Skkn how to teach writing in tieng anh 12 effectively effectively

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How To Teach Writing In Tieng Anh 12 Effectively? Tên sáng kiến kinh nghiệm: HOW TO TEACH WRITING IN TIENG ANH 12 EFFECTIVELY? I. LÝ DO CHỌN ĐỀ TÀI: * Phần giảng dạy này được đưa vào chương trình Anh văn 12 từ năm học 2008-2009 * Đề tài mang tính thiết thực phần nào giúp giáo viên giảng dạy các tiết viết hiệu quả hơn, giúp học sinh rèn luyện kĩ năng đọc viết tốt hơn. II.THỰC TRẠNG TRƯỚC KHI THỰC HIỆN CÁC GIẢI PHÁP CỦA ĐỀ TÀI: 1. Thuận lợi:  Có hướng dẫn của Bộ trong “Tài liệu bồi dưỡng giáo viên” và trong sách giáo viên Tiếng Anh 12.  Được tham dự các lớp tập huấn thay sách năm 2008,2011 2. Khó khăn:  Chương trình mới chỉ mới được áp dụng trong bốn năm học.  Giáo viên cần có kiến thức nhất định về CNTT và đầu tư nhiều công sức cho việc tra cứu tài liệu, hình ảnh minh họa để soạn giảng. 3. Số liệu thống kê: III. NỘI DUNG ĐỀ TÀI: 1. Cơ sở lý luận: Đề tài liên quan đến kỹ năng viết, là một trong 4 kỹ năng không thể thiếu trong quá trình học một ngôn ngữ. 2. Nội dung, biện pháp thực hiện các giải pháp của đề tài: Trình bày những kinh nghiệm soạn và dạy WRITING trong Tiếng Anh 12 một cách có hiệu quả : - Những khó khăn và giải pháp giáo viên cần biết trong việc dạy và học tiếng anh thông qua kĩ năng Viết. - Những nguyên tắc giáo viên cần nắm vững khi dạy Writing - Một số bài tập được thiết kế cho phần Warm-up trong các tiết dạy Writing (Tiếng Anh 12) - Ví dụ về Lesson plan ở 1 tiết dạy Writing. - Ví dụ về 1 bài dạy Writing sử dụng CNTT kèm dĩa CD Written by Nguyen Thi Thanh Hong Tran Bien High School (2011-2012) 1 How To Teach Writing In Tieng Anh 12 Effectively? HOW TO TEACH WRITING IN TIENG ANH 12 EFFECTIVELY? I/ INTRODUCTION English is a main subject in senior high school being taught in three or four periods a week. Writing is one of the four skills that we have to acquire in the process of English learning .To master a language in general and English in particular we must develop all four skills – listening , speaking, reading and writing. However, how we can develop each of them successfully is a big problem for all concerned .In the process of learning a language , especially English, writing is considered as the last language skill to be acquired.It is last but not least and I find it rather difficult to do it well because writing in one’s mother tongue is difficult but writing in a foreign language is far more difficult. Besides, when teachers teach writing , they usually fall into teaching grammar structures and focus on correction. On the whole they mainly provide students with sentence structures, sets of grammar rules, then then give them a task and ask them to complete the task. As a result , the students become passive to get correct answers or to correct grammar errors. But we, English teachers , should remember that the main point of teaching writing is teaching the students how to write , not to test their writing. Today, I would like to discuss some difficulties in teaching and learning English through writing and the solutions to them and some of my experience in teaching writing in TIENG ANH 12. II/ CONTENTS : How to teach Writing in Tieng Anh 12 effectively? 1/ The problems in teaching and learning English through Writing and the solutions to them The problems: a/The problems in getting students to write in the classroom • Students don’t understand things what they will write about; • They have nothing to write because they have lack of ideas and limited vocabulary to express their opinions and they are disabled to use structures ,style or language in English standards. • They don’t have enough time to write. • Some students don’t participate in group works b/. The typical mistakes a teacher might get: • Teacher doesn’t get students to think about the topic or situation; to collect all their idea, language focus (vocabulary, grammar) before writing about it (not perfectly). • Teacher doesn’t set up a pre task; • Teacher neither gives clear instructions nor checks them • Teacher doesn’t give suitable framework or outline. • Sometimes teacher gives tasks without helpful cues. • Teacher doesn’t do a lot of assisting weaker students. c.Some writing tasks in textbook are not relevant The solutions Written by Nguyen Thi Thanh Hong Tran Bien High School (2011-2012) 2 How To Teach Writing In Tieng Anh 12 Effectively? As teachers of English, we should understand the role of the teacher in teaching writing: The teacher is a motivator, a resource and a feedback provider. Teacher motivates students, creating the right conditions for them to generate their own ideas.Teacher gets students involved in creative writing activity so that students find it easier to generate ideas. - Teacher should provide information and language where necessary.Teacher offers advice and suggestions in a constructive and tactful way. Teacher should