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Techniques for eliciting new vocabulary at upper – secondary school CONTENTS A. REASONS FOR CHOOSING THE RESEARCH B. AIMS OF THE RESEARCH C. SCOPE, OBJECT AND RESEARCHING METHOD D. MAIN CONTENT I. GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1. What is Eliciting? 2. Eliciting Lexis (Vocabulary) 3. Principles and advantages II. TECHNIQUES FOR ELICITING NEW VOCABULARY 1. Techniques for eliciting new vocabulary. 2. Demonstration. 3. Some suggestions for the teachers. E. RESULT AFTER APPLYING THE RESEARCH IN TEACHING F. CONCLUSION G. REFERENCE BOOKS 1 Techniques for eliciting new vocabulary at upper – secondary school A. REASONS FOR CHOOSING THE RESEARCH Vocabulary is one of the important aspects of language to teach. There are many quotations from famous linguistics to support this idea. For example, "Without grammar very little can be conveyed; without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed." (Wilkins 1972:111) and "When students travel, they don't carry grammar books, they carry dictionaries." (Krashen in Lewis 1993: iii). Moreover, errors of vocabulary are potentially more misleading than those of grammar. Sometimes the context of the utterance would lead a listener to question their first interpretation, but a chance response such as "Yes, my father has an affair in that village'(confusing the Swedish affar meaning 'shop' with the English 'affair' which can mean 'extra-marital relationship') gives the listener the wrong impression. From above, you will see the importance of vocabulary. Hence teachers should know how to present vocabulary effectively in order to help student develop vocabulary. B. AIMS OF THE RESEARCH - To introducing eliciting new vocabulary and showing its benefits. - To show ways of eliciting new vocabulary. - To show how new vocabulary can be presented for various classroom activities. - To draw out what the learners know through their relationship to the words they understand. C. SCOPE, OBJECT AND RESEARCHING METHOD - Scope : Researching in the process of teaching English at Le Hoan upper-secondary school. - Object: This subject is concerned with ways of organizing activities in the class. - Researching method: Reading reference books , discussing with other teachers, applying in teaching, observing and drawing out experiences. D. CONTENT I. GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1. What is Eliciting? Synonyms: searching, drawing out, discovering, realizing, understanding. Eliciting is a technique used by the teacher during the lesson that involves the language learner in the process of discovering and understanding language. Anything in the lesson can be elicited: vocabulary, grammar, experiences, and ideas. The objective of eliciting is to allow the learners the chance to participate in the learning process by letting them express their acquired or intuitive knowledge, and through critical thinking which will enhance their language abilities by adding to what they already know. To understand what effective eliciting is, it will help to know what it is not. Eliciting is not asking, “What does ________mean?” It is not a “you should know this” question similar to that used by a teacher in an academic setting. It is not a vague, trivia-based question in which the learner must provide 2 Techniques for eliciting new vocabulary at upper – secondary school some definition similar to a word game or puzzle. Eliciting draws out what the learners know through their relationship to the words they understand. But further than that, it allows the teacher to see what the learner knows, and so permits the teacher to add to their knowledge. The key to successful eliciting lies in an artful interaction between the teacher and the learner. There is no special time for eliciting to occur during the lesson. It can be used as needed—during any of the engage, study and activate sections of the lesson. 2. Eliciting Lexis (Vocabulary) Let’s say that there is a text about the common cold. Let’s say you want to present this reading to your learners. How can you prepare them to wholly understand the text? By engaging them through eliciting, you can start talking about health in general and then more personally and specifically: For example, the teacher elicits: What kinds of health problems are common in most people? What kinds of common health problems do you suffer from? Within text, you will need to determine the key lexis or vocabulary for this reading. You will decide on the key lexis based on your knowledge of your learners and what you feel is essential for them to understand, before they read, in order to get the gist of the text. Some of the words they may already know, some may be new to them. Whatever the case, you will try to get your learners to use