Roles of the Government in the integration of conomic growth with ecological environment protection in Vietnam nowadays

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Ho Chi Minh National Political Academy Nguyen Thi Khuong ROLES OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE INTEGRATION OF ECONOMIC GROWTH WITH ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION IN VIETNAM NOWADAYS Specialism : CNDVBC & CNDVLS Code : 62 22 80 05 SUMMARY PHD THESIS IN PHILOSOPHY Ha Noi – 2014 The work was completed at Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics Supervisor: 1. A.Prof.Dr. Tran Thanh 2. A.Prof.Dr. Nguyen Minh Hoan Reviewer 1:…………………………………………………………………………. Reviewer 2:…………………………………………………………………………. Reviewer 3:…………………………………………………………………………. The PhD thesis will be defensed in front of a jury and marked by at Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics At…: On ..... ...... ...... 2014 The PhD thesis is available in National Library and the Library of Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics INTRODUCTION 1. The necessity of the research Human beings have entered the third millennium, and we are facing global challenges. Climate change and the degradation of natural resources, ecological environment pollution are the biggest concerns of the contemporary world. Ecological environment pollution has been changing comprehensively and deeply natural ecosystems, affecting the economic growth as well as the whole society, threatening seriously environment, energy and food security in worldwide. The root causes of global climate change and ecological environmental pollution are: the uncompleted engineering, exploiting and processing technology of natural resources; incomplete understanding of ecological environment. Especially, development policies of countries often only focus and prioritize economic growth, regardless ecological environment protection. Meaningful action of protecting the ecological environment and combating climate change is that countries need to establish harmonious relationship between economic growth and ecological environment protection. This is an inevitable demand for nations toward sustainable development in the XXI century. Like many other countries in the world, in Vietnam, due to the impact of maintaining development model in width for a long time and dependence on exploitation of natural resource and environmental factors, ecological quality has been declining rapidly. The natural ecosystem was narrowed in area and degraded in quality. And many resources are exhausted leading to risk of insufficient supply... Those situations have negatively impacted on the socio- economic aspects and growth rate of the economy, threatening food security, environment security, public health and sustainable development in Vietnam. To reduce these negative impacts, in the period of renovation and reinforcement of industrialization and modernization, Vietnam Communist Party and the government have reformed the development model. Model “comprehensive development” has been presented with the major contents of “rapid, efficient and sustainable development, economic growth with the maintenance of social equality and environmental protection” [50, page 162]. Thanks to this model, Vietnamese socialist-oriented market economy has been established and strongly developed. Vietnam is regarded as the nation of high economic growth in the region. Specially, the economic achievements have helped Vietnam to make considerable progress in implementing the millennium development objectives. Such social issues as: hunger eradication, poverty alleviation, medicinaleducational-cultural development, etc. have been tackled. However, there still exist some limitations in the implementation of the new development model. Among these limitations, “the inefficiency and wastefulness in the management, exploitation and use of natural resources” [52, page 166], [the serious environmental degradation in some regions growing to the warming level” [52, page 169] have been considered the strictest ones by Vietnam Communist Party and the Government. These limitations are due to several causes, most of which are the subjective causes. The emphasis on economic growth and neglect of environmental protection are still popular; economic growth is in a wide range, heavily depending on the exploitation of natural resources; several fields and lines of manufacturing still use the obsolete technology, causing the severe environmental pollution; the population growth and rapid urbanization are putting pressures on the environment. Meanwhile, the regulations and policies on environmental protection and sustainable development have not met the demand for economic-social development of the nation. The state system of organization and administration still has several drawbacks and lacks human resources, especially in local areas. There still exist some limitations in the implementation; the violations to the laws on environmental protection are not tackled decisively and strictly. Vietnamese Communist Party and the government have acknowledged the above limitations; without the proper solutions, these limitations may not only seriously affect the implementation of the millennium objectives but also give threats to economic growth, causing the hazards to people’s life. Rapid and sustainable growth is the need of the nation’s strategies of economic-social development. The integration of economic growth with ecological environment protection is an essential issue and a tough and complicated mission. This requires the Government to continuously reform the thinking, methods of implementation and reinforce the policies, legal instruments, implement the inspection, checking and supervision of the economic management and management of resources-environment, financial investment for the protection of resource- environment, raise people’s awareness of the importance of the integration of economic growth with ecological environment protection, etc. From the above analysis, the study of the roles of the Government in the integration of economic growth with ecological environment protection is very essential. For these reasons, the researcher chooses the topic “Roles of the Government in the integration of economic growth with ecological environment protection” as the topic for her doctoral thesis. 