RESEARCH ON BREED DETERMINATION AND JAPONICA VARIETIES DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN VIETNAM

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRANING MINISTRY OF AGRICUTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT ACADEMY OF VIETNAM AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES ---------------------------------------- NGUYEN TUAN PHONG RESEARCH ON BREED DETERMINATION AND JAPONICA VARIETIES DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN VIETNAM Specialty : Crop Science Code : 62 62 01 10 SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL THESIS ON CROP SCIENCE HA NOI - 2014 This work has been completed at Academy of Vietnam Agricultural Sciences Scientific instructor: 1. Do Nang Vinh Prof.Dr. 2. Le Quoc Thanh Dr. Judge1: Nguyen Thanh Tuyen Asso.Prof. Dr. Judge 2: Nguyen Nhu Hai Dr. Judge 3: Pham Van Cuong Asso.Prof. Dr. The Thesis shall be defended before the State level Thesis Assessment Council held at: Academy of Vietnam Agricultural Sciences At……hours, on………… The Thesis can be studied at libraries: - National Library of Vietnam - Library of Academy of Vietnam Agricultural Sciences WORK BY AUTHOR RELATING TO THE THESIS SUBJECT THAT HAVE BEEN PUBLISHED 1. Le Quoc Thanh, Pham Van Dan, Nguyen Huu Hieu, Nguyen Viet Ha, Do Nang Vinh, Ha Thi Thuy, Nguyen Tuan Phong, Evaluation of some introduced Japonica varieties in Yen Bai Province, 1st National Conference on Crop Science in2013 , page 315 - 320. 2. Nguyen Tuan Phong, Le Quoc Thanh, Pham Van Dan, Do Nang Vinh, Ha Thi Thuy, Research on determination of appropriate crop of Japonica rice variety J01 in Yen Bai Province, Journal of Science and Technology of Vietnam Agriculture N0 4 in 2013, page 110 - 115. 3. Nguyen Tuan Phong, Đo Nang Vinh, Le Quoc Thanh, Ha Thi Thuy, Pham Van Dan, Research on appropriate technical measures of intensive farming for Japonica rice variety J01 in Yen Bai Province, Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development N0 20 in 2013, page 42 - 48. PREFACE 1. Introduction and rationales It is widely recognized that rice plays an important role in providing food for half of world population as well as nutrition for human beings. In spite of being a country which was lack of food, Vietnam recently has made a great effort to be ranked as world’s top rice exporter. In addition to these achievements, it cannot be denied that Vietnamese agriculture is facing with many difficulties. Vietnam exports yearly 6-7 million tons of rice which accounts for 30% of total amount of rice all over the world. However, the price of Vietnamese rice is 50 100 USD/ton cheaper compared with that of Thailand, India, etc with the same quality. The main reason is that rice varieties with high rice quality only account for small percentages of agricultural production and also are low competitive. It leads to the fact that Vietnam is a rice exporting country but import rice with high quality. One of the practical significance is that in addition to applying advanced science and technology to increase rice yield and cut down producing costs, it is essential for farmers to come with more choices in terms of producing rice. Moreover, new rice varieties with high rice quality, high commercial value need to be created and produced in specialized areas in order to diversify the range of rice productions for exporting. In recent years, thanks to introduced resource and hybrid varieties of many domestic authors, some of potential, high productive and quality sub - varieties japonica have been created. Japonica is a variety which is highly adaptable to temperate and sub - tropical climate and can be grown in the places which are over 1000 meters above sea level. This variety characterizes with short to medium growth period, high propping ability, and resistance to pesticide, cold tolerance, and high adaption to intensive conditions as well as good fertilizer which then produces products with high rice yield, high quality and commercial value in accordance with ecological condition of Northern Vietnam. It can be said that growing japonica variety is a new direction in developing rice growing in Northern areas. For these reasons, the study “Research on breed determination and japonica varieties development in Northern Vietnam” was selected with an aim of taking the advantages of products. 