Vinhphuc education & training service
pham cong binh secondary school
Created by truong quang khanh
A. The aims:
- To introduce to the sts the phonetic symbols, the transcription of a
word, the sound of the word…
- To improve the sts’ phonetic, stress, and intonation.
- To help the sts do the phonetic exercises.
B. Teaching procedure:
1. The vowel sounds:
There are 20 vowels in the English language, 12 of them are pure vowels
(single vowels), and the left eights dipthongs (combination of two
- The 12 pure vowels: / I - i: /, / e - æ/, / o - o:/, / - a: /, / u- u:/, /
ә - з/.
- The 8 dipthongs: / ei - ai - oi /, / au - әu /, / iә - eә - uә /
Ex1: Classify /i:/ and /I/:
Evening, tin, easy, eat, it, jean, since, this, meat, teach, film,
interesting, tea, sea,
seen, sit, seat, minute, fifty, cheese,
chinese, free, three, be, she, pleased…
Ex 2: Classify /a:/ and / /:
Cut, cup, cart, card, done, come, mar, march, must, darn, last,
lust, heart, harm, hut, much, calm, farm…
Ex 3: Classify /u:/ and / u/:
Look, cook, book, soot, shoot, pull, pool, could, shoe, suit, stood,
stewed, to, too, wooed, wood, food, cool…
Ex 4: Classify / æ / and / e /:
Dad, dead, man, many, mad, any, at, sat, head, hand, fan, can,
land, dense, send, set, met, letter, stretch, fed, catch…
Ex 5: Classify / o: / and / o / :
Corn, cord, copy, swan, sworn, sod, soared, shot, stock, talk, spot,
sport, chalk, shock, loss, got, caught, bought…
Ex 6: Classify / з / and / ә /:
Her, teacher, heard, shirt, first, fur, stir, prefer, refer, occur,
skirt, hurt, learn, today, sir, sister, brother…
Ex 7: Classify / au / and / әu /:
Now, no, show, how, hoe, loud, load, tone, town, couch, know,
noun, known, foal, fowl, rouse, rose, stout, stoat, found, phone…
Ex 8: Classify / iә /, / eә /, / uә /:
Hear, hair, sure, tour, wear, near, fear, year, stair, cure, beard,
cheer, scared, careful, fierce, moor, shared, careless, theatre…
Notes: Tripthongs and other vowel sequences:
/ aiә /: fire, hire, tyre, buyer, wire, flyer, iron,…
/ әuә /: slower, lower, grower, sower, mower,…
/ auә /: flower, power, tower, shower, sour, flour,…
/ eiә /: greyer, player, layer, payer, prayer,…
/ oiә /: employer, destroyer, royal, loyal, annoyance,…
2. The consonants sounds:
There are 24 consonants in English, which are devided into voiceless
and voiced consonants as they are shown below:
2.1. Voiceless consonants: / p /, / f /, / /, / t /, / s /, / ∫ /, / t∫ /, / k /, /
2.2. Voiced consonants: / b /, / v /, / /, / d /, / z /, / Ʒ /, / dƷ/, / g /, /
l /, /m /, / n /, / ŋ /, / r /, / w /, / j /.
Ex 9: Classify / / and / /:
Think, thigh, though, thought, breath, breathe, bath, bathe, cloth,
clothe, clothing, clothes, threaten, although…
Ex 10: Classify / s / and / ∫ /:
She, see, sugar, seat, sound, show, sure, suit, sugary, sunny, soon,
saturn, shrink, scream, settle, surely…
Ex 11: Classify / k/ and / t∫ /:
Chess, chimney, choice, chaos, chemist, chest, chemical, chicken,
cheap, catch, chemistry, school, scholar…
Ex 12: Classify / s / and / z / :
See, seat, please, measure, mouse, pass, mass, bags, close, has,
sum, sick, tease, sues, rise, lays, eyes…
3. The consonant clusters:
3.1. / s / + / p, t, k, f, m, n, w, j /
Spy, stay, sky, smile, snow, sleep, swear, suit, speak,…
3.2. / p / + / l, r, j /:
Plough, play, proud, pray, pure, puritant,…
3.3. / t / + / r, w, j /:
Tree, try, twin, twice, tune, tunic,…
3.4. / k / + / l, r, w, j /:
Clerk, clay, crown, cry, quite, quick, cure, curious,…
3.5. / b / + / l, r ,j /:
Blind, blow, blown, brown, bring, brick, beauty, bureau,….
