Skkn dạy kĩ năng học tập trong lớp học tiếng anh ở trường phổ thông

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SỞ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO ĐỒNG NAI Đơn vị TRƯỜNG THPT CHUYÊN LƯƠNG THẾ VINH Mã số: ................................ SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM TEACHING STUDY SKILLS IN A HIGH SCHOOL ENGLISH CLASS (DẠY KĨ NĂNG HỌC TẬP TRONG LỚP HỌC TIẾNG ANH Ở TRƯỜNG PHỔ THÔNG) Người thực hiện: ĐINH THỊ PHƯƠNG THOA Lĩnh vực nghiên cứu: - Phương pháp dạy học bộ môn: TIẾNG ANH Năm học: 2011 - 2012 2 SƠ LƯỢC LÝ LỊCH KHOA HỌC I. THÔNG TIN CHUNG VỀ CÁ NHÂN 1. Họ và tên: ĐINH THỊ PHƯƠNG THOA 2. Ngày tháng năm sinh: 19 - 05 - 1983 3. Nam, nữ: Nữ 4. Địa chỉ: 54D/12, KP 2, Trảng Dài, Biên Hòa, Đồng Nai 5. Điện thoại: (CQ)/ (NR); ĐTDĐ: 0938023960 6. Fax: E-mail: phuongthoa19583@gamil.com 7. Chức vụ: 8. Đơn vị công tác: Trường THPT Chuyên Lương Thế Vinh II. TRÌNH ĐỘ ĐÀO TẠO - Học vị (hoặc trình độ chuyên môn, nghiệp vụ) cao nhất: Thạc sỹ - Năm nhận bằng: 2011 - Chuyên ngành đào tạo: Lý luận và phương pháp giảng dạy tiếng Anh III.KINH NGHIỆM KHOA HỌC - Lĩnh vực chuyên môn có kinh nghiệm: 6 Số năm có kinh nghiệm: 6 - Các sáng kiến kinh nghiệm đã có trong 5 năm gần đây: Influences of Communication Styles on Vietnamese Students’ English Speaking Skill Drama as a Technique for Teaching Speaking 3 CONTENTS I. RATIONALE II. IMPLEMENTATION A. LITERATURE REVIEW B. METHODOLOGY  Subjects  Research instruments  Procedures 1. Conducting a small survey 2. Holding a short study skills quiz 3. Finding out students’ learning styles 4. Teaching study skills in English lessons 4.1. General study skills 4.1.1. Time management 4.1.2. Memory improvement 4.1.3. Note-taking 4.2. Substantial study skills for learning English 4.2.1. Dictionary skill 4.2.2. Guessing meaning of words 4.2.3. Distinguishing content words and function words 4.2.4. Rhythm and intonation 4.2.5. Skimming and scanning 4.2.6. Building sentences III. RESULTS IV. IMPLICATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHING V. REFERENCES TEACHING STUDY SKILLS IN A HIGH SCHOOL ENGLISH CLASS I. RATIONALE It is undeniable that Vietnamese high school students are overwhelmed with their school work. Faced with poor student performance on tests and assignments, teachers often recognise that the root of the problem lies not only in the material or in how it is taught, but also in how students choose to study it. Some students lack experience with effective methods of study; they measure the effectiveness of their studying by the length of time they spend in front of a book - not in their comprehension of it. Harsh reality sets in when grades are dispensed! Study skills are some of the most important lessons that a teacher can give a student and can have a positive effect on their performance in school. Having good study skills is an invaluable asset in all areas of life, not just school. Though many students may be proficient in basic math, reading and writing, they may not have very strong functional skills in how to use and apply what they have learned. But very often, teachers do not pay much attention to teaching them the necessary study skills required in their particular subjects at school. Therefore, students should be equipped with substantial study skills to reach their full potential. In the scope of this paper, study skills are limited to the basic ones in learning English. II. IMPLEMENTATION A. LITERATURE REVIEW Study skills are defined as abilities, techniques, and strategies which are used when reading, writing or listening for study purposes (Richard et al., 1992). They are also described as approaches applied to learning (Wikipedia, 2011). They are generally critical to success in school, are considered essential for acquiring good grades, and are useful for learning throughout one's life. Because of their importance in teaching and learning, they have received considerable attention from researchers as well as laypersons. Visiting some bookstores or with just some clicks on the Internet, we can find lots of information on the topic. Below are some noticeable types of study skills: Methods based on memorization such as rehearsal and rote learning Methods based on communication skills e.g. reading and listening Methods based on cues e.g. flashcard training 5 Methods based on condensing information, summarising and the use of keywords Methods based on visual imagery Methods based on acronyms and mnemonics Methods based on exam strategies Methods based on time management, organization and lifestyle changes Effective study skills include figuring out one’s learning style, learning time management skills, studying in short bursts, blocking out distractions, not cramming, revising, doing the hard stuff first, doing homework, taking good notes, and so on. As for study skills in English, a large numbers of books can be found in various bookstores and libraries. It is easy to find such books if one looks at book covers with the title “How to…” or “Preparation Course for…” Each book is appropriate a certain purpose or a certain student, but in general, one must practise the language regularly, manage his/her time wisely, and train his/her memory. B. METHODOLOGY  Subjects The subjects of the study are students of class 10 English 2, Luong The Vinh Specialised High School in the school year 2011-2012. Generally speaking, all the 30 students are rather good at English. However, when it comes to how to study effectively, not all of them have good answers.  