2. Purpose and task of the research 2.1. Research purposes On the basis of clarifying the basic contents of the Goverment’s roles in integrating economic growth with ecological environment protection, the thesis analyzes problems of improving the Government's roles in integrating economic growth with ecological environment protection, thereby, a number of major solutions are proposed to promote the role of the Government in this issue during phase of promoting industrialization and modernization in Vietnam. 2.2. Research tasks - To clarify the dialectical relationship between economic growth with ecological environment protection and the basic contents expressing the role of the Government in integrating economic growth with ecological environment protection. - To analysis and evaluate issues for enhancing the role of the Government in integrating economic growth with ecological environment protection in Vietnam. - To propose some basic solutions to promote the role of the Government in integrating economic growth with ecological environment protection in Vietnam. 3. Subjects and scope of research 3.1. Research Subjects The thesis focuses on the role of the Government in the integration of economic growth with ecological environment protection. 3.2. Scope of the Study The thesis clarifies the integration of economic growth with ecological environment protection in philosophical perspective. Through social functions of the Government as an important factor in the superstructure, the thesis proposes the basic contents showing the Government's role in integrating economic growth with ecological environment protection during phase of promoting industrialization and modernization in Vietnam from 1996 to present. 4. Theoretical basis and research methodology of the thesis 4.1. Theoretical basis The thesis bases on the theoretical basis of Marxism - Leninism and Ho Chi Minh’s ideology and viewpoints, guidelines and policies of the Party and the Government on socio - economic development in the period of accelerating industrialization and modernization. During performance, the thesis also inherits some achievements of relevant scientific works. 4.2. Research Methodology The thesis bases on the methodological principles of dialectical materialism and historical materialism in combination with other methods such as: logic – history, analysis synthesis and induction - deduction, investigation, information collection, survey, research, comparison... 5. New contributions - The thesis clarifies issues for enhancing the role of the Government in integrating economic growth with ecological environment during phase of promoting industrialization and modernization in Vietnam. - The thesis proposes some basic solutions to promote the role of the Government in integrating economic growth with ecological environment protection during phase of promoting industrialization and modernization in Vietnam. 6. Significance of the thesis - The thesis contributes to point out scientific arguments for the Party and the Government proposing sound guidelines, policies and laws to address well relationship between economic growth and ecological environment protection. - Problem are mentioned and resolved by thesis will contribute to enhancing the role of the Government in leading, directing and implementing combination of economic growth with ecological environment protection. - The thesis can be used as reference for those who studying, teaching, and those interested in the field of integrating economic growth with ecological environment protection. 7. Structure of the thesis Besides the introduction, conclusion, list of references and appendices, this thesis includes 4 chapters and 10 units. Chapter 1 OVERVIEW OF THE RESEARCH PROJECT 1.1. RESEARCHES ON INTEGRATING ECONOMIC GROWTH WITH ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION 1.1.1. Researches on economic growth Many works has researched on economic growth including some typical works as "A number of measures to improve the quality of socio-economic development in our country", the Journal Political Theory No. 4 (2010) by Nguyen Thi Doan; "the Vietnam’s transformation in economic growth today" Journal of Political Theory No. 1 (2013) by Nguyen Van Hau, "Economic growth, social progress and equality in Vietnam" by Hoang Duc Than and Dinh Quang Ty; "The great relationships need to be addressed well in the innovation - oriented socialism in our country" by Nguyen Phu Trong; "The speed and quality of economic growth in Vietnam" by Nguyen Van Nam, Tran Tho Dat ... In general, available studies on economic growth have focused on clarifying connotation of economic growth concept, and studying in depth and systemizing the theoretical issues related to the speed and quality of economic growth, indicating model of economic growth as well as factors affecting the growing scale of the world economy and Vietnam economy, pointing out the fundamental solutions to promote process of economic growth in our country. 1.1.2. The studies on ecological environment, ecological environment protection Some works has studied on this issue as "Philosophical - social aspect of ecological environment problems in Vietnam", The Journal of Philosophy No. 6 (1998) by Pham Thi Ngoc Tram; "The relationship between development and environmental protection - the Japanese experience, The Journal of Economic Studies No. 316 (2004) of Nguyen Van Kim,"Ecological Ethics and environmental-ecological education" (2009) by Vu Trong Dung; "Actively respond to climate change, promote the protection of natural resources and environment", National Political Publishing House, Hanoi (2013) ... The studies clarifies connotation of ecological environmental concept, pointing out that protection of ecological environment is vital to nations in present. This study refers to solutions on ecological environment protection such as solutions on policy, law, financial investment, science and technology and education on ecological environment protection for people... 