these words in order to show they understand them. Otherwise, you can use them yourself interactively through discussion of the theme, by asking questions and using the key words in context. For the example of a text on the common cold, you could start by having your learners will start out by providing you with some of the basic, general language about common illnesses---words and phrases they know already. You can write these words and phrases on the board as they bring them up, organizing them into parts of speech: nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc. Later, you’ll be able to erase all but the key words located in your text. For example, let’s assume that most of your learners know the words “a cold” and “a virus”, but you aren’t sure they know the verb, “to spread”. The teacher elicits: A virus can spread colds. What other illnesses can be spread? Assuming the learners already know the meaning of colds and/or virus, they can deduce the meaning of SPREAD from context. If the teacher adds a gesture to show SPREAD (I.e., using your hands to sweep across the room is a spreading gesture), then the learners will most certainly access meaning. The teacher shouldn’t assume, however, that the learners have understood the word(s) by the assent of the learners (by their saying only the word, or merely nodding their heads). The teacher will then want to CONCEPT CHECK meaning by asking something like, “What other illness can be spread?” The teacher should expect to hear something like, “the flu can be spread, or malaria, 3 Techniques for eliciting new vocabulary at upper – secondary school or AIDS.” By doing this, the teacher ensures that everyone has understood its precise meaning (see Concept Checking). Eliciting is often used to pre-teach key vocabulary (words that will appear in the study and activate stages of the lesson). In doing this stage interactively, with the teacher and the learners collaborating and negotiating language (teacher draws out, learners discover, and together you arrive at understanding), the learners will more likely hold onto the meaning of these words not only in the lesson, but beyond it. Effective eliciting of lexis can enhance the learners’ overall understanding of a lesson, especially in reading and listening lessons. Effective ways to elicit: Ask, “What is another way to say ______?” For example: What is another way to say that you are very, very hungry? (I'm starving) Provide a simple definition. For example: It is something that we drink hot coffee and tea out of. (a mug) Act it out. For example: Wipe your brow and pretend to fall. Then ask, “What did I do?” (I fainted) Ask, “What is the opposite of ______?” For example: What is the opposite of tall? (short) Use a visual. For example: Shoe a picture of two people who look the same and ask, “What do we call two people who look the same?” (identical twins). 3. Principles and advantages Eliciting is based on several premises: Collectively, students have a great deal of knowledge, both of the language and of the real world. This knowledge needs to be activated and used constructively. The teaching of new knowledge is often based on what the learners already know. Questioning assists in self-discovery, which makes information more memorable. Eliciting helps to develop a learner-centred classroom and a stimulating environment, while making learning memorable by linking new and old information. Eliciting is not limited to language and global knowledge. The teacher can elicit ideas, feelings, meaning, situations, associations and memories. For the teacher, eliciting is a powerful diagnostic tool, providing key information about what the learners know or don't know, and therefore a starting point for lesson planning. Eliciting also encourages teachers to be flexible and to move on rather than dwell on information which is already known. II. TECHNIQUES FOR ELICITING NEW VOCABULARY What’s your favorite way to elicit new vocabulary? Do you mime, or draw, or do something else? Please share in the comments below! 1. Techniques for eliciting new vocabulary. 1.1. Opposites 4 Techniques for eliciting new vocabulary at upper – secondary school This works for certain adjectives, verbs, nouns, adverbs, determiners etc, e.g. “What’s the opposite of dark/ stop/ an idiot/ suddenly/ few?” 1.2. Ranks, sequences and sliding scales We can extend the idea of giving opposites to include things that could be written with two opposites as steps on a scale, e.g. (words you are trying to elicit in brackets) “What comes next? Cold, hot, (boiling)/ Dislike, like, (love)” This can be extended to anything else that could be seen to have some kind of sequence such as “pupil, undergraduate, (graduate)”, “tap, hit, (bash)” or “today, yesterday, (the day before yesterday)”. 