give feedback on students’ writing tasks with special care.Teacher should respond positively and encouragingly to the content of students’ written work.Teacher chooses kind of mistake to focus on when correcting their written work. Overcorrection should be avoided. a/Things that a teacher does to improve the students’ problems and help them with free writing : • To set up a pre – task (doesn’t talk about what the students must do, instead shows them what/ how to do by giving a demonstration with suitable framework/ outline/ helpful cues); • To give clear instructions ( keep them short and simple) and check them; • To care all students, especially, do a lot of assisting weaker students; to hold classroom in effective working. • To teach Ss: When they do not understand something, they should ask their teacher, they shouldn’t stay silent. There are two kinds of writing in grade 12 : controlled writing and free writing . Controlled writing consists of gap-filling , re-ordering sentences and sentence-building. Free writing consists of letter writing, paragraph writing, report writing, giving instructions and describing chart / book / a sporting event Problem for free writing: When facing a free writing such as writing a paragraph to describe their own town or village, many students would probably find it quite difficult and make many mistakes. If so they would find the task frustrating and probably not learn very much from it. Students would probably approach the task in different way and produce a wide variety of different paragraphs. Thus the only way to correct their work would be individually, book by book, this would be very time consuming for the teachers. Therefore, Teachers should help students progress beyond very controlled writing to free writing by guiding their writing ( GUIDED WRITING) + Giving cues. + Giving a short text as a model. + Doing oral preparation for the writing. Modelling Written by Nguyen Thi Thanh Hong Tran Bien High School (2011-2012) 3 How To Teach Writing In Tieng Anh 12 Effectively? - Reading a model and noticing certain grammatical features / vocabulary / useful expressions / text organisation / style… - Putting different parts of the text onto a writing frame - Sequencing a jumbled text - Comparing and contrasting two forms of text of the same genre Some examples of oral preparation for the writing • discussing • brainstorming • observing and interpreting photos or artwork • watching video clips • using writing templates/ frames / cloze exercises • mapping • Brain writing • Using matrix b/Facilitating writing tasks:Tasks adaptation and implementation * Making tasks easier: - Breaking down tasks - Scaffolding - Lowering requirements *Making tasks more challenging/more interesting Ex: UNIT 4 ( English 12) rather difficult • Provide the format • Provide verbs to support • Put students into groups (Each group will write about one thing) UNIT 5 ( English 12) • Provide a model letter UNIT 14( English 12) • Play a game to explain WWF, WHO and the UN by using their logos in Reading lesson • Draw a table on the board • Ask students which organization they would like to work for. Then use reasons provided into correct column • - Ask and answer in pairs about their choices • - Report their choices or their partners’ choices UNIT 15( English 12) Difficult (especially the ways of writing) • Explain the chart • Provide more detailed information • Ask and answer about questions in the textbook Written by Nguyen Thi Thanh Hong Tran Bien High School (2011-2012) 4 How To Teach Writing In Tieng Anh 12 Effectively? • (Teachers need to prepare the complete set of answers for task 1) • Put all answers on the board in random and ask them to work in group to reorder the sentences to make a passage. • Comment and highlight some verbs and phrases used to describe a chart. UNIT 16( English 12) Give cues and outline c/ Teachers should master the following writing techniques Pre-writing Techniques • Using a drill • Using a listening text • Using a reading text • Using a survey • Using picture dictation While-writing Techniques Transformation - Substitution tables - Substitution boxes - Gap-fill - Questions and answers - Ordering Post-writing Techniques - Correction (Ss correct and re-draft their texts) - Sharing and comparing (Sharing when they write texts based on different topics; comparing when they write texts based on the same topics). - Exhibition (Ss share, compare, admire, pick a winner, copy others…) 2/ Teacher’s careful lesson plan, especially Warm-up( in PREWRITING) Warm- up : warm-up is necessary to excite the atmosphere of the class and to increase students’ motivation in the lesson. In this case, I can use matching games , pictures, questions, songs… These are some examples about “ warm-up” in my teaching Writing ( Tieng Anh 12): UNIT 1 –ENGLISH 12 : HOME LIFE D. WRITING : Warm -up - T gives Ss the question: “Make as many sensible sentences as you can by joining the elements in the following pattern table” My parents ( not ) let come home late My mother ( not ) be allowed do the housework Written by Nguyen Thi Thanh Hong Tran Bien High School (2011-2012) 5 How To Teach Writing In Tieng Anh 12 Effectively? My father ( not ) have to use the motorbike ( not ) permit talk on the phone with friends - T has some Ss read their sentences in front of class Suggested answers : My parents don’t let me come home late. I have to do the housework….  