Research instruments: survey, quiz, questionnaire, experimental teaching, observation.  Procedures 1. Conducting a small survey In the first English period of the school year (introduction or orientation period), a small survey was conducted: Students were asked to work in groups of 5 to discuss their difficulties in learning English and how to overcome them. Totally, there were 6 groups. The results showed that most students had difficulties in managing time (83.3%), listening and speaking (83.3%), remembering vocabulary and structures (66.7%), and writing (66.7%). Realising the students’ lack of study skills, the author decided to bring some study skills to her English lessons. 2. Holding a short study skills quiz 6 The author asked the students to complete a short quiz to find out if they have good knowledge of study skills. Below are the quiz and the answers: Check to see if you selected the correct answer. What can you do to avoid stress? Skip class Sleep Set goals and plan ahead Don't take notes in class When is the best time to study? During the day At night After eating Immediately after learning new material What can you do if you don't like to sit and read for a long time? Just don't read the books Try taking breaks or studying in groups Have friend read you the books out loud Drink a lot of caffeine How can I pay attention in class when it seems so boring sometimes? Connect the material to other information Bring your Ipod Sit in the back and get some shuteye Doodle in your notebook How can I stop procrastinating? Make a schedule and follow it Watch all your TV shows until you're tired of watching TV Just wait until the last minute because eventually you'll stop Watch movies that have smart people in them (Adopted from http://www.trustyguides.com/study-skills-quiz.html# ) Here are the results: Number of correct answers Number of students Percentage 5 5 16.67 4 7 23.33 7 3 2 1 0 10 7 0 1 33.33 23.33 0 3.33 The results show that just a minority had all correct answers. The majority (73.3%) knew how to study (they had at least 3 correct answers). But the problem lies in how to put them into practice. 3. Finding out students’ learning styles Identifying one’s learning style is the first step towards effective learning. Knowing one’s own learning style can help him/her improve the excellence of his/her study skills. The following simple test was used to identify the students’ specific learning styles. Answer the following questions. If your answer is “yes” to most of the questions in a section, your learning style can be the one in that section. LEARNING STYLE   VERBAL       LOGISTICAL   QUESTIONS Do you like playing on the sound of words like tongue twisters or on the meaning of words? Do you always try to find out meaning for new words? Do you remember names, places and dates well? Do you wish to discuss about the topics that you have learnt recently with our friends? Do you write well? Do you get irritated when someone makes grammatical errors? Do you enjoy logic puzzles and strategic games? Do you like to memorize formulas? Do you always look for rational explanations? Do you feel comfortable in analyzing, measuring and quantifying? YES NO 8    VISUAL        PHYSICAL       INTERPERSONAL       INTRAPERSONAL/ SOLITARY    Do you like to read charts and diagrams rather than reading text? Do you like to daydream a lot? Do you like to draw pictures? Do you have a great sense for colors? Do you imagine how objects would appear in various angles? Do you enjoy doing puzzles and other visual activities? Do you enjoy outdoor activities? Are you an expert in one or more sports activities? Do you like hand-on working? Do you find it difficult to sit for long periods? Do you like to touch things, when learning about them? Do you like to practice everything, rather than simple reading topics? Do you like to learn in group? Do you enjoy group activities and games? Do you prefer discussing about topics with your friends? Do you try to improve the skills of your friends voluntarily? Do you listen well and understand other's views? Do you like to spend quality time with your instructor? Do you have leadership skills? Do you prefer working or studying alone? Are you private and independent? Are you aware of your own thinking? Do you have strong opinions about various things? Do you prefer working in a quiet atmosphere? Do you like to plan and set objectives? 