Skkn how to help weak students to write an essay effectively in english grade 11

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SỞ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO ĐỒNG NAI TRƯỜNG THPT NGUYỄN HỮU CẢNH Mã số: ................................ Title: HOW TO HELP WEAK STUDENTS TO WRITE AN ESSAY EFFECTIVELY IN ENGLISH GRADE 11 SÁNG KIẾN KINH PART A. NGHIỆM REASONS FOR CHOOSING THE RESEARCH HOW TO HELP WEAK STUDENTS TO English in grade 11 consists of reading, speaking, listening, writing and WRITE ANskillESSAY EFFECTIVELY IN language focus. Writing contains many different types such as writing letters, ENGLISH GRADE 11 an essay and so on. describing information from a chart, writing biography, writing When writing an essay with the given topic, our students are nervous because almost of them are weak and their vocabulary, grammar, structures or language knowledge and writing techniques are limited. They don’t know how to begin, make an outline, provide evidence to support or develop the point. Therefore, they have many difficulties in writing. In order that theNgười students longerNGUYỄN fear and hate writing an essay, have thựcno hiện: THỊ THƠM some techniques for writing andnghiên they feel Lĩnh vực cứu:easier to write, I, teacher of English at - Quảnand lý direct giáo dục  help them identify clearer high school, explain in a clear way to teach, - Phương học bộ at môn: aims for writing and develop writingpháp skilldạy effectively highEnglish school.  In this assignment, I only focus on techniques that help me and other English teachers to teach and our students to learn how to write an essay effectively. The Có đính Các sản phẩm hiện trong bảnweak in SKKN above reasons leadkèm: me to choose thekhông topicthề “How to help students to write an  Mô hình Phần mềm  Phim ảnh  Hiện vật khác essay effectively in English grade 11” Năm học: 2011-2012 How to help weak students to write an essay effectively in English grade 11 School year 2011 – 2012 SƠ LƯỢC LÝ LỊCH KHOA HỌC I. THÔNG TIN CHUNG VỀ CÁ NHÂN 1. Họ và tên: NGUYỄN THỊ THƠM 2. Ngày tháng năm sinh: 12- 09 -1981 3. Nam, nữ: Nữ 4. Địa chỉ: 962, tổ 29, khu phố 8, phường Long Bình - Biên Hòa - Đồng Nai 5. Điện thoại: 061.3834289 (CQ)/ (NR); ĐTDĐ: 0984705649 6. E-mail: nguyenthithomav@yahoo.com.vn 7. Chức vụ: Giáo viên 8. Đơn vị công tác: Trường THPT Nguyễn Hữu Cảnh II. TRÌNH ĐỘ ĐÀO TẠO - Học vị cao nhất: Đại học - Năm nhận bằng: 2003 - Chuyên ngành đào tạo: Anh Văn III. KINH NGHIỆM KHOA HỌC - Lĩnh vực chuyên môn có kinh nghiệm: Giảng dạy - Số năm có kinh nghiệm: 7 - Các sáng kiến kinh nghiệm đã có trong 5 năm gần đây: 2 How to help weak students to write an essay effectively in English grade 11 School year 2011 – 2012 Title: HOW TO HELP WEAK STUDENTS TO WRITE AN ESSAY EFFECTIVELY IN ENGLISH GRADE 11 PART A. REASONS FOR CHOOSING THE RESEARCH English in grade 11 consists of reading, speaking, listening, writing and language focus. Writing skill contains many different types such as writing letters, describing information from a chart, writing biography, writing an essay and so on. When writing an essay with the given topic, our students are nervous because almost of them are weak and their vocabulary, grammar, structures or language knowledge and writing techniques are limited. They don’t know how to begin, make an outline, provide evidence to support or develop the point. Therefore, they have many difficulties in writing. In order that the students no longer fear and hate writing an essay, have some techniques for writing and they feel easier to write, I, teacher of English at high school, explain in a clear and direct way to teach, help them identify clearer aims for writing and develop writing skill effectively at high school. In this assignment, I only focus on techniques that help me and other English teachers to teach and our students to learn how to write an essay effectively. The above reasons lead me to choose the topic “How to help weak students to write an essay effectively in English grade 11” 3 How to help weak students to write an essay effectively in English grade 11 School year 2011 – 2012 PART B. REAL SITUATION  Advantageous conditions Most of students and their parents comprehend the importance of learning English language at high school. Some students are very interested in learning English. Furthermore English is one of the subjects, which are compulsory in the final examination at high schools. This will promote students to spend much time learning and practicing English.  Difficulties Some students are not very interested in learning English; do not concentrate on the lessons, especially in writing lesson. The first reason is that most of them are lack of basic knowledge, lack of language knowledge as such grammar, vocabulary and structures. The other important reason is that they do not have writing techniques. They don’t know how to begin, make an outline, provide evidence to support or develop the point. Therefore, they have many difficulties in writing. The students’ above difficulties make teachers lack time to apply different activities in teaching so as to motivate students’ activity and interest. PART C. WHAT I HAVE CARRIED OUT TO HELP WEAK STUDENTS IN WRITING In writing skill of English grade 11, there are available activities designed for teachers to teach students at high school. However, most of my students are average and weak at learning English, especially at writing an essay with the given topic. In order that students are well-motivated and have some basic techniques in writing an essay in English grade 11, some necessary ways I carry out in Writing to help students to write an essay effectively. 