Teacher leads to the new lesson : In each family there are some rules that we must follow . Let’s WRITE about our family rules UNIT 3 – ENGLISH 12 :WAYS OF SOCIALISING D.WRITING : Warm -up - T shows the picture of two people talking to each other and presents the situation: + You meet your friend in the street. You have talked to each other in a while. And now you want to go home What will you say ? + But do you think you have said goodbye too suddently ? So before you say” Goodbye” what should you say? ( Ss can give out the Vietnamese saying ) - T : Today we’ll practise writing about ways to tell someone goodbye and ways to apologize. UNIT 4 – ENGLISH 12 :SCHOOL EDUCATION SYSTEM D. WRITING : Warm -up T has Ss work in pairs and make dialogues using the following questions: 1. When does a child start school in Vietnam? 2. How many levels of education are there in the school system of Vietnam? 3. How long does it take a student to complete each level? 4.How many grades are there in each level? 5.How many terms are there in a school year?...  Teacher leads to the new lesson UNIT 5 – ENGLISH 12 :HIGHER EDUCATION D. WRITING : Warm –up Game: Hangman - T has students guess a word phrase corresponding to I 3 dashes. __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 - T divides the class into 2 teams - T tells Ss from each team to take turns to guess the individual letter of the word. - If the letter appears in the word, the teacher writes it in the right position. - Each time they get wrongly, a section is added to a simple picture of a hanging man. If this picture is complete, the man “hangs” and the students have lost the game. - Ss guess the individual letter of the word. R e 1 2 q u 3 4 e s 5 6 t 7 l e t t e r 8 9 10 11 12 13 Written by Nguyen Thi Thanh Hong Tran Bien High School (2011-2012) 6 How To Teach Writing In Tieng Anh 12 Effectively? 7 2 9 1 Key: The words to guess: Request letter  Teacher leads to the new lesson : Writing a request letter UNIT 6 –ENGLISH 12 : FUTURE JOB D. WRITING : Warm –up T leads to the new lesson: Write a letter of job application from an advertisment UNIT 8 – ENGLISH 12 :LIFE IN THE FUTURE D. WRITING : Warm -up - Free talk about the life in the future. Questions: In the future 1. In which environment would you like to live? 2. What language would you like to study? 3. Where would you like to go picnic? 4. With what kind of people would you like to live? Introduction: The world in which you would like to live in the year 2020 UNIT 10 – ENGLISH 12 :ENDANGERED SPECIES D. WRITING : Warm -up Written by Nguyen Thi Thanh Hong Tran Bien High School (2011-2012) 7 How To Teach Writing In Tieng Anh 12 Effectively? T leads to the new lesson: “ Write a paragraph about measures for protecting endangered animals” UNIT 11 – ENGLISH 12 :BOOKS D. WRITING : Warm -up T leads to the new lesson Written by Nguyen Thi Thanh Hong Tran Bien High School (2011-2012) 8 How To Teach Writing In Tieng Anh 12 Effectively? UNIT 12 – ENGLISH 12 : WATER SPORTS D. WRITING: Warm -up  Teacher leads to the new lesson UNIT 13 – ENGLISH 12 :THE 22nd SEA GAMES D. WRITING :Warm up Clustering: Mapping out ideas T leads to the new lesson : Describing a football match Written by Nguyen Thi Thanh Hong Tran Bien High School (2011-2012) 9 How To Teach Writing In Tieng Anh 12 Effectively? UNIT 14 – ENGLISH 12 :INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS D. WRITING :Warm up Match: WWF (World Wildlife Fund) WHO (World Health Organization) and the UN ( United Nations) with these pictures Teacher leads to the new lesson :Writing a short description of an international organization UNIT 15 – ENGLISH 12 :WOMEN IN SOCIETY D. WRITING : Warm up: Answer the following questions: 1, How many children does your mother have? 2, Who does more housework in your family? 3, How many hours does she spend on her housework per week?  