3.6. / g / + / l, r /:
Glass, glance, grass, grow,…
3.7. / d / + / r, w, j /:
Draw, dress, dwell, dwinkle, duty, duke,…
3.8. / f / + / l, r, j /:
Fly, flat, free, frozen, few, fuse,…
3.9. / / + / r, w /:
Throw, throat, thwart, thwack,…
3.10. / v / + / j /:
3.11. / ∫ / + / r /:
3.12. / m / + / j /:
3.13. / n / + / j /:
3.14. / spr /: spread, spray, …
3.15. / str /: strand, stray, string,…
3.16. / skr /: scratch…
3.17. / spj /: spure, spurious, …
3.18. / spl /: splendid, split,…
3.19. / stj /: stupid, student,…
3.20. / skj /: skew, skewer,…
3.21. / skw /: square, squash,…
4. The homonyms:
choose chews choove site
cite sight cord
meat meet mete mite
rays raise rows
right wright sauce source
A. The aims:
- To help the sts know the way to mark stresses, and pronounce words
- To emphasize the important of stresses.
- To show the rules to mark stresses.
- To provide the sts with exercises on stresses and intonation.
Stress is the degree of the loudness or prominence with which a sound
ort a word is pronounced.
1. In phrases or sentences:
1.1. Primary stress: (/) The strongest and loudest stress of all.
1.2. Secondary stress: () The second loudest stress.
1.3. Tertiary stress: (\) weaker than secondary stress.
1.4. Weakstress: (٧) Zero stress, the weakest degree of loudness.
2. In words:
2.1 Primary stress: (/) The loudest one.
2.2 Secondary stress: (\) The weaker one.
III. The marking rules for word- stress:
1. For disyllables words:
1.1. Usually on the first syllables: mother, ready, colour, palace,
1.2. Usually on the root syllables with words having suffixes or
prefixes: become, react, foretell, unpleasant, disorder, peaceful,
(But: foresight, forecast, unkeep)
1.3. Usually on the sound of “ate”, “ize”, “ise”, “fy”: dictate, surprise,
2. For words with more than 2 syllables:
2.1. Usually on the 3rd syllables from the end: family, cinema, regular,
singular, international, satisfactory,…
2.2. Usually on the 3rd last syllables with words ending in “ate”, “ize”,
“ise”, “fy”, “logy’, “logist”, “cracy”, “ility”: recognize,
demonstrade, qualify, psychology, biologist, biology, democracy,
2.3. Usually on the 2nd syllables from the end with words ending in
“ian”, “ience”, “ient”, “al”, “ial”, “ual”, “eous”, “ious”, “iar”,
“tion”, “sion’: physician, experience, expedient, parental,
essential, habitual, courageous, dilicious, familiar,…
(Except for: Television)
2.4. Usually on the suffixes “ese”, “ee’, “eer”, “ier”, “ette”, “ade”,
“esque”: Portugese, refugee, employee, engineer, volunteer,
adequade, picturesque, cigarette,…
3. Others rules:
3.1. Words having more than one function:
3.2. Usually on the syllables that either have long vowel sound, dipthong
sound, or end in more than one consonant : affect, obtain,…
IV. Rules for phrase-stress:
1. Compound nouns: (/ \) farm-house, fire-engine, cowboy, blackbird,..
But: (\ /): pass-by, sun-set, ice-cream, steak-dinner, glass-window,
silk-dress, nylon-stock, cotton-flower,…
2. Compound adjectives: ( \ /) light-blue, absent-minded, blue-eyed,
But: (/ \) sun-burnt, sun-lit, sea-sick, sea-faring,…
3. Adjective-nouns: ( \ /) a sad song, a beautiful picture, a fresh egg,
an interesting lesson,...