4 How to help weak students to write an essay effectively in English grade 11 School year 2011 – 2012 To make my students know how to write an essay with the topic given in textbook effectively. I adapt textbook to fit students’ low level by using many activities in Writing. If we don’t design activities in writing skill, our students will have many difficulties in writing an essay and they will waste their time preparing ideas. Especially, textbook adaptation should be applied flexibly in each particular class situation. Here are some activities I use in teaching writing so that our students can write an essay effectively such as: 1. At the pre-writing stage. To prepare students for writing an essay effectively, I have some activities applied: - In each writing lesson, I tell students the aim of writing and deliver one focused topic based on textbook by writing the thesis statement of the topic on the board. This step makes sure that every student knows what they are writing about. One line of the thesis statement written on board reminds students that they should focus on this point but not others or can’t go off the topic. Therefore, the writing is good. - I give them more new structures and vocabulary. This activity helps students to have some words, phrases and structures for writing. - I give students a model essay. From the model essay, I get students to read carefully, analyze it by answering a series of questions and identify the task related to the topic. Giving sample writing and some ideas for some topics can enable students to base on to write effectively and remember the way to express language in writing. From the model essay, I guide students to identify a thesis statement or introduction, a topic sentence for each paragraph, supporting details for each topic statement, a conclusion, the evidence for the meaning. 5 How to help weak students to write an essay effectively in English grade 11 School year 2011 – 2012 2. At the while-writing - Making the detailed outline One of the most important activities which help students to write an essay effectively is making an outline under teacher’s control, organization and resource. An outline of an essay can be very helpful because it helps make their essay more organized. A careful plan will help their body paragraphs stay focused on the ideas in their thesis statement and it saves time for students. Preparing an outline can take time, but when they are finished, they will be able to write the rough draft of their essay more quickly than if they didn’t have an outline.  I ask students to work in groups or in pairs to give the detailed outline. This step encourages students to interact with each other by giving and getting information about the thesis statement. This is the best way to collect ideas from students under my control so that the students can’t go off the topic and reduce the stress in the classroom.  I call the leader of each group to present their opinions on the thesis statement; I take note on the board in an outline form. When I take note on the board, the whole class can keep up with the flow of ideas. Besides, students can avoid mispronunciation from the group leaders in speaking. Strong, average and weak students can base on the outline and develop the essay. It is necessary that before writing, I get students to pay attention to clarity by giving transition words, to punctuation and spelling. I remind students to write all the sentences begin with capital letters, punctuation marks such as periods at the end of each sentence. Furthermore, I explain to students that an essay is a combination of paragraphs. It will be easier to start writing with a paragraph. 6 How to help weak students to write an essay effectively in English grade 11 School year 2011 – 2012 - Writing In this step, I ask them to follow the sample writing, base on some cues to write on demand. 3. At the Post-writing - After they have finished their writing, I make students find out mistakes and get the whole class to correct them. If they can’t give correct answers, I give suggested answers. - If possible, I get students to present their writing in speaking individually, in pairs or in groups. PART D. SOLVE THE PROBLEM In this part, I give the practice in adapting materials in some units to make writing an essay easier and more suitable for students’ low level at high school. I have designed some units of the 11th form textbook such as unit 1, unit 8, unit 12 and unit 13. Unit 1: FRIENDSHIP D – WRIRING Aim: By the end of the lesson, Ss will be able to write about a friend, real or imaginary, using the words and expressions that they have learned in previous lessons. I. WARM UP: Expending sentence I write the word “RFIDEN” on the blackboard then I ask students to reorder and expand it by adding at the beginning or the end of what is already written to make a meaningful sentence. “FRIEND” I model: “I like a friend.” Then I get some volunteers to expand the sentence in front of the whole class. I write on the blackboard. The student reads the last sentence is the winner. 