1.3. Similarities This is another good way of eliciting “the day before yesterday”- “If tomorrow is followed by the day after tomorrow, what is yesterday preceded by?” This works for word forms (e.g. “the noun of ‘act’ is made the same way as the noun for ‘connect’ that we learnt last week”) and similarities inspelling and pronunciation (e.g. “It has the same spelling/pronunciation/grammatical form as ‘bought’”). 1.4. Definitions This is the technique that new teachers tend to use most often and most naturally. This is perhaps because we often use it when we really can’t remember a word or name in our own language and are hoping the person we are speaking to can come up with it or at least understand what we are talking about anyway, as in “I need one of those, what do you call them? Things to get your car off the ground so you can change a tyre” “A jack?” “Yes, that’s it.” You can make the definitions you use to elicit in class easier to come up with and understand by writing all the definitions you are going to use on your lesson plan, taking them straight out of a dictionary or the teacher’s book, writing the definition up on the board as well as or instead of saying it, or only using words they should know at that level (perhaps from a vocabulary list) when writing definitions. You might also want to have a plan B definition in case the first one is not understood or is confused with another word. 1.5. Synonyms If you are lucky, you won’t need to go through a whole long definition if there is a word that means approximately the same (it doesn’t always matter if it is not an exact synonym as long as it produces the word you want, but make sure that it doesn’t reinforce their wrong idea that two different words are the same). You can increase your chances of using this method successfully and often by getting the students used to doing exercises on synonyms in class and for homework. If there are several synonyms, you might want to check with a teacher with more knowledge of students with that L1 which of them is more likely to be familiar because it is similar to their own language, is more often studied in the school system, is part of a well known product name etc. 1.6. When we talked about it before 5 Techniques for eliciting new vocabulary at upper – secondary school Another method we use naturally in our normal speech we can exploit in the classroom is “Who was that actor we were talking about yesterday? You remember, when we were talking about films that we hate. That’s right, Beat Takeshi. Well, he…” with variations like “Remember the word everyone had problems with in the test?” and “What was the word for the kind of shop that we did a roleplay about last week?” 1.7. Memory The idea of getting them to remember things to elicit words can be extended to, for example, seeing if they can remember a word from a dialogue they have just been doing, e.g. “What was the third product he asked for in the shop?” 1.8. Gaps This could mean a word with letters blanked out, a typical sentences with the word or expression you are trying to elicit blanked out, or a combination of the two, e.g. “He let the c_t out of the bag”. This can be used with spoken elicitation as well as written elicitation by humming the missing part of the sentence. 1.9. Stress clues By humming the rhythm of the word or drawing its stress pattern on the board, you can help students work out which of several similar words you are trying to elicit from them. 1.10. Multiple choice You can really go for it with giving clues by telling students options they can choose from, although if you have chosen this method because students actually have no idea of the answer this makes it more of a presentation than an elicitation. 1.11. Brainstorm Although not many people think of it this way, brainstorming is basically a form of eliciting but without the words you want them to come up with necessarily being defined. A brainstorming stage can then be moved onto a more traditional elicitation by showing them which of words they have already given you is most similar to the one you want. 1.12. Spider diagrams/ Mind maps Brainstorming can also be done in a more organised manner with words being added to categories and subcategories like the branches and twigs of a tree. You can then point to the place where the word you want to elicit would be if it was on that mind map, using other elicitation methods to help them work out which of the possibilities that could be there you are thinking of. 1.13. Common mistakes Another technique that teachers don’t often think of combining with elicitation is talking about errors, but in fact giving hints about what mistakes students make with a word or expression can be a great hint about which one you are thinking of (e.g. “People often confuse it with ‘butter’, but it has flour 6 Techniques for eliciting new vocabulary at upper – secondary school and is put on something that you deep fry” for “batter”, or “Spanish speakers often think it means pregnant, but it actually means ashamed” for “embarrassed”). This technique can also lead onto talking about subjects like false friends, pronunciation mistakes, negative and positive connotations (“People who call someone fat should probably use this word that we learnt last term instead”) and formality mistakes (“Although some people write ‘hello’ at the beginning of a business email, the word we want starts with ‘d’ and is…?”) 