9 The results show that the majority of them (27 out of 30 students) have a mixed learning style – the combination of several learning styles. Only 3 of them have the solitary learning style. This means most of them will benefit from a variety of teaching and learning techniques: Visual learning style: taking detailed notes from textbooks, creating pictures in your mind. Auditory style: saving information in audio tapes and listening to them; reading the lessons aloud or discussing the information with classmates to gain better understanding. Verbal learning style: using audio tapes of lessons for repetition; making use of some word based techniques like scripting or assertions; reading the key points in the lessons aloud; connecting the words and forming a memorable sequence; changing voice modulations to keep the content interesting while reading aloud. Physical learning style: moving your hands or playing with the physical parts; using hands-on work and movement in your learning process; using physical objects, flash cards; writing and drawing pictures. Logical style of learning: attempting to understand the reasons behind the contents. Solitary learning style: clarifying your doubts with an instructor, creating a personal interest on your lessons. Social style: sharing your views and scripts with others in your group and listening to their comments. 4. Teaching study skills in English lessons 4.1. General study skills 4.1.1. Time management Many students complain that they do not have sufficient time to complete learning all their lessons. It is therefore worth knowing how to create a study schedule and make use of the limited time effectually. The following task was used in class to help students learn how to set priorities and control their time effectively. This task was added in the speaking period of Unit 1 – English 10, where students talk about their timetable. It is advisable to remind them to be realistic in creating the time schedule. 10 Task List: Work in pairs. Use the following list to help you set your priorities for the up-coming week. First, make a list of tasks that require time from your life. Second, estimate the amount of time you need for each task. Third, prioritize each task, using an A, B, C system. A = necessary or urgent B = important but not necessary or urgent C = not necessary or urgent Fourth, schedule these tasks on the weekly planner. Priority Estimated Time Needed ___Sleeping ___________________ ___Eating ___________________ ___Hygiene/Self Care ___________________ ___Laundry/Cleaning ___________________ ___Grocery Shopping/Cooking ___________________ ___Exercise ___________________ ___Extracurricular Clubs/Activities ___________________ ___Spiritual/Religious Activities ___________________ ___Seeing Friends & Socializing ___________________ ___E-mail ___________________ ___Talking on the Phone ___________________ ___Watching TV ___________________ ___Attending Classes ___________________ ___Study Time Class #1 ___________________ Reading __________ Research __________ Other: __________ Working Problems __________ Writing __________ Other: __________ ___Studying Class 2 Reading __________ Research __________ Other: __________ ___________________ Working Problems __________ Writing __________ Other: __________ ___Studying Class 3 ___________________ Reading __________ Research __________ Other: __________ Working Problems __________ Writing __________ Other: __________ ___Studying Class 4 ___________________ Reading __________ Research __________ Other: __________ ___Other: Working Problems __________ Writing __________ Other: __________ ___________________ 4.1.2. Memory improvement Building a powerful memory is an essential part in learning everything, not just English. In order to help the students to memorize better, the author put them into groups to discuss ways to remember things. This was done as an extra activity 11 for the post-listening section of unit 2 where students talk about their problems at schools. When giving feedback, the teacher provided her students with other ideas for building a good memory by delivering handouts (Adapted from Langan, 2002: 207, and from http://www.helpguide.org/life/improving_memory.htm ). They were asked to read the handout more carefully at home and try to apply some mnemonics to other lessons. Handout: How to develop your memory? – By: 1. Organizing the material to be learnt 2. Intending to remember 3. Testing yourself repeatedly 4. Using several memory techniques 5. Spacing memory work over several sections 6. Overlearning 7. Studying before sleep Memory techniques: Mnemonics: clues of any kind that help us remember something, usually by helping us associate the information we want to remember with a visual image, a sentence, or a word. Mnemonic device Visual image Technique Associate a visual image with a word or name to help you remember them better. Positive, pleasant images that are vivid, colorful, and three-dimensional will be easier to remember. Make up a sentence in which the Acrostic (or first letter of each