2. Objectives of the research This study mainly aims at  Evaluating the natural condition, ecological condition, reality (including advantages and disadvantages) in producing in order to develop japonica variety in Northern provinces.  Identifying 1 - 2 japonica rice varieties which are suitable, stable, highly adaptable, and potential with high yield rice and quality so that farmers can use them to replace other old varieties in Northern provinces.  Developing procedures of farming techniques appropriate with japonica variety through experiments on crops, density, and fertilizer level in Yen Bai province.  Developing demonstration of japonica rice variety applied farming techniques with high yield rice and quality in Yen Bai province. 3. Scientific and practical significance 3.1. Scientific significance This is a synchronous scientific research on determining suitable ecological areas, evaluating adaptability, stability, tolerance, rice yield and quality of new japonica rice varieties in Northern provinces. Results of the research are scientific data related to technical methods such as rice seed, crop, density, fertilizer and harvesting. As a result, these results will contribute to orientation of producing japonica rice varieties with high rice yield to ensure food security, economic development in Northern part of Vietnam. 3.2. Practical significance The research plays an important role in determining potential japonica rice varieties which are appropriate to ecological areas in the Northern provinces. It also support local areas in choosing rice varieties with high quality, investing effectively in special varieties rather than normal ones which contribute to the increase in farmers’ income as well as development of social economy of areas. The results of researching technology in intensive farming of japonica J01 in Yen Bai Province can be applied in other areas which have similar natural conditions. 3.3. Scope of the research Research’s specialty is in the field of Crop Science with code 62.62.01.10. The research focuses on evaluating natural conditions, ecological conditions and investigating into the reality of using fertilizer in order to develop the production of japonica rice variety in Northern of Vietnam. It also focuses on 4. New scientific contribution of thesis First, in terms of theory, - Pointing out japonica rice varieties J01 and J02 have high yield rice, stability, resistance to pesticides. - Proposing technical methods in intensive farming in order to improve yield rice of japonica J01 and assure economical effect - Setting up scientific database contributing to the development of japonica rice variety in Northern areas. Secondly, in terms of practice, - Pointing out that Northern provinces are highly potential to develop japonica rice variety. 5. Thesis composition The thesis includes 144 pages. The structure of thesis consists of: Introduction: 04 pages Chapter 1: Overview: 45 pages Chapter 2: Content and methodology: 15 pages Chapter 3: Results and discussion: 77 pages Chapter 4: Conclusion and recommendations: 3 pages There are 42 tables, 05 maps and charts, 12 pictures, 131 reference material. The appendix includes tables about climate of areas, experiments, surveys, data analysis. It also includes Decision which recognizes new rice variety related to the traditional one as well as published newspaper related to the research. 1.1. 1.2. CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW Origin, classification of rice in the world The ecological response of japonica rice variety 1.3. Technical methods applied to rice 1.4. The criteria of rice quality 1.5. Reality of producing and researching japonica rice variety in the world and Vietnam 1.6. Solutions to develop japonica rice variety in Vietnam CHAPTER 2: CONTENT AND METHODOLOGY 2.1. Materials 2.1.1. Rice varieties Materials for experiments are introduced or hybrid rice varieties which were published in former studies. These varieties are high yield and stable in the North. They are: + Short term: Koshi Hikari, Goropikari; + Medium term: ĐS1, J01, J02, P10, PC26, TBJ1, TBJ2, TBJ3. 2.2.2. Other materials - Fertilizer: Gianh River compost microorganisms, Urea (46%N), Lam Thao Superphosphate (Single super 16% P205 ), Potassium chloride (60% K20) 2.2. Content of research 2.2.1. Evaluating natural conditions, ecological conditions aiming at developing japonica in Northern Vietnam. 