1.14. Visuals Just like your students when they get totally stuck communicating in English during their travels, you might find that a quick sketch is the only way to get them to understand and produce the word or expression that you mean. In you think a picture might be the best way of explaining something, you also have the option of using a flashcard or a printout from the internet (try searching in the images option of Google). 1.15. Multimedia If you have internet access in the classroom, there is also the option to just search for an image as the topic comes up (as long as the students can’t see the search terms you are using, as this means there is nothing left to elicit!) Using video takes a lot more preparation, but you could use a very short clip to elicit the name of something you can see on a video, or even something that is going to appear but hasn’t yet. 2. Demonstration Visuals: Examples 1: A car A4 card or blackboard Examples 2: Athletic Magazine picture Mime Example: cold T: mimes feeling cold T. asks, “How do I feel?” Example: (to) fly a kite T. mimes flying a kite T. asks, “What am I doing?” Realia Example: bananas (count.), rice (uncount.) T. brings real bananas and rice into class. T. asks, “What’s this?” Example: open (adj), closed (adj) 7 Techniques for eliciting new vocabulary at upper – secondary school T. opens and closes the door. T. says, “Tell me about the door: It’s…what?” Situation/ Explaination Example 1: honest T. explains, “I don’t tell lies. I don’t cheat in the exam. I tell the truth.” T. asks, “What am I? tell me the word in Vietnamese.” Good. Now listen to it in English “Honest”. Example 2: Furniture: T. lists examples of furniture: “Table, chairs, beds – these are all…. (Furniture)…. Give me another example of….(Furniture). Example 3: (to) complain. T. says, “The bed is too hard. I don’t like it. The room is too small. It’s no good, etc.” T. asks, “What am I doing?” Synonym/ Antonym Example 1: Intelligent T. asks, “What’s another word for clever?” Example 2: stupid T. asks, “What’s the opposite of clever?” Translation Example: (to) forget T. asks, “How do you say “quên” in English?” 2. Some suggestions for the teachers Each teacher has ways to teach new words. Whatever teaching style are used the suggestions which may help teachers are followings: 2.1. Teacher has to prepare the way to show meaning. For example, if the words which the teacher is going to present are concrete, the teacher should prepare picture of those words to present. 2.2. Teacher has to ask students to tell the meaning first in order to elicit meaning from students before they offer the meaning. 2.3. Teacher has to think about how to show the meaning of a word with related words such as synonyms, antonyms etc. Moreover, the example words should be the word that students are already known. 2.4. Teacher has to think about how to check students' understanding. 2.5. Teacher has to think about the context in real situation where the words might be used in order to relate learning language to real life and also promotes high motivation. 2.6. Teacher should review the vocabulary via a game or activity in order to motivate them in learning. 2.7. Teacher should give them some assignment by telling them to read, watch films, listen to songs etc and note the useful word. It is a good way to study vocabulary by themselves. 8 Techniques for eliciting new vocabulary at upper – secondary school 2.8. Teacher should have a section of board for vocabulary items that come up while teacher are teaching. Use different colours for the word / the phonetics /the part of speech. 2.9. It is a good idea to teach vocabulary with associated meanings together. 2.10. Teacher should encourage students to use a good dictionary. 2.11. Whenever the student asks the word that has never heard of the word, you tell the student that you will check and get back to them later. 