way in the same space. When they meet they do ROCKS, PAPER and SCISSORS. The team that loses the ROCKS, PAPER & SCISSORS duel gets one red card and goes back to restart from his or her end. The winning side continues until they meet again. Every time they meet, Main Main Text Text 16 they do rocks, paper, and scissors to see who wins. The team that gets to the other team’s goal first wins. When players get to the centre, it is a FREE space so they can create any sentence they like. 17 Main Text Cue Text Cue Text Main Text Main Text Main Text Main Text Cue Text FreeFre e Title Here Cue Text Cue Text Cue Text Main Text Cue Text Main Text Cue Text Main Text Cue Text Cue Text Main Text Main Text Main Text Cue Text Cue Text Main Text 18 b. Q and A Board Game Question? 33. Answer. 34. 35. Start again 32. 31. 30. 36. Finish 29. Go back 5 spaces 25. 26. 27. 23. 22. 28. Go forward 3 spaces 24 21. Start again 17. 18. 19. 16. 15. 14. 20. 13 Go forward 3 spaces 10. 11. 12. 9. Start again 8. 7. 6. 5. Go back 3 spaces 1. Start 2. 3. 4. 19
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