2.2.2. Researching to find out sub - variety japonica with high yield and grain quality in Northern Vietnam 2.2.3. Researching technical methods (crops, density, fertilizer, harvesting) to build procedure of intensive farming for japonica rice variety in two districts Tram Tau and Van Chan in Yen Bai Province 2.2.4. Applying results of researching procedure of intensive farming japonica rice variety into producing model in Yen Bai Province; proposing solutions to expand the area of growing japonica rice variety in Yen Bai Province as well as other Northern provinces in Viet Nam. 2.3. Research methodology 2.3.1. Experimental arrangement methodology 2.3.1.1. Collecting primary data - Meteorological data, reality of using land in studied areas - Data of reality of producing rice, level of using fertilizer 2.3.1.2. Experimental arrangement on the fields - Japonica is determined a rice variety with high yield, grain quality and stability in Northern Vietnam. The experiments aiming at comparing different rice varieties were arranged in randomized complete block design (RCB) with 3 replications. The area of each experimental case is 10 meter squares; the distance between each case is 10 centimeters; the distance between times repeated is 30 centimeters. At least 3 rows of rice protect around the experimental areas. - Researching methods of intensive farming for rice variety J01 in two districts Tram Tau and Van Chan in Yen Bai Province: + Experiments on growing crop which were arranged in randomized complete block design (RCB) with 3 replications, the area of each experimental case is 10 meter squares (5m x 2m) + Experiments on density and level of fertilizer are two factors experiments which were arranged in split - plot design. The experiments include 3 times of replications (4 level of fertilizing x 3 transplanting density = 36 formulas), the area of each experimental case is 10 meter squares. - Researching technical methods for harvesting of rice variety J01 in two districts Tram Tau and Chan Van in Yen Bai province. 2.3.2. Data analysis - Comparing areas for growing - Analyzing grain quality - Calculating experimental errors - Evaluating adaptability and stability of yield rice - Evaluating economical effect CHAPTER 3: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1. Evaluation of natural conditions, ecological conditions and investigation into the reality of using fertilizer in order to develop japonica rice variety in Northern Vietnam In terms of natural conditions, Northern Vietnam is divided into two main areas: the Red river delta and the midland and Northern mountainous area (including the Northwest and Northeast) i) The Red River delta includes 10 provinces which are Vinh Phuc, Ha Noi, Bac Ninh, Ha Nam, Hung Yen, Hai Duong, Hai Phong, Thai Binh, Nam Dinh, Ninh Binh. These areas have favorable natural conditions to develop production of Japonica rice varieties originating from temperate and sub – tropical areas. Table 3.3. Results of yield rice and level of inorganic fertilizer in some Red River delta provinces Level of inorganic fertilizer (kg/ha) Places Hung Yen Hai Duong Thai Binh Ninh Binh Crop Winter-Spring Summer Winter- Spring Summer Winter- Spring Summer Winter- Spring Summer N/ Urea Nitrogen P205/ Superphosph ate K20/ Potassium chloride 110/239 88/191 120/261 96/209 118/257 95/207 115/250 92/200 90/563 90/563 89/556 89/556 87/544 87/544 90/563 90/563 80/133 80/133 85/142 85/142 83/138 83/138 78/130 78/130 Average rice yield (quintal/ha) 66 60 67 58 68 62 62 55 The Red River delta has favorable natural conditions which are suitable for developing production of japonica rice variety. In addition, farmer in these areas have experiences in intensive farming which is an advantage in developing the production of japonica rice variety. In fact, the area for growing rice is being narrowed, it is necessary to develop rice varieties with high yield, grain quality and high economical effect. Moreover, farmers should pay attention to disadvantages of climate in summer crop during production of japonica rice variety. ii) Northern midlands and mountainous includes 15 provinces which have advantages of growing plants originated from temperate and sub - tropical climate. Northern midlands and mountainous have natural conditions which are suitable for developing japonica rice varieties. In addition, the area for growing rice is increasing which leads to demand of new rice varieties with high yield, grain quality and cold tolerance. Besides, it is essential to give instructions, process