2.12. Teacher should enough examples sentences to make sure that the students understand what the teacher taught and give extra example if the students are unsure and encourage them to write the word in an example sentence. E. APPLYING THE RESEARCH IN TEACHING Unit 9: Deserts Lesson 1: Reading Class: 12A1, 12A6, 12A11. I. Objectives By the end of the lesson Ss will be able to: - understand the passage about deserts and scan for specific information. - use vocabulary related to the topic of the lesson through exercises. II. Teaching aids - Textbook, chalk, posters, pictures. III. Procedures TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES STUDENTS’ ACTIVITIES I. WARM – UP ( 5 min.) - Ask Ss to look at pictures in their Discuss and answer the questions textbooks and discuss the questions below 9 Techniques for eliciting new vocabulary at upper – secondary school 1. What is the name of the animal? 2. Where does it live? 3. How are deserts? 4. Name some deserts (Sahara, Simpson, Gobbon...) * Introduce the title of the lesson U9: DESERTS Today we're going to read about Simpson desert. II. PRESENTATION ( 35 min.) 1. Pre- reading: Guess the meaning of some words  Vocabulary: - to comprise : - enormous (adj) - mystery (n) - corridor (n): - stable (a) - shrubland (n) elicits the new words: a. (to) comprise: T. uses synonym to elicit the verb. (to) comprise: “(to) include or (to) consist of” T. asks “What does it mean in Vietnamese?” b. enormous (a): T. uses synonym to elicit the word. “enormous”: extremely large. T. asks “What does it mean in Vietnamese?” c. mystery (n): T. uses explaination to elicit the word. “Mystery” means something secret. T. asks Ss, “What does it mean in Vietnamese? d. corridor (n) T. uses visual aids (a picture of a corridor) Answers' suggestion: 1. It is a camel 2. It lives in deserts 3. They are dry, hot. Dunes are around deserts. 4. They are: Sahara, Simpson, Sonoran (Bac My), King Canyon (Uc) - Ss pay attention and answer the questions. II. PRESENTATION - Ss pay attention and take notes - Ss answer: bao gồm. - Ss answer: Khổng lồ, to lớn. - Ss answer: Điều bí ẩn 10 Techniques for eliciting new vocabulary at upper – secondary school - T. asks “What can you see in the picture?” - T says “Yes, it is. So Corridor means “hành lang” e. stable (a): T. uses explaination to elicit the word. Stable means “not likely to move or change” - T. asks “What does it means in Vietnamese?” f. shrub-land: - T. uses translation. shrub-land: vùng đất có nhiều cây bụi. * Rub out remember 2. While reading : Task1: Give the Vietnamese equivalents to the following words or phrases - Ask students to read through the text once to find out some new words, guess the main idea. - Ask Ss to read the passage silently, stop when they meet a new word or a phrase and find words or phrases in the passage which have the following meaning given in the Task 1. - Give feedback. - Ss answer: Một hành lang nhà - Ss answer: ổn định , cố định. Task 1: Checking the vocabulary : Matching (a poster) A (English) - 'aerial servey - dune - sloping - hummock Australian Aborigine - crest - spinifex - stretch -Royal Geographical Society of Australia - steep B (Vietnamese) - cuéc kh¶o s¸t trªn kh«ng - ®ôn c¸t. cån c¸t - dèc thoai tho¶i - gß , ®èng - thæ d©n óc - ®Ønh , nãc - cá l¸ nhän - kÐo dµi, c¨ng ra - Héi ®Þa lÝ hoµng gia Úc - dèc ®øng - cã c¸t 11 Techniques for eliciting new vocabulary at upper – secondary school - Sandy Task 2: Decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F): Task 2: - Guide Ss the way to do Task 2 and ask them to work in pairs - Get Ss to check theirs answers and explain their choices. - T calls on some Ss to read theirs answers and explain their choices. 1. F (There are five: the Great Victoria, the Gibbon, Great Sandy, Tanami and Simpson) 2. F (Simpson is the last part of Australia. 3. T (Until Madigan made an aerial survey in 1929, he ...) 4. F (Colson and Australia Aborigine) 5. F (In the western ...., there is a network of short dunes, and in the northern part ..., the dunes are ...) - T comments and gives feedbacks. 6. T (In the northern .... dry salt Task 3: Answer the following lakes ....) questions Task 3: - Ask Ss to read the passage silently 1. There are Great Victoria Deserts, and answer the questions individually Gibbon, Great Sandy, Tanami - Ask Ss to work in pairs to compare deserts and Simpson Deserts. their answers. 2. It lies between Lake Eyre in the - Call on some Ss to write the answers south, the Macdonnel Ranges in the on the board. north, the Mulligan and the - Check with the class. Diamantia Rivers in the east and the - Give feedback. Macumba and Finke Rivers in the west. 3. In 1845 4. He was the president of the South Autralian Branch of the Royal Geographical Society of Australia. 5. They took camels across the desert. 6. In the west part, they are short, mostly less than 10 meters high, and in the northern part, they are parallel 12 Techniques for eliciting new vocabulary at upper – secondary school 3. Post reading: * Read this story and answer the questions. - Ask Ss to work in pairs - Go around for help - Call on some pairs to present - Give comments . III. CONSOLIDATION & HOMEWORK ( 5') - Learn vocabulary - Prepare section B - SPEAKING and are up to 20 meters high. 7.Two. They are hummock grasses and spinifex. - Ss read the story silently, individually and answer the following questions. 