4. Present participle-noun: ( \ /) a travelling circus, a singing student,
an amusing story, a sleeping child,…
5. Gerund – noun: (/ \) a dancing teacher, an eating apple, a looking
glass, a stepping-stone, a magnifying glass, a washing
6. Qualifier-adjective: ( /)very tired, rather old, pretty bad, quite
important, too weak,…
7. Verb- adverb: ( /) come here, speak clearly, try carefully, read
aloud, sit down, ….
8. Verb-adverbial particle: ( \ /) put on, look up, put off, come
through, take off, call on, hand over, go over,….
9. Verb-adverbial particle-noun: (\ /) put on the coat, turn on the
10. Verb-noun-adverbial particle: (\ /) put the coat on, turn the
11. Verb-preposition: ( / )look at, speak to, wait, for, look up,…
A. The aims:
- To help the sts know the function of words.
- To show the sts the way to build up vocabulary, especially related
- To provide the sts with vocabulary exercises.
- To enrich the sts’ vocabulary.
B. Teaching procedure:
1. Definition: To call out the names of things, objects, actions, or
1.1. Subject (S): Gender of a verb (A teacher usually works at school)
1.2. Object (O): Follow verbs or prepositions (He buys some cakes
for his birthday party)
1.3. Complement (C): Make the coplementation (She was a famous
1.4. Compounds (Co): Summer holiday, birthday cakes,…
1.5. Possessive cases (Pc): the boss’s car, his teacher’s remarks,…
1.6. Noun phrases (Np): Free words combination or compounds
2. Plural forms:
2.1. Adding “ s” to almost count-nouns:
an umbrella umbrellas
3.2. Adding “ es” to the count-nouns that end in “ s, ss, sh, ch, o, x ”
with /iz/ sound:
Adding “ ies” to the count-nouns that end in “y” with its preceding
Adding “ ves” to the count-nouns that end in “f, fe”:
Collective noun: crew, family, group, team,…(either singular or
plural form, either singular or plural verb)
Always plural form-nouns:
pliers (k×m) binoculars
shears (kÐo c¾t cá) arms
3.8. Unchange the names of creatures: deer, sheep,carf, cod, pike,
plaice, salmon, squid, trout, turbot (these nouns can take either
singular or plural verbs)
3.9. Plural form but singular verb-noun: news, mumps (bÖnh sng
quai hµm), billiards, bowls
4.2. Abstract nouns:
4.4. Notes: Particular sense of uncount nouns:
4.4.1. a help: A great help to + O (He gave a great help to our
4.4.2. a relief: A relief to + V (That gave me a relief to continue my
4.4.3. a knowledge: A good/ bad knowledge of + N (Pete has got a
good knowledge of history)
4.4.4. a dislike / dread / hatred / horror / love of + …(He had a
great love for funny stories)
4.4.5. a mercy / pity / shame / wonder + that…(It’s a pity that I
4.4.6. a fear/ fears; a hope/ hopes; a suspicion/ suspicions: We
have a suspicion / suspicions that no one will agree to help.
5. Compound nouns:
5.1. Noun-noun: Hanoi-capital; halldoor; hitch-hiker; kitchen-table;
traffic light; winter clothes; petrol tank;…
5.2. Noun-gerund: fruit-picking; weight-lifting; lorry-driving; birdwatching; coal-mining; surf-riding;…
5.3. Gerund-noun: waiting-list; landing card; driving board; dining
room; driving licence; swimming pool;…
5.4. Free combination:
- shop window; church bell; picture frame; garden gate; college
library; gear level;…
- city street; corner shop; coutry lane; …
- summer holiday; spring flowers; Sunday paper; dawn chorus;
November fog; …
- steel door; stone wall; silk shirt;…
- coffee cup; golf club; chess board; football ground;…
- fish-farm; gold-mine; oil-rig; …
- football match; beauty contest; pop music;…
6.1. er/ or/ ist/ ant/ ee/…: teacher, visitor, terrorist, vegetarian,
6.2. ent/ ce/ ion/ ism/ ance/ age/…: government, difference, action,
capitalism, assistance, marriage,…
6.3. hood/ dom/ ship/ ness/ iety/…: neighbourhood, freedom,
friendship, sadness, variety,..