7 How to help weak students to write an essay effectively in English grade 11 School year 2011 – 2012 Suggested answer: I like a friend who is friendly. I like a friend who is friendly and helpful. ………………………………………………… Then I have them guess the topic to write. I introduce the topic that they are going to write a friend, real or imaginary. II. Pre-writing: Activity 1: Comprehension questions I give sample writing and ask students to read the passage describing a person. I get students to work in groups of four to analyze the passage by answering some questions. *Sample: Of all my classmates, I like Ha the best. She is 16. She lives in Binh Son village. I met her in a school holiday to Mui Ne when we were in secondary school. She is a pretty girl with short hair. She is tall. She has an oval face. Her eyes are black and clear. She looks more beautiful in Ao Dai. Ha is honest, sincere and helpful. I learn honesty and helpfulness from her. I like her because she teaches me a lot of things. I feel safe to be with her. I hope that we will be friends forever. I give them some cues Name: What’s her name? Age: How old is she? Home address: Where does she live? Place to meet: When and where did you meet her? Character: How is she? Appearance: What does she look like? What’s she like? What you learn from her: What do you learn from her? Reason why you like her: Why do you like her? 8 How to help weak students to write an essay effectively in English grade 11 School year 2011 – 2012 When students work in groups, I go around to help them if necessary. Then I check their understanding by asking them to answer the above questions. From the sample writing, I get the whole class to recognize the ways of expressing the ideas; three parts of the essay: Introduction, Body and Conclusion; some necessary structures and the tenses. III. While- writing Activity 1: Making an outline I guide students to identify a thesis statement or introduction, a topic sentence for each paragraph, supporting details for each topic statement, a conclusion, the evidence for the meaning. Then I ask them to make an outline by completing the table below. 1. introduction 2. body - The topic sentence - name, age, sex: - appearance: - personalities: - Reason why you like her: - writer’s feelings 3. conclusion Suggested answer 1. - The topic sentence: Of all my classmates, I like Ha the best. introduction 2. body - name, age, sex: Ha - appearance: tall, short hair, oval face, black and clear eyes - personalities: honest, sincere and helpful - reason why you like her: because she teaches me a lot of 3. things and I feel safe to be with her - writer’s feelings: I hope that we will be friends forever. conclusion 9 How to help weak students to write an essay effectively in English grade 11 School year 2011 – 2012 Activity 2: Writing a description: From the above outline, I can help students to describe a friend, real or imaginary without going off the topic. Some cues: *Language: My best friend is...... She is 16. She lives in..... I met her in a school holiday to Mui Ne when we were in secondary school / We’ve studied in the same class since secondary school She is a pretty girl. She is tall... She is honest and helpful. ... I like her because she ...... For good students, they can write themselves about their friends. However, for weak students, I take some common images so that they can write in groups of four. I move around to control and give help with vocabulary. When they have finished, I collect their writing. IV. Post-writing: peer correction - I exchange their writing with another student for peer correction - I go around and collect mistakes and errors. - I collect some writings for quick feedback - I write students’ typical errors on the board and elicit self and peer correction. I provide correction only when they are not able to correct the errors. - Finally, I provide general comments on the writings After correcting mistakes, if I have the time, I add an activity called: “Listening: describing appearances and characteristics” I give each student a sheet of paper. Then I call one student to sit in front of the class. This one describes a person and the rest draw the person being described. 10 How to help weak students to write an essay effectively in English grade 11 School year 2011 – 2012 Once student has finished describing that person, he / she reveals that it is and each student exchanges his/her drawing. English 11. UNIT 8. CELEBRATIONS Part D. writing Aim: By the end of the lesson, students will be able to write some popular celebrations in Vietnam. I.WARM UP: Guessing game: I present some pictures and ask students to look at them and guess what celebration it is. 1 2 3 4 I ask: “What celebration is it?” or “What festival is this? Answers: 1.Mid – Autumn Festival 2. Teachers’ Day 3. Independence Day Day I ask them: “Have you ever described a celebration in Vietnamese?” (Yes: Tet, Teacher’s Day, Mid-Autumn Festival) -I say: “Today you are going to describe a celebration in English.” -I read the instruction and choose a subject. II. BEFORE WRITING Activity 1: Reading task 11 4. Women’s How to help weak students to write an essay effectively in English grade 11 School year 2011 – 2012 I get students to read the passage about a festival and discuss the main points included in the passage in pairs. At the same time, I tell them to write down which sentence(s) belong (s) to which main point. Sample: In Vietnam, there is a big festival after Tet Holiday. It is the mid-Autumn festival. It comes on the fifteenth day of the eighth lunar month. It’s the time when the moon looks the most beautiful so it is celebrated to admire the full moon (of the eighth lunar month). On this day, parents take their children out, carrying beautiful glowing lanterns. There are also performances at the