1.1.3. The studies on integrating economic growth with ecological environment protection In recent years, researches on integrating economic growth with ecological environment protection have drawn considerable attention. Among the studies related to this issue, we can mention some typical works such as "Developing ecological ethics - man's responsibility for nature", The Journal of Philosophy No. 6 (2009) by Pham Thi Ngoc Tram, "Environmental pollution in our country today - Situation and some solutions", published in the Journal of Philosophy No.11 (2009) by Tran Dac Hien, "The development of free trade in market economy in Vietnam today with ecological environment protection”, doctoral thesis of Truong Manh Tien; "The relationship between economic growth and environmental protection for sustainable development", doctoral thesis of Bui Van Dung ... The above studies proved that activities of material production, daily activity and activities promoting economic growth are root causes of ecological environment pollution and exhaustion of natural resources. Since then, the researches focused on analyzing and providing the best basic solutions to combine economic growth with ecological environment protection. 1.2. PREVIOUS RESEARCH ON ROLES OF THE GOVERNMENT IN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION 1.2.1. Research on roles of the government in economic growth Roles of the government in economic growth is a popular issue of research in the recent years, including the following studies: “Government administration on the economy in Vietnam nowadays” Journal of political theory No 2 (2010) by Ngo Quang Minh; “Roles of subject factors in the growth of the socialism-oriented economy in Vietnam nowadays”, Journal of Philosophy No. 10 (2012) by Tran Thanh, “Economic regulations of the government in the market economy and international economic integration in Vietnam”, by Luong Xuan Quy and Do Duc Binh; “Roles of the Government in international economic integration in Vietnam” by Mai Lan Huong, etc. In these works, the terms of economic growth, market economy and international economic integration are clearly defined and explained. Besides, the research has focused on clarifying the changes of the government’s roles since the economic reform was implemented, which denotes that with all the economic regulations, the government has created the equal legal framework to all the entities joining the market, stimulating the growth of socialism oriented economy. Some research has shown that Vietnam has succeeded in the economic integration with the work and region. Therefore, the participation of the government in the economy and society in the new period is essential. However, apart from the advantages, the roles of the government in regulating the economy have shown some drawbacks. Thus, there need some measures to improve the efficiency in the economic management of the government like: improving the legal system and economic policies; reforming and improving the administration regulations, etc. 1.2.2. Research on roles of the government in ecological environment protection The typical works include: “From Engels’s warming about natural disasters, thinking about the roles of the government in ecological environment protection” by Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan, Journal of Political theory No. 7 (2011); “Roles of the Vietnamese government in environmental protection” by Le Thi Thanh Ha, Journal of Philosophy No. 8 (2011); “Administration to resources and environment for the sustainable development from the society-humanity perspective” by Pham Thi Ngoc Tram (2006); “Improving the efficiency of the Government administration on the environment” by Nguyen Thi Thom and An Nhu Hai (2011), etc. These works have shown that the entity holding the most important role in stimulate the ecological environment protection is the government. As the representative of people owning natural resources, the government performs the functions of organizing, managing, checking and inspecting the exploitation and use of natural resources. In Vietnam, the government plays an important role in issuing the undertakings, policies, laws and organizing, building the team of professional staff that is in charge of performing the management of resources and environment. Strengthening the government’s roles in the management of resources and environment requires: improving the legal system and policies on the environmental protection; improving the Government system of organization mechanisms on the management of resources and environment in different levels; raising people’s awareness of environmental protection, etc. In conclusion, these works have proven their theoretical and practical meanings. The scientific value of these works has facilitated the research direction of the current thesis. Chapter 2 INCORPORATING THE ECONOMIC GROWTH WITH THE PROTECTION OF ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT – DEMAND FOR THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ROLES OF THE GOVERNMENT 2.1. INCORPORATING THE ECONOMIC GROWTH WITH ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION– DEMAND FOR THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2.1.1. Definition of Economic growth and Ecological environment protection 2.1.1.1. Definition of Economic growth and factors influencing the economic growth Economic growth is defined in a variety of aspects. For example, economic growth is the potential output expansion of a nation over the time, or the expansion of economic capacity to manufacture and expand the production possibility over the time; economic growth is the term used to denote the growth in terms of the output scale of an economy during a specific period. In the current thesis, economic growth is the growth in terms of the quantity and quality of an economy during a specific period on the basis of the exploitation of natural and social resources. The factors influencing the economic growth include: high-quality human resources, the application of new technology, development of modern infrastructure and favorable ecological environment. 