6.4. ility/ ing/ al/ our/ y/…: possibility, fishing, refusal, arrival,
II. Adjectives (adj):
1. Kinds (Classification):
1.1. Main kinds:
a. Demonstrative: this, that, those, these.
b. Distributive: each, every, either, neither.
c. Quantitative: some, any, no, little, few, many, much, numbers.
d. Interrogative: which, what, whose.
e. Possessive: my, your, his, her, our, its, their
f. Quality: clever, dry, fat, golden, heavy,…
a. present: ING-form boring, interesting, exciting,…(for
b. past: ED-form broken, tired, bored,…(for human-beings)
c. Notes: Present participles are different from gerund
e.g He was fishing./ His hobby is fishing.
2. Functions (Position):
2.1. Noun-subordinator: a new book, a kind lady, a large room,…
2.2. Verb-complementation: Follow the certain verbs as be,
become, seem appear, feel, get, grow (become), keep, look
(appear), make, smell, sound, taste, turn,…
But some verbs can take either an adjective or an adverb:
Eg: - He looks calm (=He himself is calm)
- He looks calmly at the angry crowd (= He shows no attitude
to the angry crowd)
- He turned pale (= He became pale)
- He turned angrily to the man behind (=He was angry with the
- The soup tasted horrible (= The soup was not delicious itself)
- They tasted the soup suspiciously (= They thought there was
something wrong with the soup)
3. Comparison forms:
3.1. Positive degree:
as + adjs + as
Eg: - She is as tall as my wife.
- Peter was as hard-working as I was (me).
3.2. Comparative degree:
3.2.1. Monosyllable-adjectives: adjs-ER + than
Eg: - Lan is shorter than Na
- She was better at English than we were (us)
3.2.2. Multisyllable-adjectives: more + adjs + than
Eg: - She was more hard-working than us.
- We are more intelligent than him.
3.3. Superlative degree:
3.3.1. Monosyllable-adjectives: the adjs-EST
Eg: - Nam is the best in our class.
- She was the kindest lady I’ve ever met.
3.3.2. Multisyllable-adjectives: the most + adjs
Eg: - Sharol was the most intelligent in my group.
- She is the most hard-working girl I’ve ever known.
Notes: For adjs ending in “er”, “y”, “ly”, or the irregular cases:
many / much
the oldest/ eldest
3.4. Parallel: - “The…..the”:The older she gets, the wiser she become.
- And: It’s getting darker and darker.
She has now more and more free time.
- Gerunds/ infinitives: Riding a horse is not as easy as
riding a bike.
It’s nicer/ better/ more fun to go
with someone than to go alone
3.5. Like/ alike: Tom is very like Bill.
Tom and Bill are alike.
3.6. Like/ as: He swims like a fish.
You look like a ghost.
Do as I told you.
3.7. Like + N/ as + N: He worked like a slave (He worked very hard/
He wasn’t a slave).
He worked as a slave (He was a slave in fact).
3.8. The adjectives: The rich, the poor,…
4.1. That – clause: It is disappointed that he failed the exam.
It’s better that someone should tell him.
4.2. find/ think/ believe + that it + adjs + to + V:
I found that it is impossible to start now.
She thought that it was silly to ask him to stay.
4.3. It be + adjs + (of O) + infinitives:
a. Character: brave, careless, corwardly (nhót nh¸t),
cruel, generous, good, nice (=kind), mean, rude, selfish,
b. Sense: clever, foolish, idiotic (ngu), intelligent, sensible
(nh¹y bÐn), silly, stupid,…
4.4. Pronoun + be + adjs + noun + infinitives:
Using the above adjectives and: astonishing, curious, ridiculou
s(lè bÞch), unreasonable, funny(=strange), odd (lËp dÞ),
pointless, useful, useless,…
- That’s the amazing idea to show.