Teacher leads to the new lesson: Describing a chart illustrating the average hours of housework per week done by married women in comparison with married men. Written by Nguyen Thi Thanh Hong Tran Bien High School (2011-2012) 10 How To Teach Writing In Tieng Anh 12 Effectively? UNIT 16 – ENGLISH 12 :THE ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS D. WRITING :Warm up: Name the pictures below  Teacher leads to the new lesson: “Write a letter to a pen pal recommending a significant place you are familiar with” *In this section, I would like to demonstrate an example of a lesson plan ( Unit 16 – Tieng Anh 12 : Writing) in which I apply the techniques above: D. WRITING I. Objectives: 1. Educational aim: By the end of the lesson , Students will be able to know how to write a letter of recommendation 2. Knowledge: - General knowledge: Students learn how to write about the places they are familiar with - Language: Words related to the topic 3. Skills: - Filling in each blank with the missing sentences - Writing a letter of recommendation II. Method: Integrated, mainly communicative III. Teaching aids: letters of recommendation , posters Written by Nguyen Thi Thanh Hong Tran Bien High School (2011-2012) 11 How To Teach Writing In Tieng Anh 12 Effectively? IV.Procedure Time Teacher’s activities Pre-writing: (13mn) 5ms Warm-up To draw the students’attention, the teacher shows them some pictures and asks them name the pictures. Students’activities Students work in groups, discussing and writing the answers on the cardboards as soon as possible Suggested answer : 1- Halong Bay 2- Trang Tien bridge 3- Da lat 4- Thien Mu pagoda 5- Van Mieu 6- Nha trang 7- Hung Kings temple 8- Tra Co beach 9- Vung tau 8ms - T asks Ss to work in groups and write the answers on the cardboards as soon as possible ( The quickest group with the correct answer will be the winner). - T calls others to give remarks then give corrective feedback if necessary. Teacher leads to the new lesson Task1: Complete the letter of recommendation with the missing sentences in the box. Teaching vocabulary : - T teaches some new words and phrases which appear in Task 1 so that Ss can understand the lesson more clearly 1.‘islet (n) = small island Ss listen, answer the teacher’s 2.‘grotto (n) = small cave questions, read the new words 3. i’deal (adj.)for sth = perfect, and copy down most suitable 4. ho’spitable (adj.) to/toward sb = friendly and kind to visitors T lets students read some new words first in chorus and then read individually Written by Nguyen Thi Thanh Hong Tran Bien High School (2011-2012) 12 Rationale Motivation is done with pictures which will make Ss more involved and interested in the lesson. This also helps increase teacher-student and studentstudent interaction Encourage Ss to express their knowledge of beautiful places in Vietnam -Explaining new words helps students understand the text easily -Help Ss pronounce the words correctly How To Teach Writing In Tieng Anh 12 Effectively? - T asks Ss to read through task 1 first and work in groups to do it -T goes around to offer help if necessary. - T asks Ss to read aloud the answers then call others to give remarks. 1. I would like to recommend a well-known place in Vietnam to you. 2. It is about 170km from Hanoi. 3. The beach is an ideal place for swimmers. 4. People here are very friendly and hospitable. 5. I’m sure you will have a wonderful time here in Ha Long Bay. Some Ss read aloud the In this stage ,T answers then others give has to check s’ remarks reading comprehension to prepare them for the following writing task - Ss listen and take notes While-writing: (20 minutes) Task 2 Write a letter of recommendation. Ss read the requirement for - T has students read the task 2 quickly requirement for task 2 quickly David ,your pen pal ,is going to spend his summer vacation in one of the ASEAN countries. You want him to visit Vietnam .Write a letter to him recommending a significant place you are familiar with. -Make Ss more aware of what involved in writing task T shows Ss the picture of Nha Trang and asks them to write a letter to David recommending Nha Trang, one of the best resort towns in Vietnam Written by Nguyen Thi Thanh Hong Tran Bien High School (2011-2012) 13 How To Teach Writing In Tieng Anh 12 Effectively? 4ms T gives Ss some useful expressions and vocabularies that can be used in Ss listen to the teacher and the Writing. take notes + I am very happy to hear that ........... + On hearing that you are going to + verb, I’d like............... + is located/ situated in/ on ........ + Caves, grottoes, mountain, hill, island, islet, spectacular, wonderful, attractive, beautiful, ideal, ......... + friendly, warm, hospitable, gentle, polite, charming + speciality/ special food. Shrimp, crab,........ 6ms Ss work in groups and outline: Date: May 3rd 2012 Salutation: Dear David, Body: - location: Nha Trang - natural features: Rivers, -T gives the form of a recommendation letter Outline +Date +Salutation +Body mountains, sea with white sand .location beaches .natural features - entertainment: Resorts, .places to visit Vinpearl land, swimming .food - place to visit: Islands such as Hon Tam, Hon dau, Dao Yen… .people - food: Fresh specialities: Squid, ........ lobster, crabs, tunny… +Closing - people: Not cold but friendly +Signature - T asks Ss to work in groups to and hospitable Closing: My mom joins me in outline. sending very best wishes to you -T goes round and offers help if all. necessary I’m looking forward to hearing Giving cues helps Ss do the following writing task easily Reading and writing can be done in groups. Group work plays an important role.This is a good chance for groupmates to share ideas.It also sets up a supportive learning atmosphere - Practise listening, speaking and writing skills from you soon Signature: Yours sincerely, 10ms After finishing the outline,Ss work individually, writing their own letters. T reminds Ss of the tenses used in the writing, walks about and gives help when necessary -T asks Ss to exchange their drafts and comment on them Written by Nguyen Thi Thanh Hong Tran Bien High School (2011-2012) Ss work individually, writing their own letters. Ss revise drafts and edit their writing, refering to comments -Increase student from peers -student Suggested answer: May 3rd 2012 Dear David, It seems that such a long time since we last met each other. 14 interaction How To Teach Writing In Tieng Anh 12 Effectively? I am glad that you are going to spend your summer vacation in Vietnam, a country with many beautiful natural sights. I’d like to recommend NhaTrang to you , which is one of the best resort towns in Vietnam. It has rivers, mountains ,and the sea with sand beaches that are the best and interesting for swimmers. You can go on a boat trip to the islands such as Hon Tam, Hon Dau, Dao Yen… and feel indulged in the splendor of the nature Besides, every year there is a great celebration at Ponagar Tower, an interesting place to visit, which attracts many people to come here to worship. Nha Trang is also famous for sea food. If you come here, you can eat fresh specialities such as squid, lobster,crab, tunny… People here are very friendly and hospitable. I hope that you’ll enjoy your holidays in NhaTrang and have unforgettable memories about Vietnam I’m looking forward to seeing you soon. Yours sincerely, Nguyen Anh Post-writing (12 ms) 10ms 2ms - T asks some students read their - Ss listen to their friends’ writings aloud and the class give writings and give comments comments - T listens and corrects if necessary - Practise listening, speaking and writing skills -Encourage Ss to talk about what they have Homework: - T asks Ss to do the writing task in -Ss listen to the teacher and written their notebooks write down homework -T asks Ss to prepare the next lesson: Language focus Written by Nguyen Thi Thanh Hong Tran Bien High School (2011-2012) 15 How To Teach Writing In Tieng Anh 12 Effectively? *Nowadays, many schools are provided with computers and projectors, so it’s very easy for teachers to explain their lessons with the help of computer and projector. For me, the presentation of a computer teaching plan lets students pay more attention to the lesson and they will feel more interested in the lesson . These are my slides to teach Writing (UNIT 16 – ENGLISH 12) with the help of computer and projector(CD included) Written by Nguyen Thi Thanh Hong Tran Bien High School (2011-2012) 16 How To Teach Writing In Tieng Anh 12 Effectively? Written by Nguyen Thi Thanh Hong Tran Bien High School (2011-2012) 17 How To Teach Writing In Tieng Anh 12 Effectively? Written by Nguyen Thi Thanh Hong Tran Bien High School (2011-2012) 18 How To Teach Writing In Tieng Anh 12 Effectively? III/ CONCLUSION During the time of researching and applying the techniques above, I have realized that they are very useful for developing the students’ writing skill if we use them suitably and flexibly, such as at the right levels, at the right stages of teaching, kinds of suitable language and so on. Successful lessons depend on the teacher’s knowing and using a variety of teaching methods which are appropriate to the students at different levels. We should always identify our students’ problems and try to include in our lessons different types of activities so that we can help them overcome their problems and give them more opportunities to practice, experiment and explore.Little by little our students are becoming more confident of themselves through pair work and group work. They have real chances to develop their English and feel more interested in it. Although I have made a lot of effort to carry out the work, I myself feel that I cannot have more creation, give out more new and interesting techniques and can’t help having mistakes. I’d like you to give frank comments and help me to have more interesting things about this subject. Many thanks. IV. TÀI LIỆU THAM KHẢO: - “Tài liệu bồi dưỡng giáo viên thực hiện CT sách GK lớp 12 THPT” của Bộ GD & ĐT - Tập huấn thay sách - Giới thiệu giáo án Tiếng anh 12 (Vũ Thị Lợi chủ biên)-NXB Hà nội - Thiết kế bài giảng tiếng Anh của Trần Thị Ái Thanh- Hồ Thị Tân Hòa Trang.- NXB Hà Nội - Sources from the internet Người thực hiện Nguyễn Thị Thanh Hồng Written by Nguyen Thi Thanh Hong Tran Bien High School (2011-2012) 19
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