1. I think it is funny 2. dessert (mãn tr¸ng miÖng) and desert (sa m¹c) - Do exercise at class UNIT 11: NATIONAL PARKS Lesson 3 – LISTENING Class: 10A2 I. Objectives: 1. Knowlege: After the lesson students are able to understand the information about Cuc Phuong National Park 2. Skills: Help the students to practise listening main ideas and getting the information about Cuc Phuong National Park to do the multiple choice practice. 3. Attitudes: Motivate students, help them take interests in the subject and be aware of the conservation. II. Preparation: 1. Teacher’s preparation: Textbook, pictures, chalks, lesson-plan, handout.... 2. Students’preparation: Textbooks, pens, pencils..... III. Procedure: 1. Check the previuos lesson. Lead to the new lesson Teacher’s activities Students’ activities WARM UP (4’) - Ask Ss to work in groups close your - Work in groups to answer: book and answer question: Suggested answers: Write down some names of National Cat Ba, Cat Tien, Cuc Phuong , U Parks In Viet Nam? Minh, …… - Give comments and present new lesson: Unit 11 (cont) – C. Listening 2. The new lesson Teacher’s activities Students’ activities 13 Techniques for eliciting new vocabulary at upper – secondary school I – BEFORE YOU LISTEN (10’) Introduce the new lesson: You are going to listen to a passage about Cuc Phuong National Park. -Ask Ss to work in pairs to discuss the following questions: 1. Where is Cuc Phuong National Park? 2. What is the area of the rainforest in Cuc Phuong National Park? 3. When is the best time to visit Cuc Phuong National Park? 4. What can be seen in Cuc Phuong National Park? - Go around helping if necessary. - Call on some to answer out loud. - Give comments and correct answers. - Elicit some of the words given in the book or those taken from the listening passage. threatened and endangered species: ethnic minority: flora (n) fauna (n) defeat (v) - Work in pairs to answer questions: Suggested answers: 1. It is south west of Ha Noi. 2. It contains over 200 square kilometers of rainforest. 3. It is during the dry season, from October to April, when rainy season is over. 4. Butterflies, caves, mountains and 1000-year old trees can be seen there. - Give the answers. - Listen and write down. a. Threatened and endangered species T. uses explaination to elicit the phrase. “Tigers, lions, elephants, etc. are threatened and endangered species.” T. asks “What does the phrase mean?” - Ss answer: Các loài bị đe dọa và nguy hiểm b. ethnic minority (np): - T uses visual aids and asks “who are - Ss answer: Người dân tộc thiểu they in Vietnamese?” số. 14 Techniques for eliciting new vocabulary at upper – secondary school - --- - Students say: hệ động vật. T says “so the phrase means dân tộc thiểu số” c. flora (n) T. uses translation Flora (n): hệ thực vật d. Fauna (n) T. uses antonym The meaning of fauna is opposite to the meaning of flora. - Ss say: đánh bại e. defeat (v) T. uses situation to elicit the verb. - Listen to T. Exmple 1: Vietnam football team defeated Thailand - Read after T. football team with the score 3 – 0 in 1998. - Read aloud in front of the class. example 2: We defeated French Colony and American invaders in the past. T. asks students “so what do you think about the meaning of the verb ‘defeat’?” - Read the new words and words in the textbook once. - Ask Ss to read in chorus after T. - Call on some Ss to read out loud. - Correct Ss’ mistakes of pronunciation. II – WHILE YOU LISTEN (20’) Task 1 (8’): Filling missing information - Work individually to read the and verifying the guesses. sentences. Giving instruction: you are going to listen to a passage to fill in the missing information and check your answers to the quiz. * Give handout - Before Ss listen and do the task, instruct them to use some strategies: + Read the sentences carefully: 15 Techniques for eliciting new vocabulary at upper – secondary school * Try to work out what they are going to hear. * Anticipate the grammatical form as well as vocabulary. + Fill in each blank as they listen. The - Listen to the tape. information will be given in the same - Check the answers with a friend. order as the sentences although it may be expressed differently. - Play/read the tape three times. - Let them have some minutes to check their answers with a friend, If a lot of Ss have the same wrong answer, play the tape again for Ss to check the answers. - Call on some Ss to give answers. - Some Ss give answers: 1. A 2. B 3. D 4. A 5. B - Give comments and feedbacks. Task 2: (12’) Chossing the best answer for question 1, 2, 