of intensive farming which is consistent with natural condition and intellectual of people. Table 3.3. Results of yield rice and level of using inorganic fertilizer in Northern midlands and mountainous in 2009 Level of fertilizer (kg/ha) Average yield rice (quintal/ha) N/ Urea Nitrogen P205/ Superphosphate K20/ Potassium chloride Winter-Spring Summer Winter-Spring Summer Winter-Spring Summer 91/198 73/159 85/174 68/148 99/215 79/172 66/413 66/413 76/475 76/475 89/556 89/556 74/123 74/123 73/122 73/122 83/138 83/138 52 47 51 46 55 48 Winter-Spring Summer Winter-Spring Cao Bang Summer 100/217 80/174 80/174 64/139 85/531 85/531 75/469 75/469 82/137 82/137 71/118 71/118 56 50 50 45 Places Yen Bai Son La Phu Tho Thai Nguyen Crop Unlike the Red River delta, Northern midlands and mountainous is sub - divided into two ecological zones: Northwest and Northeast. Northwest includes Dien Bien, Lai Chau, Son La, Hoa Binh, Lao Cai, Yen Bai. Northeast includes Phu Tho, Ha Giang, Tuyen Quang, Cao Bang, Lang Son, Bac Kan, Thai Nguyen, Bac Giang and Quang Ninh. Northeast characterizes with exploitation, mineral processing, and development of industrial crops, medicine plants and tourism. In terms of Northwest, its strengths are exploitation of potential hydropower, development of industrial crops, fruit trees. In particular, many Northwest’s areas are famous for growing rice with high quality. Due to the sloping terrain, dissected, farming practices are limited which affect land quality, erosion, runoff, inadequate nutrition. Consequently, yield rice is not high. Therefore, in order to develop japonica, it is necessary to provide plants nutrition to grow effectively. In conclusion, natural conditions of Northern areas are suitable for developing japonica rice variety. 3.2. Result of evaluating growth period, yield components, yield of japonica rice varieties in some provinces representing ecological areas in Northern Vietnam Table 3.6.Growth period, yield components, yield of experimental rice varieties in provinces in the Red River delta in Spring crop 2010 and Spring crop 2011 Varieties TGST (day) Ear/ cluster (ear) KD18 (Đ/c) BT7(Đ/c) ĐS1 J01 J02 P10 PC26 TBJ1 TBJ2 TBJ3 CV (%) LSD 0,05 131 133 141 133 137 136 135 135 137 136 6,3 5,7 6,4 6,2 6,1 5,0 4,9 4,6 4,4 4,8 4,2 0,38 KD18 (Đ/c) BT7 (Đ/c) ĐS1 J01 J02 CV (%) LSD 0,05 139 135 143 135 138 6,5 5,6 6,4 6,2 6,5 4,0 0,47 KD18 (Đ/c) BT7 (Đ/c) ĐS1 J01 J02 CV (%) LSD 0,05 135 134 145 139 142 6,6 5,7 6,7 6,6 6,7 5,8 0,7 KD18 (Đ/c) BT7 (Đ/c) ĐS1 J01 J02 CV (%) LSD 0,05 142 138 142 135 139 6,1 5,4 6,6 6,4 6,4 6,4 0,74 ∑ Rate of grain firm /cluster grain (grain) (%) Hung Yen 147 92,5 155 93,6 136 91,9 142 92,3 133 90,8 144 92,5 150 90,0 149 88,9 148 88,3 150 89,8 3,9 1,6 9,6 2,4 Hai Duong 147 93,5 156 92,8 134 93,5 141 92,9 131 91,4 4,6 1,5 12,18 2,67 Thai Binh 148 93,3 154 93,9 135 94,1 139 93,8 132 92,7 3,7 1,7 9,8 2,9 Ninh Binh 145 92,7 155 93,9 137 93,7 145 93,4 137 93,2 3,9 1,2 10,56 2,08 P1000 grain (g) Theoretical Actual yield yield (quintal/ha) (quintal/ha) 20,4 18,5 23,7 23,7 23,4 23,6 24,2 25,4 24,2 24,3 78,4 68,7 85,3 86,2 77,8 70,0 72,2 69,8 62,5 70,6 62,3 54,7 67,8 68,5 62,0 55,6 57,6 55,6 49,6 56,2 4,6 4,7 20,3 18,3 23,7 23,6 23,4 81,4 66,9 85,6 86,1 82,0 64,3 53,6 68,6 69,2 65,2 5,8 6,9 20,4 18,3 23,7 23,7 23,4 83,2 67,9 91,0 91,8 86,4 65,3 53,7 72,6 73,3 68,0 5,4 6,7 20,5 18,4 23,7 23,6 23,5 75,5 65,1 90,3 91,9 85,7 60,3 51,7 71,1 72,0 68,0 4,8 5,8 Table 3.7. Growth period, yield components, yield of experimental rice varieties in provinces in the Northern mountainous in Spring crop 2010 and Spring crop 2011 ∑grain Rate of /ear firm (grain) grain (%) Yen Bai 150 86,0 TGST (day) Ear/ cluster (ear) 136 5,4 140 5,1 170 132 133 152 141 150 142 146 5,3 5,4 5,6 5,7 5,0 5,1 4,8 5,4 0,5 116 120 151 145 146 145 149 5,3 13,2 Son La 135 142 138 140 136 136 4,2 5,4 5,5 5,1 5,4 5,0 6,8 0,63 136 142 140 148 6,0 6,0 5,5 5,7 7,0 0,8 KD18 (Control variety) ĐS1 J01 J02 CV (%) LSD 0,05 135 143 137 141 6,2 6,3 6,2 6,7 6,7 0,84 NƯ838 (Control variety) KD18 (Control variety) ĐS1 J01 J02 CV (%) LSD 0,05 132 140 143 136 140 5,03 4,90 5,70 5,60 5,2 7,3 0,73 Varieties HT1 (Control variety) Nhi uu 838 (Control variety) Goropikari Koshihikari ĐS1 J01 J02 P10 PC26 CV (%) LSD 0,05 Glutinous 97 (Control variety) ĐS1 J01 J02 P10 PC26 CV (%) LSD 0,05 Glutinous 87 (Control variety) ĐS1 J01 J02 CV (%) LSD 0,05 P1000 grain (g) Theoretical yield (quintal/ha) Actual yield (quintal/ha) 21,5 67,4 55,8 80,1 26 81,3 68,2 89,1 87,0 84,3 85,5 84,7 87,1 85,1 3,5 5,2 23,8 23,6 23,5 23,6 23,9 23,7 24,5 58,7 60,0 75,3 75,1 66,4 68,8 67,3 50,1 50,3 62,3 62,1 56,1 56,3 56,5 5,2 5,3 157 88,0 145 91,8 137 91,7 135 90,2 143 92,5 150 90,9 6,2 2,4 16,3 3,9 Thai Nguyen 25,8 23,3 23,4 23,4 23,5 24,0 67,3 75,2 73,0 65,6 75,7 73,6 51,4 60,0 57,8 51,9 59,2 58,4 6,6 6,7 94,8 94,4 92,9 92,9 1,9 3,6 20,1 23,6 23,6 23,2 74,0 78,7 76,5 74,0 58,9 62,7 60,6 58,5 4,5 3,5 94,2 93,6 93,4 92,0 1,8 3,39 20,2 23,6 23,6 23,2 76,2 82,1 82,9 86,5 60,9 64,5 64,1 68,0 5,6 6,7 87,8 93,1 93,3 92,1 91,7 3,2 5,5 26,1 20,1 23,6 23,4 23,2 78,0 59,8 76,2 71,9 67,1 62,4 48,2 60,2 57,3 53,1 6,2 6,3 144 131 142 135 7,1 19,6 Phu Tho 144 131 135 135 7,6 20,57 Cao Bang 151 145 135 133 135 4,6 12,04 Table 3.8. Growth period, yield components, yield of experimental rice varieties in provinces in the Red River delta in Summer crop 2010 and Summer crop 2011 Varieties KD18 (Control variety) BT7(Control variety) ĐS1 J01 J02 P10 PC26 TBJ1 TBJ2 TBJ3 CV (%) LSD 0,05 KD18 (Control variety) BT7 (Control variety) ĐS1 J01 J02 CV (%) LSD 0,05 KD18 (Control variety) BT7 (Control variety) ĐS1 J01 J02 CV (%) LSD 0,05 KD18 (Control variety) BT7 (Control variety) ĐS 1 J01 J02 CV (%) LSD 0,05 TGST (day) 108 105 121 116 117 114 115 108 110 110 109 106 118 115 116 108 107 120 115 118 110 107 118 112 117 Ear/ cluster (ear) ∑ grain Rate of /ear firm grain (grain) (%) Hung Yen P1000 grain (g) Theoretical yield (quintal/ha) Actual yield (quintal/ha) 5,6 146 89,3 20,6 67,6 53,9 5,3 5,4 5,2 5,5 4,7 4,4 4,0 4,0 4,2 5,7 0,4 158 89,5 141 87,2 144 87,9 130 86,4 142 85,5 151 85,6 148 85,6 149 86,6 150 86,7 4,2 3,3 10,3 4,8 Hai Duong 18,5 23,6 23,5 23,4 23,4 24,3 25,3 24,4 24,4 62,6 70,5 69,2 64,9 60,4 62,0 57,8 56,9 59,9 49,8 56,1 55,1 51,7 48,1 49,3 46,1 45,3 47,8 5,3 4,5 6,0 144 89,9 20,4 71,2 56,9 5,2 5,6 5,5 5,6 4,8 0,4 158 89,9 139 89,5 140 89,5 129 89,4 3,6 2,0 9,5 3,3 Thai Binh 18,4 23,6 23,4 23,3 61,1 73,7 72,6 67,6 48,8 58,6 57,8 53,6 5,4 5,6 5,8 146 89,3 20,4 69,2 54,9 5,3 6,0 5,8 6,0 3,8 0,4 157 90,5 140 90,9 141 89,6 134 90,3 3,4 2,9 9,0 4,8 Ninh Binh 18,5 23,6 23,4 23,3 62,9 80,9 77,0 75,6 49,8 64,5 61,0 60,2 5,6 6,0 5,4 144 89,4 20,5 64,3 50,9 5,1 6,0 5,7 5,8 6,3 0,6 156 138 145 138 5,4 14,6 89,1 90,9 89,5 89,4 1,2 2,0 18,4 23,6 23,4 23,6 58,8 80,1 78,1 76,1 46,8 63,8 62,1 60,7 5,0 5,3 Table 3.9. Growth period, yield components, yield of experimental rice varieties in provinces in the Northern mountainous in Summer crop 2010 and Summer crop 2011 Rate of Growth Ear/ ∑grain P1000 Theoretical Actual firm Varieties period cluster /ear grain yield yield grain (quintal/ha) (quintal/ha) (day) (ear) (grain) (g) (%) Yen Bai HT1 (Control variety) 106 4,7 145 86,2 22,1 58,4 48,9 Nhị ưu 838 (Control variety) 107 4,8 150 84,7 26,0 71,4 61,3 Goropikari 102 4,5 118 87,9 23,3 48,9 41,2 Koshihikari 103 4,5 124 86,2 23,0 49,9 41,1 ĐS1 122 4,6 149 89,3 23,5 64,7 54,8 J01 117 4,9 145 88,3 23,6 66,6 55,1 J02 119 4,3 146 89,0 23,7 59,6 49,3 P10 112 4,5 139 87,0 23,4 57,3 49,1 PC26 113 4,4 144 89,6 23,1 59 49 CV (%) 5,3 4,1 5,4 6,4 LSD0,05 0,4 9,9 8,2 5,5 Son La Glutinous 97 (Control variety) 110 3,7 155 80,7 25,7 53,4 42,4 ĐS1 115 4,7 146 87,1 23,3 62,4 49,8 J01 113 4,8 138 87,7 23,4 61,2 48,7 J02 116 4,4 133 85,2 23,2 52,0 41,4 P10 112 4,8 142 87,0 23,4 62,0 49,4 PC26 110 4,4 143 86,5 23,9 58,7 46,3 CV (%) 6,6 5,6 3,5 6,3 LSD 0,05 0,5 14,4 5,5 5,3 Thai Nguyen KD18 (Control variety) 109 5,4 140 92,9 20,2 63,7 51,3 ĐS1 115 5,2 132 90,1 23,4 64,8 51,2 J01 112 4,9 128 87,3 23,4 57,9 45,9 J02 118 4,8 130 86,9 23,3 56,3 45,0 CV (%) 5,6 4,4 2,2 5,5 LSD 0,05 0,56 11,7 3,5 5,2 Phu Tho KD18 (Control variety) 109 5,3 141 90,9 20,4 62,7 49,8 ĐS1 116 5,5 133 89,8 23,5 69,1 55,2 J01 112 5,5 135 90,4 23,4 70,6 56,1 J02 115 5,7 129 88,9 23,3 68,4 54,4 CV (%) 6,1 6,5 3,5 6,0 LSD 0,05 0,7 17,3 6,3 6,4 Cao Bang Bao Thai (Control variety) 160 4,4 129 85,7 24,5 53,5 43,0 Đại Dương 6 (Control variety) 120 5,1 140 91,7 27,1 79,8 64,1 ĐS1 118 5,1 133 90,5 23,5 64,5 52,4 J01 110 5 126 87,8 23,4 58,3 46,6 J02 113 4,7 129 86,8 23,3 54,9 44,3 CV (%) 6,8 4,6 1,5 5,3 LSD 0,05 0,6 11,6 2,4 4,9 The results point out that: there are no differences in the growth period of japonica rice varieties grown in ecological area. However, the growth period of rice varieties grown in Northern mountainous areas is longer than those grown in the Red River delta. The growth period of