2.1.1.2. Definition of ecological environment and ecological environment protection There are a variety of definitions of ecological environment including: Ecological environment comprises all the natural and social conditions (organic and inorganic) concerning the human life, the existence and development of the society; Ecological environment is the aggregation of all factors directly influencing human life like: air, water, land, soil, climate and toxic contaminants; etc. In the current thesis, ecological environment is defined as the natural ecological environment that provides such inputs to the economic growth as species of flora and fauna and types of natural resources influencing the manufacturing process. Ecological environment protection is the human exploitation and use of natural resources reasonably in order to maintain the ecological balance, reform and improve the environment, avoid the severe consequences that economic growth brings to the ecological environment. 2.1.2. Dialectical relationship between economic growth and ecological environment protection 2.1.2.1. Roles and effects of economic growth in ecological environment protection In the manufacturing process, economic growth is the primary way and the compulsory demand of every nation in order to develop the economy. To stimulate the economic growth, every nation has been affecting the ecological environment. For each nation, natural resources are the basis for the development. Over the last decades, human beings have continuously developed labor tools and applied modern technology for the exploitation of natural resources. The application of modern technology for the exploitation of natural resources helps to conserve natural resources and preserve the landscapes of the ecological environment to some extents. However, it has also brought the consequences negatively affecting the ecological environment. In case of high economic growth, human beings will be given more favorable conditions to protect ecological environment; and vice versa, without the economic growth or if human beings try to heavily exploit natural resources for the economic growth, there shall be no conditions to improve and protect the ecological environment 2.1.2.2. Effects of ecological environment protection on economic growth Ecological environment provides with the basic physical conditions so that human beings may survive and conduct the manufacturing of wealth. There shall be no economic growth without the inputs to the process of manufacturing, so ecological environment itself provides with the labor objects for the continuing manufacturing process. Therefore, ecological environment protection has positive effects on economic growth. If ecological environment is protected; natural resources are conserved and conditioned to renew, the inputs for economic growth, as a result, will be conserved and stable. If ecological environment is not protected, natural resources are exploited heavily to the depletion and not conditioned to renew, the economic inputs consequently will be unstable and insufficient for the manufacturing; also, there will be no economic growth. For the ecological environment protection, during the manufacturing process, human beings shall find out the appropriate methods affecting the ecological environment that both allow the economic growth and protect ecological environment 2.1.3. Demand for incorporating economic with ecological environment protection for the sustainable development First, for economic growth, countries depend on the ecological environment to some extents. The accomplishment of the objectives of economic growth shall focus on the effective exploitation of natural resources to condition the economic growth potentials and the maintenance of the ecological balance. Second, economic growth and ecological environment protection are the two primary objectives for the sustainable development; however, the accomplishment of these two objectives often accompany with the arising conflicts that need solving. To ensure the growth potentials for the next generations, the present generation should exploit natural resources properly and protect the ecological environment. This can be done only by the incorporation of economic growth with ecological environment protection. Third, incorporating economic with ecological environment protection for the sustainable development is the basis for the sustainability of the society. This includes: maintaining the social equality, eradicating the poverty and using the development indicators of people as the first objective of the development 2.2. ROLES OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE INCORPORATION OF ECONOMIC GROWTH WITH ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION 2.2.1. Roles of the government in developing the policies, strategies and laws to incorporate economic growth with ecological environment protection Policies: the necessary policies for the incorporation of economic growth with ecological environment protection include: developing human resources and science-technology, building the economic structure and allocating natural resources. These policies are the basis for the government to effectively exploit natural resources for the economic growth and orient the economic growth in the ecological environment protection Strategies: strategies are the specifications of the policies of incorporating economic growth with ecological environment protection at a specific level. As the highest authority, the government will decide the design of the strategies and mobilize the financial, human and other resources to implement these objectives. Laws: International Laws on the incorporation of economic growth with ecological environment protection is the sets of rules and international regulations regulating the relationship among countries and between nations with the international organizations, requiring the compliance of the rules on ecological environment protection during the manufacturing activities in order to ensure the appropriate incorporation of economic growth with ecological environment protection 2.2.2. Roles of the government in implementing the incorporation of economic growth and ecological environment protection Roles of the government in organizing the mechanisms to implement the incorporation of economic growth with ecological environment protection Ecological environment protection is the important issue affecting the survival of each nation. Therefore, it shall be regarded as a vital economic-social field like other fields; the government than has to identify the objectives, issue and implement the decisions from the central to local level in order to create the vertical link for the ecological environment