word is part of sentence) or represents the initial of what you want to remember. Example To remember the name Rosa Parks and what she’s known for, picture a woman sitting on a park bench surrounded by roses, waiting as her bus pulls up. The sentence “Every good boy does fine” to memorize the lines of the treble clef, representing the notes E, G, B, D, and F. An acronym is a word that is made The word “HOMES” to remember up by taking the first letters of all the names of the Great Lakes: Acronym the key words or ideas you need to Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, remember and creating a new word and Superior. out of them. 12 Mnemonic device Technique Example The rhyme “Thirty days hath Rhymes, alliteration (a repeating September, April, June, and Rhymes and sound or syllable), and even jokes November” to remember the alliteration are a memorable way to remember months of the year with only 30 more mundane facts and figures. days in them. Chunking breaks a long list of numbers or other types of Chunking information into smaller, more manageable chunks. Remembering a 10-digit phone number by breaking it down into three sets of numbers: 555-8675309 (as opposed to5558675309). Imagine placing the items you want to remember along a route Method of you know well or in specific loci locations in a familiar room or building. For a shopping list, imagine bananas in the entryway to your home, a puddle of milk in the middle of the sofa, eggs going up the stairs, and bread on your bed. 4.1.3. Note-taking Taking good notes on the material that is taught while in school will help students later when doing assignments in class, homework, and at test time. This can be taught in listening periods when students have to listen for specific details to answer comprehension questions. Before letting students listen to the recordings, the teacher can remind them quickly how to take notes:  Do not write everything down. Only write down the important information: names of important persons, dates, geographic locations, formulas, steps to solve problems, etc.  Write in short hand. Write short words or phrases, not complete sentences.  Write in an organized manner. Use a new line for each point and make an outline by using numbers and letters. The teacher can also remind them how to take notes in general:  Use a notebook. Use a notebook of some kind when taking notes in class. Use a different book for each class.  Review your work. After class review the notes that you took. At this time you can add dates, people, and information you may have missed in class. This will also give you a chance to add any additional words or phrases to help you later.  13 Use your notes. Take out your notes when completing assignments, homework, and when studying for tests. Some teachers will also allow you to use notes when taking tests. 4.2. Substantial study skills for learning English 4.2.1. Dictionary skill Using dictionaries is an essential study skill that anyone who wants to be good at a language must have. However, not all of the students know how to make the best use of their dictionaries. This skill can be taught in several class periods – when students encounter new words or phrases, or when they are not sure of the spelling, pronunciation or usage of a word. They can also find collations, idioms and phrasal verbs. Sometimes, dictionaries are good tutors of writing. Dictionary skills are the most easily seen practicable when it comes to looking up idioms. Students must know what and where to look it up. For example, to look up the idiom “in black and white”, students must identify the key words in the idiom – black and white, not in or and, and they must turn to the page with the word black as fast as possible. Besides, students should know what to learn from a dictionary. For instance, they should realise the phrases in bold in certain example sentences. Those are collocations – what word often goes with what. Moreover, some dictionaries also provide learners with “writing tutor”, which can be used in writing lessons as a valuable source of reference. Below is an example of teaching students how to use their dictionaries: 14 4.2.2. Guessing meaning of words Guessing meaning from context: If the word is used in a sentence, look at the other words and see if they give you clues to the word's meaning. This may help to guess, at least, part of the word's meaning. This technique is very common in reading passages in the textbook. When students do this kind of exercises, teachers can remind them that there are many ways to help them guess the meaning of unfamiliar words from the context, and help them focus on specific techniques for each task. For example, they can guess meaning from:  Definition: The writer will use key words, or signal words to identify a definition. Key words: is/are, means/mean, is/are called, what this means is, is/are known as, consist of, is/are defined as, refer to, is/are described as, may be seen as  Restatement: The writer may