- It was an unreasonable result to accept.
4.5. It’ s + adjs + infinitives: advisable, inadvisable, better, best,
desirable, essential, good, important, necessary, unnecessary,
vital (tÊt yÕu),…
4.6. It be + adjs + (for O) + infinitves: convenient, dangerous,
difficult, easy, hard, possible, important, safe, unsafe,…
4.7. S + be + adjs + infinitives :
- Angry, delighted, dismayed, glad, happy, pleased, relieved,
sorry, sad,…( S + be + glad/ happy/ sorry/ sad + to say/ tell/
inform; Others adjs + to find/ learn/ hear/ see/…)
- Able, unable, apt, inclined, liable, prone, prepared, quick,
reluctant, slow, ready, willing, unwilling.
4.8. Special cases:
Due: (time) >The race is due to start in 5 minutes.
Due to: a result of >The accident was due to his carelessness.
Owing to: because of >owing to his carelessness, we had an
Certain/ sure + to V= opinion >He is sure to take legal action.
Certain/ sure that + (clause) = opinion >I am certain that the price
will be higher.
Certain/ sure/ confident of + N/G: He was sure of entering the
Bound + to V= obligation > We were bound to leave.
Afraid/ ashamed of + N/G: She was afraid of being left alone.
Sorry for/ about + N/G: Tom felt sorry for making so many
Afraid/ ashamed/ sorry + to V: I’m sorry to tell you that bad news.
Anxious about = worried He was anxious about going in the dark
Anxious for O to V = wish He was anxious for you to go in the dark
Anxious that + (clause) We are anxious that we couldn’t come.
Fortunate/ lucky that +(clause) = It’s a good thing…It was lucky
that we weren’t late.
S + be fortunate/ lucky to V She was lucky to have such an
Possible/ probable/ likely + future = perhaps It’s possible that man
will live longer.
Aware/ conscious of N/G We should be aware of protecting our
Aware/ conscious + that +(clause) She was concious that she
would be late.
5.1. able/ ible/ ish/ ed/ ing/ ful/ less/…: talkable, visible, whitish,
bored, amusing, careful, hopeless,…
5.2. y/ ly/ en/ ese/ ous/ al/ ive/…: wealthy, manly, golden, chinese,
poisonous, logical, effective,…
5.3. ade/ ate/ ent/ wide/ ic/ ist/…: adequade, humanate,
dependent, worldwide, domestic, communist,…
5.4. like/ style/ type/…: childlike, Romantype, Germanstyle,…
a. an: American, Venezuelan, German, Mxican, African,…
b. ese: Chinese, Vietnamese, Portugese, Sudanese, Lebanese,…
c. i: Pakistani, Iraqui, Israeli, Yemeni, Saudi,…
d. ian: Argentinian, Australian,Brazillian, Italian,…
e. ish: English, Polish, Turkish, danish, Finnish,…
f. others: Czech, French, dutch, Swiss, Greek, Thai,…
B. Verbs (v):
1. Definition: To denote action, state, and be the most important part of
1.1. Auxiliary verbs:
1.1.1. Primary auxiliary verbs: be/ have/ do (These verbs can either be
auxiliaries or lexical verbs)
1.1.2. Modal verbs: can/ could/ may/ might/ must/ have to + base form/
will/ would/ shall/ should/ be going to + base form/ used to + base
form/ ought to + base form/…(These are sometimes functional
1.2. Lexical verbs:
1.2.1. Intensive verbs: verbs that show the state (She feels tired/ He is
1.2.2. Extensive verbs: verbs that show the affection (He gets angry/
1.2.3. Intransitive verbs: verbs that can function as verb phrases and
make sentences meaningful without any complementation.
e.g. She cried (noisily).
It rains/ is raining (hard/ heavily/ cat and dog)
1.2.4. Transitive verbs: verbs that need complementation.
a. Monotransitive verbs: verbs that followed by one object
e.g. She bought flowers.