protection under the continuing effects of the economy. Roles of the government in assembling the team of professional staff incorporating the economic growth with ecological environment protection: The government assembles the team of professional staff by planning, training and developing skilled staff and Government officials. Then, there will be a team of skilled staff, ensuring the continuing hierarchy in terms of human resources and meeting the practical demand for the incorporation of the economic growth with ecological environment protection. Roles of the government in mobilizing the capital; implementing the research of science-technology and international cooperation in the incorporation of the economic growth with ecological environment protection: In order to implement the contents of ecological environment protection under the effects of economic growth, the mobilized capital should be adequate to finance the following operations: investment in building, upgrading the infrastructure, production of environment-friendly products, improving the system of laws and implementing the projects of environmental protection, etc. The application of modern science-technology achievements in the manufacturing will improve the effective use of capital and natural resources boost the economic growth and exploit the ecological environment more properly. Therefore, countries have to research and apply the advanced science-technology achievement in the economic growth and ecological environment protection The expanded international communication and cooperation in the field of environmental protection is also a positive factor strengthening the roles of the government in the incorporation of the economic growth with ecological environment protection. 2.2.3. Roles of the government in performing the inspection, checking and supervision of implementing the incorporation of the economic growth with ecological environment protection. On doing these operations, the government will gain an overview of the implementation of the incorporation of the economic growth with ecological environment protection. Then, the government can design appropriate development policies and strategies The activities of inspection, checking and supervision contribute to ensuring the effective accomplishment of undertakings, policies and regulations of the Communist Party and the Government. This helps to prevent, detect and handle the violations of the regulations on implementing the incorporation of the economic growth with ecological environment protection 2.2.4. Roles of the government in developing the social consensus and improving the social responsibility of each individual to implement the incorporation of the economic growth with ecological environment protection In the economic growth, physical benefits that people desire when carrying out the exploitation of natural resources are the root causes of destroying the ecological environment. To regulate the benefits among different social groups and ensure that every individual fulfills the responsibility of ecological environment protection, the government has to perform the social consensus and the roles of each individual in ecological environment protection. Chapter 3 EMERGING ISSUES FOR ENHANCING THE ROLE OF THE GOVERMENT IN THE INTEGRATION OF ECONOMIC GROWTH WITH ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION IN VIETNAM PRESENTLY 3.1. CONFLICTS BETWEEN REQUIREMENT OF THE UNITY IN POLICIES, STRATEGIES, LAW IN INTEGRATING ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION, AND INCONSISTENT STATUS. 3.1.1. The inadequacies, inconsistencies between policies and strategies in the combination of accelerating economic growth and protecting the ecological environment Firstly: The inadequacies, inconsistencies in the formulation and implementation of policies of integrating economic growth with ecological environment protection Economic policies: The Government offers specific provisions on the preferential regimes of land, tax, financial support ... for the environment protection activities, the environmentally friendly products as well as activities which nicely balance between protection and efficient use of environmental elements for the development. Despite advancements in promulgation and implementation of policies, but in fact, many complicated difficulties still arise. For example, the policies are not commensurate and can not meet the demands of reality. Some policies also reveal legal loopholes - the conditions for types of crime making negative things that affect the economy and destroy ecological environment. Social policies: including policies on poverty reduction, job creation, education and training, science and technology ... Despite making significant progress, the role of the Government in promulgation and implementation direction of these policies still shows certain limitations, the Government must be positive and more proactive in order to propose more reasonable policies, create necessary and sufficient conditions for economic growth and environment protection to be mounted right in every step of the development of the country. Secondly: The inadequacies in the creation and implementation of strategies to implement the policy of attaching economic growth with ecological environment protection. The birth of the strategies creates necessary conditions to encourage both domestic and foreign organizations and individuals to invest labor, capital, apply scientific and technical achievements in protection and exploitation of natural resources to promote economy growth. However, there are still some limitations in promulgation as well as implementation of strategies. The quality of the strategies despite being improved, some limitations still exist and overlap. Besides, the implementation of strategies is not uniform across the localities ... that request the Government to recognize and have adjustments and supplements in accordance with the actual requirements. 