japonica rice varieties (around 130 -155 days in Spring crop and 110 -122 days in Summer crop) is equivalent and longer than control varieties in local areas where experiments were implemented. Tillering ability varies from different religions due to the difference of climate, land, intensive farming level. The tillering of japonica rice varieties grown in the Red River delta (average of 67ears/cluster) is higher than those grown in Northern mountainous areas (average of 57 ears/cluster). Among the experimental japonica rice varieties, DS1 and J01 are the two varieties which have no differences between theoretical and practical yield rice, higher than other japonica rice varieties. 3.2.4. Evaluation of cold tolerance in seeding stage of studied varieties in Spring Crop 2011 in Yen Bai province Table 3.11. Evaluation of cold tolerance of studied varieties in the stage after transplanting to returning green in Spring crop 2011 in Yen Bai province Variety HT1(Control variety) Nhi uu 838 (Control variety) Goropikari Koshihikari ĐS1 J01 J02 P10 PC26 Van Chan District Plant Plant dead dead rates (%) 29 5,8 Tram Tau District Plant Plant dead dead rates (%) 31 6,2 Mu Cang Chai District Average (%) Plant dead Plant dead rates (%) 35 7 6,33 22 4,4 23 4,6 26 5,2 4,73 1 2 0 0 0 1 1 0,2 0,4 0 0 0 0,2 0,2 1 2 0 0 1 1 1 0,2 0,4 0 0 0,2 0,2 0,2 2 3 0 1 2 2 3 0,4 0,6 0 0,2 0,4 0,4 0,6 0,27 0,47 0,00 0,07 0,20 0,27 0,33 In terms of Spring crop conditions, in some mountainous districts in Yen Bai province, the temperature is sometimes under 130C (lasting more than one week) which leads to the death of some control varieties such as HT1, Nhi Uu 83. The rate of dead varieties are about 4, 73% - 6, 33%. After returning green, this phenomena still happens with control varieties. However, other japonica rice varieties are still dark green. This is the most outstanding feature to recognize japonica rice varieties with low rate of death (0 - 0.47%) 3.2.5. Evaluation of the adaptability and stability in yield rice of japonica rice varieties in two years (2011 - 2012) 3.2.5.1. Evaluation of stability of rice varieties in the Red River delta As can be seen from the table, in terms of conditions in Spring crop and Summer crop in the Red River delta, the three varieties DS1, J01, J02 have stable yield rice due to the fact that deviation regression is small, P is not significant, regression coefficient equivalents 1 (Ttn T, with *), it can be concluded that this variety is not suitable with environment. Under hard condition, it still provides high yield. J02 also has smell deviation regression and P is not significant. It is considered as stable variety. Meanwhile its regression coefficient is more than 1 (Ttn >T, with *), it can be concluded that this variety is suitable with favorable environment In Summer crop in Northern mountainous regions, J01 and J01 provide stable yield rice due to small deviation regression, P is not significant, regression coefficient equivalents 1 (Ttn T, with *), it can be concluded that this variety is not suitable with environment. Under hard condition, it still provides average yield. After evaluating stability of yield rice of three varieties DS1, J01, J02, it can be said that all the varieties are highly adaptive and have stable yield rice. They are consistent with unfavorable environment and easy to adapt in Northern Vietnam. 3.2.6. Evaluation of grain quality of japonica rice varieties in some basic experiments in Spring crop 2011 Table 3.16. Analytical result of indicators of nutritious rice quality of experimental rice varieties in Spring crop in 2011 Variety Rate of brown rice (%) Rate of milled rice(% ) Rate of whole grain rice (%) ĐS1 J01 J02 ĐS1 J01 J02 79,50 80,25 79,50 81,25 82,00 80,25 66,00 67,50 67,25 67,50 69,00 67,75 79,76 82,00 80,40 86,86 80,03 79,08 ĐS1 80,75 70,75 Color of brown rice Gel strength Gelatinization temperature Tram Tau District – Yen Bai Province Ivory white Soft Average Light brown Soft Average Light brown Soft Average Ivory white Soft Average Ivory white Soft Average Ivory white Soft Average Tien Lu District – Hung Yen Province 83,43 Ivory white Soft Average Amylose content (% CK) Rate of R/D grain Protein content (%) 17,58 18,83 17,92 16,83 16,52 17,17 1,54 1,63 1,73 1,57 1,67 1,77 7,79 6,72 6,43 6,55 6,43 6,31 17,82 1,58 6,01 J01 J02 81,50 81,00 68,00 71,00 79,65 78,74 Ivory white à Ivory white Soft Soft Average Average 18,25 16,67 1,67 1,85 5,83 