4 and decide T or F for question 3, 5 Giving instruction: You listen to the tape again to choose the best answer for each question. * Give handout - Instruct Ss to use some strategies to do the task: + Ask Ss to read the questions to understand them and underline key words. + Listen to the tape and pay attention to the key words. + Choose the answers. - Read the questions to understand them and underline key words: 1. how many provinces, belong to 2. how far, Hanoi to Cuc Phuong 3. what, come to Cuc Phuong for 4. when, Nguyen Hue defeat the Qing invader 5. Muong ethnic minority, live mainly on. - Listen to the tape to check their answers. - Play/read the tape once for Ss to check their answers. - Ask Ss to work in pairs to compare their - Work in pairs to compare their answers. answers. - Calling on some Ss to explain their - Explain their answers answers. Answer: 1. B 2. C 3. F 16 Techniques for eliciting new vocabulary at upper – secondary school - Give comments and feedbacks. 4. D 5. F III – AFTER YOU LISTEN (7’) * Elicit some pictures - Ask Ss to work individually to write - Work individually to write about about the special features of Cuc Phuong the special features of Cuc Phuong National Park in five minutes. National Park in five minutes. - After 5 minutes T tells them to stop - Read his/her sentences out loud. writing and ask them the number of Other Ss listen and comment. sentences they can write. The Ss with the biggest number of sentences will read his/her sentences out loud. Other Ss listen and comment. 3. Consolidation: (2’) - Summarize the main points of the lesson: + New words that related to the lesson. + Some main, special features of Cuc Phuong National Park. 4. Homework: (2’) - Learn by heart all the new words. - Remember Some main, special features of Cuc Phuong National Park.. - Prepare for new lesson. * Handout Task 1 (8’): Filling missing information and verifying the guesses. 1. Cuc Phuong National Park was officially opened in _____. A. 1960 B. 1970 C. 1980 D. 1990 2. Cuc Phuong is located _____ Hanoi. A. 150 km South West of B. 160 km South West of C. 170 km South West of D. 180 km South West of 3. In 2002, nearly _____ visited Cuc Phuong. A. 400.000 visitors B. 300.000 visitors C. 200.000 visitors D. 100.000 visitors 4. There are ______ different spicies of flora and ______ spicies of fauna. A. 2,000 – 450 B. 450 – 2,000 C. 1,000 – 450 D. 2,000 – 350 5. Nguyen Hue’s army was stationed in Quen Voi before it made its ______ on Thang Long. A. accidental attack B. surprise attack C. accidental defeat D. surprise defeat Task 2: (12’) Chossing the best answer for question 1, 2, 4 and decide T or F for question 3, 5 1. How many provices does Cuc Phuong National Park belong to? A. 2 B. 3 C. 4 D. 5 17 Techniques for eliciting new vocabulary at upper – secondary school 2. How far is it from Hanoi to Cuc Phuong? A. about 140 km B. about 150 km C. about 160 km D. about 170 km 4. When did Nguyen Hue defeat the Qing invaders? A. 1786 B. 1787 C. 1788 D. 1789 3. They come to see the work being done to protect threatened and endangered species. 5. They live mainly on bee keeping and working in the factory. F. RESULT AFTER APPLYING THE RESEARCH IN TEACHING Class 12A1 12A6 10A2 Excellent-good 40% 35% 43% Average 55% 58% 53% Weak (bad) 5% 7% 4% G. CONCLUSION: The success of eliciting depends largely on the attitudes of teachers and learners to their respective roles. Ideally it promotes the notion of an exchange of information, helps to break down traditional teacher-centredness, and begins to establish a variety of interaction patterns in the classroom. It is also fundamental to the inductive approach to teaching language and to learning through tasks and self-discovery, and a simple and effective way of getting learners to produce language. 18 Techniques for eliciting new vocabulary at upper – secondary school REFERENCE BOOKS 1. Jeanne mcCarten. (2007) Teaching Vocabulary. New York : Cambridge University Press. 2. Pual Naion. (1990). Teaching and Learning Vocabulary. USA : Heinle&Henle. 3. Richard Frost. (2004). Presenting vocabulary. from http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/articles/presenting-vocabulary 4. Tricia Hedge. (2008). Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom. New York : Cambridge University Press. 5. Wallace M. (1987) Teaching Vocabulary 3rd Edition. London: Heinemann 6. Practical English Usage ( written by Michael Swan) 7. A course in language teaching - Practical and Theory (written by Penny Ur) Cambrige university press 9. English Language Teaching Methodology (edited by Hanoi university) 10. Phương pháp dạy tiếng Anh Trung học phổ thông (written by Nguyễn Hạnh Dung) 11. Practical handbook of language teaching (written by David Cross) 19
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