3.1.2. The inadequacies and inconsistencies of the legal system in the combination of economic growth and ecological environment protection In the global trend, international economic integration, Vietnam has participated in the International Conferences and signed International Conventions on environment protection. It can be affirmed that the signing of these Conventions has expressed proper awareness, especially in the implementation of the economic growth associated with the protection of the ecological environment. However, there are still some limitations such as the signing of the Conventions is still delayed, the implementation is much later than other countries in the world ... We can say that the system of legal documents on environment protection is also legal documents adjusting the relationship between economic growth and ecological environment protection, that has marked important steps in implementing the schedule of the twenty-first century of Vietnam: System of professional organization on ecological environment protection in economic growth is gradually established; the economy has fairly stable movements; ecological environment is initially protected. But the fact is that, although there are a number of legal documents on environment protection, a specialized legal system on the combination of economic growth and ecological environment protection is absent; issues on environment protection, rational exploitation of natural resources in economic activities, production and business are not the fundamental and significant ones in the legal system; some legal documents still contain irregularities which are inconsistent with reality of integrating economic growth and ecological environment protection; existing legal provisions on environment are not in accordance with international law system on sustainable development which Vietnam has signed. 3.2. CONFLICTS BETWEEN THE REQUIREMENTS OF RAISING EFFECTIVENESS OF IMPLEMENTATION ORGANIZATION, INSPECTION, SUPERVISION OF THE COMBINATION OF ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION, BUT ACTUAL PERFORMANCE STILL SHOWS INADEQUACIES, LIMITATIONS 3.2.1. The weakness in linking sectors, levels of organizational system of government management in matching economic growth with ecological environment protection Firstly: The organizational structure of the govenrment management on ecological environment overlaps operates inefficiently Ecological environment pollution in the country takes place everywhere, regularly and constantly, posing the need to have a mechanism with the enough number of employees in management of environmental resources. But, in our country, the number of government management agencies on environmental resources is small, locating mainly in the central, provincial and district levels, it is not many in administrative units of wards, communes. The connection of Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment with other ministries such as the Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Health ... in the protection of ecological environment in our country has many limitations as: the overlapping on functions and powers of the ministries; the assignment on ecological environment protection, the management decentralization is not obvious, which make them push, dodge responsibilities or blame each other when an environmental incident occurs. ... Secondly: Management officers of the government on environment are lacking in quantity, and poor in professional quality Until now, the total number of officers working on environment management in Vietnam is around 10,000 people, with a ratio of about 13/1 million residents. The lack of this force has a direct effect on the efficiency of the government management on ecological environment. This is one of the causes that makes environmental pollution increase, environmental crime act more, which directly imfluence economic growth and the quality of human life. The quality of staffs working in the government management on linking economic growth with ecological environment protection in our country today has many limitations such as low professional skills; poor moral qualities... 3.2.2. The investment on capital, science and technology, ensuring economic growth attached to ecological environment protection has not achieved the desired effects Regarding the capital investment The government has identified financial spendings for ecological environment protection are recurrent expenditures. From 2006 until now, the budget for environment protection has been set as a separate source with a scope of not less than 1% of the total annual state budget. However, managers find the current investment too low in comparision with the actual requirements of environment protection tasks and still scattered; returned investment rate for environment protection from revenues related to the environment is low; the allocation of ODA, credit capital in the annual budget plan for the socialization of environment is not clear; capital sources management is neglected, creating opportunities for corruption, wastefulness. Regarding science and technology The government has studied and applied the achievements of science and technology into reality, so there are positive effects in improving productivity, economic efficiency and protection of ecological environment. The transfer and widespread application of scientific achievements have contributed to promoting the process of economy restructure, forming a number of economic sectors which consist of high technology level and are environmentally friendly; the process of exploitation and use of natural resources is more effective and economical. Besides, the implementation and application of science and technology to practical economic growth and ecological environment protection in our country is limited, such as: scientific and technological development does not correspond with the sustainable development; does not fully participate in overcoming environmental pollution ... 3.2.3. The inspection, examination and supervision of the combination of economic growth and ecological environment protection does not meet practical requirements Generally, inspection, examination, supervision of the combination of economic growth and ecological environment protection in our country has been gradually strengthened and enhanced, achieved some positive effects, there is a harmonious coordination between government management agencies, between ministries and sectors... However, this activity in our country over the past time has shown many limitations such as: The authorities still loose the management, lack of responsibility for inspection, examination, supervision of ecological environment protection; inspectors of ministries, sectors have not yet strictly enforced the law, in many places, there are the phenomena on pushing the responsibility to each other ... 