city center where large crowds gather to watch children sing and dance. Adults sit outdoors, drinking tea and having moon cakes. People can enjoy the dragon or lion dance performed by group of boys who come to each family to dance and receive some money as rewards. I like this activity best because it’s so funny and full of joys. - Then I ask them to read in groups and find the answers * name of the festival: What festival is this? * time of the festival: When does it usually occur? * purpose /meaning of the festival: What do people celebrate it for? Why do people celebrate it? * main activities of the festival: What are some popular activities on this festival? * your feeling about the festival (like or dislike): How does the writer feel about the festival? Suggested answers: * name of the festival: Mid – Autumn Festival * time of the festival: On the fifteenth day of the eighth lunar month * purpose /meaning of the festival: Welcome the brightest full moon of the year. * main activities of the festival: - Children carry beautiful glowing lanterns, admire the full moon, sing and dance. 12 How to help weak students to write an essay effectively in English grade 11 School year 2011 – 2012 - Enjoy dragon or lion dance, have moon cakes * your feeling about the festival (like or dislike): Like it because it’s so funny and full of joys. III. WHILE-WRITING Activity 1: Making the detailed outline. I divide the class into three groups to make an outline about some popular festivals in Vietnam. Festivals in Independence Day Women’s Day Teacher’s Day Vietnam Time Purpose Main activities Feeding/ Attitude After collecting ideas from students under my control, I call the leader of each group to present their opinions on the thesis statement; I take note on the board in an outline form. I give the immediate feedback and mark at the same time, which would encourage students. Suggested answer Festivals in Vietnam Time Purpose Independence Day On the 2nd Women’s Day Teacher’s Day day of On the 20th of On the twentieth day September October - Celebrate the day -Show love and -show respect and 13 of November How to help weak students to write an essay effectively in English grade 11 School year 2011 – 2012 Main when President Ho Chi Minh read out the Declaration of Independence -commemorate the heroic Vietnamese struggle for liberation and independence -organize a series of activities seminars, exhibitions respect for love to teachers. grandmothers, mothers and sisters - Have a large -organize traditional poster meal and showings. film Give activities, cards games, , dances and plays in gifts and the recognition of the best wishes role of teachers. -schools have meetings for teachers and talks about Teachers’ Day - students flowers Feeding/ It’s very Attitude Everybody give and beautiful wishes important. These are days -enjoy it very much is proud of country. very of good fun and (friends gather and feelings visit teachers, have a and memories great time) Activity 2: Writing about some popular celebrations in Vietnam. From the outline, I get students to describe the festival they have chosen. I go around to observe and offer help with vocabulary and structures. The first two groups finishing will give their writing on the board. *Useful language: -In Vietnam, there is a big festival after Tet Holiday. It is... -It lasts .../ is on ... -The festival has been celebrated since... It aims is to .../ It is for... -On that day, people.... 14 How to help weak students to write an essay effectively in English grade 11 School year 2011 – 2012 -I am always eager to welcome the festival.../I don’t like the festival because... IV.POST- WRITING -The first 2 finishing groups give their writing on the board -I give corrections and comments. -I give some suggestions. -Students study the description to report. I call on some groups to present their writing. A leader tells about a festival they have chosen to write in front of the whole class. I remind others to listen to and ask them to put some questions for that group or I ask some other students to answer some questions to check their understanding or concentration. Unit 12: THE ASIAN GAMES part D. Writing Aims: By the end of the lesson, students will be able to describe the preparations for the coming Asian Games. I.WARM UP I ask students to close their book. Then I write seven words with jumbled letters on the board and tell them to work in groups in order to reorder to make correct words. Liudb, deagrpu, dneiw, quiep, vtiserade, criutre, oldh After they have finished, I give the answers for them to check: Build, Upgrade, Widen, Equip, Advertise, Recruit, Hold I lead in the lesson by asking: “What are these words related to?” and then I say: “we are going to describe the preparations for the Games” II.PRE - WRITING : Activity 1: Pre- teaching Vocabulary: I ask Ss to work in pairs to match a word in A with a line in B to find out the meaning of the new words 1. To upgrade (v) a. to advertise sth in order to make it popular 2. To promote (v) b. to find new people to join an organization 15 How to help weak students to write an essay effectively in English grade 11 School year 2011 – 2012 3. To recruit (v) c. to change something so that it is of a higher standard Key: 1-c 2- a 3- b Checking vocabulary: I tell them to give Vietnamese equivalents This activity helps students to have some words, phrases and structures related to the topic of the lesson. Activity 2: Matching activity I have them work in pairs to match the verbs in column