6,25 (Data were analysed in Division of Cultivated product testing and Certification - National Center for Plant Testing in 2011) After assaying japonica rice varieties in provinces representing ecological areas, some indicators of grain quality between the Red River delta with Hung Yen as representative and high mountainous area with Yen Bai as representative are analyzed. The results show that the grain quality of japonica rice varieties grown in Northern mountainous area have higher sub-indices rather than those grown in the Red River delta. In conclusion, after comparing 10 sub varieties japonica, J01 and J02 are considered as the two varieties which are consistent with ecological condition, crop structure in some provinces representing ecological areas in Northern Vietnam. J01 and J02 have middle growth period, highly resistant to pesticides and disadvantageous environmental condition. In addition they have good cold tolerance which is suitable with natural condition in Northern mountainous regions). They are similar with DS1 in terms of high and stable yield rice, even higher than control varieties in assayed provinces. After analyzing grain quality, J01 and J02 grown in Northern mountainous regions have better quality than those grown in the Red River Delta. However, J02 is seemed to be lower purity compared with J01. In order to maximize the potential yield rice of J01 which can serve the aim of exporting rice with high quality, it is essential to conduct researches on technical methods to improve yield rice of J01 in the Northern mountainous regions. According to the result of evaluating natural condition, ecological condition, level of using fertilizer above, the Northwest mountainous regions have appropriate natural and ecological condition for developing production of japonica varieties. In particular, Yen Bai is the province where japonica rice varieties provided higher yield than those grown in other provinces in the region. 3.3. Results of researching technical methods in intensive farming to increase yield rice of J01 in two districts Tram Tau and Van Chan - Yen Bai province 3.3.1. Evaluation of natural condition, rice production in Yen Bai province Yen Bai is a mountainous area which is characterized with high terrain gradually from Southeast to Northwest. Topography can be divided into two main regions which are: region with average height of 600m and over and region with average height of under 600m. After researching climate condition, hydrology and reality of using land, it comes to the conclusion that Yen Bai Province is suitable for developing japonica rice varieties. In order to find out the reasons leading to low yield rice of japonica varieties grown in Yen Bai Province compared with potential yield of the region, researchers conducted research on natural condition, reality of producing rice in two districts Van Chan and Tram Tau. Two districts Van Chan (low region) and Tram Tau (high region) have natural condition which is suitable for developing japonica rice varieties with high yield and quality. However, there are still some difficulties in the development of japonica rice varieties. In fact, agricultural land is mainly upland fields; few dispersed paddy fields, complex terrain with low intellectual level that leads to the prevention of production’s direction and application of advanced technology into production. As a result, it is essential to find out technical methods which are suitable with natural condition to develop japonica rice varieties. 3.3.2. Results of researching technical methods in intensive farming of rice variety J01 in the two districts Tram Tau and Van Chan, Yen Bai province 3.3.2.1. Research on determining suitable crop for rice variety J01 in the two districts Tram Tau and Van Chan - Yen Bai province iiii) Influence of crop on yield rice and other yield rice components of variety J01 in Spring crop and Summer crop in 2011 - 2012 Table 3.26. Influence of crop on yield rice components and yield rice of variety J01 (Spring crop and Summer crop 2011-2012 in two districts Tram Tau and Van Chan) (The average data in two years 2011 and 2012) Crop Spring Summer Rate of firm grain Season Crop Ear/m2 Grain /ear SC1 SC2 SC3 SC4 SC1 SC2 SC3 SC4 265 280 310 310 225 235 275 260 120,7 123,0 122,3 119,7 119,0 122,0 123,3 125,7 87,1 89,1 92,4 85,8 84,9 87,2 90,3 84,7 4,4 25,6 7,6 37,6 3,2 7,6 4,9 11,9 2,9 5,2 2,2 3,7 CV(%)(Spring) LSD 0,05 (Spring) CV(%) (Summer) LSD 0,05 (Summer) P1000 grain (g) 23,6 23,7 23,8 23,6 23,6 23,8 23,6 23,6 Theoreti Actual cayield yield (quintal/ (quintal/h ha) a) 65,7 71,7 83,3 75,2 53,4 59,3 72,1 65,3 54,0 59,0 66,5 60,5 43,3 49,1 58,2 52,9 5,8 6,9 4,4 4,4 Actual yield: is the most important factor reflecting the effectiveness of planting complied from reality during production. Results of experiments show that in spite of the same technical methods, there are still differences in actual yield of experimental crop seasons. This difference is significant at 95% of probability level. It also illustrates that the actual yield of J01 in crop 3 of Spring crop season is 66,5 quintal/ha, which is 6-12.5 quintal/ha higher than other crops. In Summer crop, the actual yield ranges from 43.8 to 58.2 quintal/ha, reaching a peak of 58.2 quintal/ha in season crop 3. 3.3.2.2. Research on influence of level of potassium and density on growth period, development, yield rice components and yield of variety J01 iiiii) Influence of level of potassium and density on yield rice and yield rice components of variety J01 in Spring crop in two districts Tram Tau and Van Chan Yen Bai province Table 3.33. Influence of level of potassium and density on yield rice and yield rice components of variety J01 in Spring crop (Spring crop and Summer crop 2011- 2012 in the two district Tram Tau and Van Chan) (The average data in two years) Yield rice components Fertilizer Density combination M1 M2 M3 Theoretical Actual Rate of P1000 yield yield firm grain (quintal/ha) (quintal/ha) grain (%) (g) Ear /cluster Ear/m2 Grain /ear K0 3,8 171,0e 116,3 82,8 23,1 38,0 29,8e K1 5,6 252,0d 121,7 87,6 23,5 62,8 49,5d K2 5,8 261,0cd 123,0 93,2 23,7 70,9 56,6b K3 5,7 256,5d 123,0 92,8 23,5 68,8 54,9cd K0 3,7 185,0e 114,7 82,9 23,2 40,7 32,3e K1 5,7 285,0bc 121,0 87,6 23,4 70,8 56,3b K2 6,3 315,0a 122,0 93,2 23,8 85,1 67,1a K3 5,9 295,0ab 123,0 91,0 23,7 77,7 61,0abc K0 3,5 192,5e 113,0 82,3 23,2 41,4 32,7e K1 5,5 302,5ab 117,3 85,1 23,3 70,4 55,7cd K2 5,7 313,5a 122,0 92,1 23,7 83,3 66,3ab K3 5,3 291,5ab 123,3 90,0 23,6 76,2 60,1bc 5,5 24,3 6,7 13,6 3,4 7,5 6,8 7,5 7,1 6,3 CV % LSD 0,05 Notes: Values which have one different letter in the same column express difference level of 0.05/ Values which have no different letter in the same column express difference level which is not 0.05. iiiiii)Influence of level of potassium and density on yield rice and yield rice components of variety J01 in Summer crop in two districts Tram Tau and Van Chan - Yen Bai province Table 3.36. Influence of level of potassium and density on yield rice and yield rice components of variety J01 in Summer crop (Spring crop and Summer crop 2011- 2012 in the two district Tram Tau and Van Chan) (The average date in two years) Yield rice components Ear /cluster Ear/m2 Theoretical Actual Rate yield yield Grain of firm P1000 /ear grain grain(g) (quintal/ha) (quintal/ha) (%) K0 3,5 157,5f 113,3 81,1 23,03 33,25 26,27f K1 4,8 216,0e 117,3 86,5 23,27 50,89 40,57e K2 5,5 247,5cd 123,3 90,8 23,50 65,15 52,10bc K3 K0 K1 K2 K3 5,4 3,4 5,0 5,7 5,5 243,0d 170,0f 250,0bcd 285,0a 275,0ab 122,3 113,0 116,3 123,0 121,7 90,0 81,1 86,1 91,6 90,4 23,37 23,10 23,23 23,63 23,47 62,48 36,02 58,11 75,67 70,81 49,70cd 28,40f 46,43d K0 K1 K2 K3 3,2 4,9 5,0 4,8 176,0f 269,5abc 275,0ab 264,0abcd 6,2 25,2 113,3 115,3 121,3 120,7 3,9 27,9 80,6 84,4 89,5 89,4 3,5 5,2 23,10 23,27 23,53 23,37 37,13 60,86 70,14 66,42 29,40f 48,33cd 55,90ab 52,90bc 6,5 5,04 Fertilizer Density combination M1 M2 M3 CV % LSD 0,05 60,43a 56,33ab - Actual yield: In the Spring crop, the average yield rice ranges from 29,8 - 67,1 ta/ha in which the formula providing the highest actual yield is M2K2(67,1 ta/ha) and the formula providing the lowest one is M1K0 (29,8 quintal/ha). In the Summer crop, the average yield rice ranges from 26,27 - 60,43 quintal/ha in which the formula providing the highest actual yield is M2K2 (60,43 quintal/ha) and the formula providing the lowest one is M1N0 (26,27 quintal/ha). Different formulas lead to different actual yield with difference level of α = 0,05. As can be seen, the changes in density, using Kali level lead to the difference in theoretical and actual yield rice as well as elements constituting yield rice. Different formulas lead to different actual yield. iiiiiii) Economic efficiency of variety J01 at different level of potassium and
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