Ann met her fiancÐ yesterday.
b. Ditransitive verbs: verbs that followed by both direct and
indirect objects. (S+V+O+O)
e.g. She bought me some sweets. (= She bought some sweets
They gave me a big cake. (=They gave a big cake to me)
c. Complex transitive verbs: follow the form “S + V + O + Co”
e.g. He made me angry.
The female film star drove him mad.
2.1. en: added to nouns or adjectives (mean make, or lead to )
e.g. danger…….to endanger
2.2. ize/ ise: added to nouns or adjectives (mean make, or develop, or
e.g. modern……to modernize
3. Sentence models:
4.1. S + Vintrans:
e.g. They laugh/ The wind is blowing.
4.2. S + Vmonotrans + O:
e.g. He did his homework/ Harlay
carried an umbrella.
4.3. S + Vin/ extensive + Cs:
e.g. He became famous/ They are nearly
4.4. S + Vintrans + A:
e.g. He went abroad/ She arrives late.
4.5. S + Vditrans + O + O:
e.g. She buys me presents/ That brings
my father success.
4.6. S + Vcomplex trans + O + C: e.g. The story made me bored/ You drive
4.7. S + Vintrans + A + A:
C. Adverbs (adv):
e.g. She went to school early/ He came
to the park in the early morning.
1. Kinds (Classification):
1.1. Adv of manner: bravely/ fastly/ happily/ quickly/ well/ hard/…
( She sings marvellously/ He worked very hard)
1.2. Adv of place: by/ down/ near/ here/ there/ up/…
(She comes there twice a week/ Here comes the
1.3. Adv of time: now/ soon/ still/ then/ today/ yet/…
(We are going to Hanoi today/ He will return
1.4. Adv of frequency: always/ often/ sometimes/ never/ once/ twice/
(We never eat dog-meat/ She once became the
1.5. Adv of sentence: certainly/ definitely/ luckily/ surely/…
( He was certainly the liar/ luckily, she passed
1.6. Adv of degree: fairly/ hardly/ rather/ quite/ too/ very/…
(He was quite handsome/ Hardly did we see
1.7. Adv of interrogative: when/ where/ why/…
(When did you go?/ Where is she now?)
1.8. Adv of relative: when/ where/ why
(He came when we were watching T.V)
2. Same form with adjectives:
Note: Adv* can either have “ly” or not, but differences in meanings.
3. Positions (Functions):
3.1. Adv of manner:
3.1.1. Follow verbs:
3.1.2. Before prepositions or follow objects in “V + pre + O”:e.g: He
looked at me carefully.
looked carefully at me.
3.1.3. Follow S:
suspiciously tasted the soup.
3.1.4. At the beginning or at the end of sentences: e.g: Carefully he
checks the suitcase.
He checks the
3.2. Adv of time:
3.2.1. At the beginning or end of sentences: afterwards/ eventually/
lately/ now/ recently/ soon/ then/ today/ tomorrow/ at once/ since
e.g: He will returns soon. Today we will learn lesson two.
3.2.2. Always at the end: before*/ early/ immediately*/ late (Adv* as
conjunctions at the beginning)
e.g: He went to the church immediately. Immediately, he went to
3.2.3. Follow verbs or “V + O”: yet/ still
e.g: He still lives in
the suburbof the city.
3.2.4. Split: just
e.g: He has just left
3.3. Adv of place:
3.3.1. At the beginning or end: away/ everywhere/ nowhere/ somewhere/
e.g: Nowhere could we find him. English is spoken everywhere.
3.3.2. Administration: here/ there
e.g: He lives here/ She hasn’t gone there.
3.4. Adv of frequency:
4.1. always/ continually/ frequently/ occasionally/ often/ once/ twice/
periodically/ repeatedly/ sometimes/ usually.
e.g: She usually walks to school.
4.2. Restricted (inversion): hardly ever/ never/ rarely/ scarely ever/
e.g: Never will she eat this kind of food.
On no account
Only in this