A with the noun phrases in column B. A 1.build 2. upgrade 3.widen 4.equip 5.advertise 6.recruit B a. the training areas b. one more National Stadium c. people to serve the Games d. the National Sports Centers e. hotels with modern facilities f. a competition to choose an official song 7.hold g. sports – places – dates and time Before doing the task, I get them to guess the meaning of the verbs, then I explain their meaning. I let them work in pairs to combine. At the same time, I go around to help if necessary. After they finish, I check in front of the whole class. Suggested answers: 1 –b Build one more National Stadium 2- d Upgrade the National Sports Centers 3- a Widen the training areas 4-e Equip hotels with modern facilities 5-g Advertise sports – places – dates and time 6-c Recruit people to serve the Games 7-f Hold a competition to choose an official song Activity 3: Questions and answers 16 How to help weak students to write an essay effectively in English grade 11 School year 2011 – 2012 I get them to open their book and I give a situation that suppose Vietnam is going to hold the Asian Games. What will we have to do to prepare for the Games? I give students a series of questions. The students answer the questions in full sentences. Before answering, I make them look at some cues in the book (page 143) Questions Answers 1. What will you (your company) do first? 2. Why will we have to upgrade the National Sports Centres and stadiums? 3. What about the training areas and the roads? 4. What will we have to equip the hotels and guests houses with? What for? 5. Which forms of mass media will be used to advertise all the preparations for the Games? 6. Who will you recruit to serve the games? 7. What competition will we have to hold? Some suggested: 1. We’ll have to build one more National Stadium and some sports buildings and car parks. 2. Because they are not in good condition. 3. We will widen the training areas the roads and the sports buildings. 4. We will have to equip the hotels and guests houses with modern facilities to welcome foreign athletes and visitors. 5. The radio and television will be used for advertising. 6. We should recruit university teachers and students with good English. 17 How to help weak students to write an essay effectively in English grade 11 School year 2011 – 2012 7. We should hold a competition to choose an official song for welcoming Asian Games. III. WHILE-WRITING Activity 1: Making the detailed outline From the above answers, I get students to make the detailed outline: I. Introduction- Thesis Statement: Vietnam is going to hold the coming Asian Games. To meet the need of modern facilities for the Games, we will have a lot of things to do. II.Body Paragraph - build one more National Stadium and some sports buildings and car parks. - upgrade the National Sports Centres and stadiums - widen the training areas the roads and the sports buildings. - equip the hotels and guests houses with modern facilities – to welcome foreign athletes and visitors. - promote and advertise all the preparations on the radio and television - recruit university teachers and students with good English - hold a competition to choose an official song for welcoming Asian Games III. Conclusion: It is hoped that the good preparations will help our country receive good results, good regards from other countries. To organize and connect specific evidence, I ask students to use: - some connectors such as First / Firstly / First of all…, And, Then , Finally ,One more important thing is that - conjunctions such as Because, so, Moreover – Further - structures: - need to be + pp = need + V-ing - have to + inf - tenses: future and simple present I get students to pay attention to clarity by giving transition words, to punctuation and spelling, remind them to write all the sentences begin with capital letters and explain to students that an essay is a combination of paragraphs. Activity 2: Writing a composition 18 How to help weak students to write an essay effectively in English grade 11 School year 2011 – 2012 Then I ask students to write the essay basing on above cues to describe the preparations for the coming Asian Games in Vietnam. Students may begin with: To prepare for the coming Asian Games, we will have a lot of things to do. First of all, we will build one more National Stadium and ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… IV. POST-WRITING -The first 2 finishing groups give their writing on the board -I give corrections and comments. -I give some suggestions. -Ss study the description to report. In the textbook, unit 13 asks students to write about their collection, real or imaginary with some cues and there aren’t other activities. In real situation, this is very difficult for my students to write because their vocabulary grammatical structures are limited. Therefore, to help them to feel easier when writing, I have designed and given some activities from easy to difficult based on the previous skills such as reading, speaking and listening lessons. English 11, Unit 13. HOBBIES PART D. WRITING Aims: By the end of the lesson, students will be able to write about a collection. I.WARM UP: I ask Ss to close their book and work in groups to find the words going with pictures: 19 How to help weak students to write an essay effectively in English grade 11 School year 2011 – 2012 I ask: - Do people collect something as a hobby? - Can you tell me something that they often collect? 20
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