3.3. THE CONFLICT OF REQUIREMENTS OF CLOSE COORPERATION BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT AND ORGANIZATIONS, SOCIAL FORCES IN THE COMBINATION OF ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION, WITH LOOSE COORPERATION STATUS 3.3.1. The limitations in raising responsibility awareness of enterprises on the combination of economic growth and ecological environment protection In fact, enterprises, economic organizations have contributed so much to the protection of the ecological environment. However, besides that, there are many enterprises which do not properly fulfill environmental responsibilities in production and business. Because of benefits, businesses find ways to avoid environmental issues, do not honest in declarations, ignore environmental criteria, cause serious environmental pollution. The inadequacies of policies and law, the weakness of leadership, management of government agencies ... are the underlying reasons for neglectful condition, lack of environmental responsibility of enterprises, economic institutions in our country today. 3.3.2. The limitations in raising awareness of law and policies of the politicalsocial organizations and people on the combination of economic growth and ecological environment protection In our country, socio-political organizations and all people have certain roles in the protection of ecological environment. Although there have been many achievements, but, in fact, the role of organizations and unions to protect the ecological environment in our country has not been clear, has not created the consensus between provisions of law, policies of the government and the organizations. In many places, communities and socio-political organizations are not allowed to involve in the assessment of environmental impacts of projects implemented in their localities .... Chapter 4 SOME FUNDAMENTAL SOLUTION GROUPS TO IMPROVE THE GOVERNMENT'S ROLE IN LINKING ECONOMIC GROWTH WITH ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION OF VIETNAM TODAY 4.1. THE SOLUTION GROUP OF ENHANCING EFFICIENCY OF BUILDING THE SYSTEMS OF POLICIES, STRATEGIES, LAWS OF THE GOVERNMENT IN COMBINATION OF ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION 4.1.1. Building, completing the system of policies and strategies on economic growth associated with the protection of the ecological environment Regarding building and completing policies on economic growth associated with ecological environment protection Building and training high-quality human resources - basic requirements for the rapid and sustainable development: Completing of the planning, human resources development plan, exploitation and protection of natural resources; human resource priority for the biotechnology sector, new materials technologies, mining technology and processing natural resources; reviewing technical workforce directly exploiting natural resources, re-evaluating the professional standards, determining the demand for quantity, quality to take measures for education, training; Researching on building and implementing mechanisms and policies to attract and use high-quality human resources for economic growth associated with protection of the ecological environment. Developing science and technology is a factor contributing to ecological environment protection in economic growth: Continuing to innovate, improve the mechanisms, policies and laws to build and use effectively the scientific technical staffs, enhance the competition in the operation of scientific individuals and organizations to motivate the development of science, technology of natural resources - environment sector; having strong and uniform innovation, organization, management mechanism, operation mechanism, constructing comprehensive training policy, worthy remuneration for talents working in natural resources- environment sector... Regarding the construction and completion of strategies on matching economic growth with ecological environment protection The government needs to quickly promulgate specific strategies on linking economic growth with ecological environment protection. During the absence of the strategy, Government should review and modify strategies on economic development, existing strategies on environment protection towards closely linking with each other and matching economic growth and ecological environment protection. These strategies should focus on planning development of industrial zones and spots, handicraft villages and urban areas, ensure science; make appropriate policies, minimize the overlap, inconsistencies between existing strategies; perform strategies publicly and transparently... 4.1.2. Construction and completion of legal system on attaching economic growth with ecological environment protection Government must be active to launch a specific law on economic growth in conjunction with ecological environment protection with the following requirements: The legal system must be strong enough, sanctions must be really strict and enough to deter violations of law; diversify forms of handling violations; consult environmental law of developing countries while amending the promulgation of law; having specific provisions on the proper requirements, contents, methods, inspection modes, supervision, accounting and auditing to ensure goals, requirements and management activities efficiency of natural resources and environment protection… 4.2. THE SOLUTION GROUP OF ENHANCING THE ROLE, EFFECTIVENESS, MANAGEMENT OPERATION EFFICIENCY OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE COMBINATION OF ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION 4.2.1. Completing and strengthening the organizational mechanism of the government on ecological environment protection in conjunction with economic growth Completing the organizational mechanism of the government on ecological environment protection in conjunction with economic growth from the central to the localities into two directions which are professional and in-depth and both vertical and horizontal. Strengthening the role, responsibility and capacity of the specialized forces in charge of ecological environment protection, as: strengthening the training, improving professional skills and management for the task forces to execute the protection of ecological environment; conducting a review, evaluation, determining the responsibilities of ministries, sectors and localities in implementing the government management functions on ecological environment protection; raising and educating professional ethics for officials and civil servants and workforce working in management of natural resources and environment... 