use other words, phrases, or sentences to provide the meaning of difficult words Key words: or, that is to say, in other words, i.e. or that is  Punctuation marks: The writer will write unfamiliar words and then use punctuation, words, phrases, or sentences to explain the meaning of the new words. Key words: , commas, , , appositive, ( ) parentheses, - - dashes, ; semicolon, : colon  Examples: Key words: such as, like, for example, for instance, is / are  Contrast: Key words: but, instead of, even though, in contrast to, yet, in spite of, although, as opposed to, unlike, despite, however, on the other hand, whereas, fond of, still provided that  Similarity Key words: like, similarly, in the same way, as the same as, just as  Surrounding words  Pictures 15  Experience and background knowledge  Imagination Guessing meaning from structure: understanding of morphology helps to break down a word into smaller pieces (prefix, root, and suffix) so that you can guess what it means. For example: Let's use the word "predetermined" as our example. Predetermined= pre + determine + ed We may know that the base (root) word 'determine' means to decide; the prefix 'pre' means before, and the suffix 'ed' is used to mean the past tense of a verb. Therefore, "predetermined" would mean to have already decided the outcome of something before it happened. 4.2.3. Distinguishing content words and function words Content words are words that convey information in a text or a speech act. Content words include nouns, main verbs, adverbs, adjectives, question words, demonstratives, negatives and numbers. Function words are words that express grammatical relationships. Function words (adopted from Kelly, 2000: 74). 16 In a sentence, content words are usually stressed, and function words are usually unstressed unless they are to be given special attention. This is 17 fundamental in speaking, listening as well as in reading. Knowing this will help students in their listening (listen to the content words first), speaking (where to put the stress in a sentence) better. And in reading, it helps with skimming (direct their eyesight to the content words first). This skill should be taught in the first listening periods as most students have difficulty in listening. They tend to try their best to catch every word the speaker says, resulting in the fact that they do not understand the main ideas. Besides, it is worth teaching them the strong and weak forms in speaking and in listening. 4.2.4. Rhythm and intonation Rhythm: English is a stressed-time language, which means there is a tendency for stressed syllables to occur at regular intervals. The term intonation refers to the way the voice goes up and down in pitch when we are speaking. Rhythm and intonation are essential in speaking naturally. Teaching this requires much time, but the teacher can choose to teach a specific common intonation pattern in English in each lesson. This can be done in speaking lessons when the teacher prepares students to speak. Below are some common intonation patterns in English (O’Connor & Fletcher, 1989).  Fall on complete, denote statement 18  Wh-questions The voice often falls in questions beginning with ‘When, Where, Why, What,’ etc.  Yes/No questions The voice usually rises in questions to which the answer is ‘Yes’ or ‘No’.  Alternative questions 19 e.g. The speaker mentions two possible answers. The voice rises on the first alterative, and falls on the second. The two possible answers may be single words, as above, or longer phrases: e.g.  Question tags  falling The speaker is certain of what he/she says. He/She expects the other person to agree with him/her. The voice falls on the question tag. e.g.  rising The speaker is not certain. He/She is asking for confirmation. The voice rises on the question tag. e.g.  Echo questions The speaker repeats something said by another person: 1. while he/she thinks what to reply e.g. 20 2. to query what the other person said, ask for further explanation e.g. A: Every cook should have a computer. B: A: Yes, to keep a record of menus and recipes. 3. because he/she did not hear or understand or believe what was said e.g. A: The new manager is coming tomorrow. His name is Sprot. B:  Correcting 1. The voice falls on the correct word, to emphasise it. e.g. A: Her birthday is on the tenth of December. 2. The voice falls and rises on the incorrect information, then falls on the correct information, to emphasise it.  Listing The voice rises on each item of the list, until the final one, where it falls.  Polite rise Because a rise sounds less definite than a fall, it can be used to sound polite, especially when beginning a conversation. It is common when answering the phone.  Yes/No short answers The voice often falls on ‘Yes’, which could be a complete answer, and also on ‘it was’, which is also a complete, definite statement. The speaker often goes on to give a more detailed answer, also with a fall. W
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