4.2.2. Strengthening the inspection, examination and supervision of the combination of economic growth and ecological environment protection The government needs to set up a system of specialized inspection, examination and supervision of environment at all levels, from central to localities; have policies for officials to study and improve professional knowledge; modify and supplement necessary regulations on the inspection attaching economic growth with ecological environment protection in Inspection Law and other relevant sectors of law, create an adequate legal basis for the activities of inspection, examination and supervision; clearly defining responsibilities of inspection, examination, supervision and handling power on ecological environment protection for competent authorities of the government; continue to strengthen the police force on environmental crime prevention ... 4.2.3. Building a financial resource which is strong enough to perform the combination of economic growth and ecological environment protection The government needs to supplement the provisions of law on financial revenue and expenditure for ecological environment protection in economic growth towards consistent direction to the reality; form mechanism to mobilize investment capital for protection of natural resources and environment; ensure budget expenditure rate for environmental career and development investment expenditures for public ecological environment protection increasing along with GDP; review ODA capital, credit capital granted for the socialization of economic growth associated with ecological environment protection. 4.2.4. Strengthening the learning, international communication and cooperation on ecological environment protection associated with economic growth State needs to establish and maintain traditional cooperative relationships, to be more active in research activities, and signing and committing to fully implement the international conventions, international protocol on the protection ecological environment; expand the cooperation with other countries and international organizations to attract and efficiently exploit supporting sources in the protection of ecological environment; have policies to encourage cooperation with other organizations and individuals around the world to improve the capacity and effectiveness of environmental protection in the country... 4.3. THE SOLUTION GROUP OF ENHANCING THE ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE CREATION AGREEMENT OF THE WHOLE SOCIETY TO IMPLEMENT GOOD COMBINATION OF ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION 4.3.1. Propagandizing, raising self-awareness, sense of responsibility for ecological environment protection for population classes It is necessary for the State to educate ecological environment for every population classes through national education system and mass media in Propagandizing, raising self-awareness, sense of responsibility for ecological environment protection; paying attention to closely combination between education of awareness with organizations; establishing electronic information portal, hotlines in many locations so that people can provide, acquire the necessary information with the view to constructing and strengthening viewpoints and policies of the Party and the State on the combination between economic growth with ecological environment protection, etc. 4.3.2. Improving the social responsibility of enterprises in the combination between economic growth with ecological enviroment protection Strengthening to propagate obligations and benefits of compliance with their responsibilities to enterprises; clear determination responsibilities of the State and responsibilities of enterprises in solving violation of law on environment protection; raising awareness of the relationship between human - ecological environment for business managers; raising awareness of the relation between manufacture and customer for enterprises; building a sense of environment protection in the production and business process for enterprises, etc. 4.3.3. Combination among the State with political – social organizations and associations in the combination between economic growth with ecological environment protection It is necessary to establish mechanisms and policies to further promote role and responsibilities of political – social organizations and associations in environment protection such as preference to investment of ecological environment protection; holding communication sessions, organizing forums with the view to calling for organizations and associations to invest in works, projects and ecological environment protection; creating and associating political – social organizations with enterprises and people to share benefits from ecological environment together and protect the ecological environment together; improving capacity and access to information for the organizations and associations in order to they are aware of their role, position, interests and responsibilities in the ecological environment protection, etc. CONCLUSION In the process of economic – social development in general and in the process of economic growth in particular, many problems concerning natural resources, environment and ecological environment protect has raised that are obstacles and challenges of the development process. If we overcome the obstacles and challenges, connect the economic growth with environment protection, our nation will reach a state of sustainable development. However, this process is long-term and full of hardships, requiring efforts of everyone at every authorities in every sectors, from central levels to local ones; at
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