Research about job satisfaction at transport and industry development investment join stock company

  • Số trang: 61 |
  • Loại file: PDF |
  • Lượt xem: 14 |
  • Lượt tải: 0
nhattuvisu

Đã đăng 26946 tài liệu

Mô tả:

RESEARCH PROJECT (BMBR5103) RESEARCH ABOUT JOB SATISFACTION AT TRANSPORT AND INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENT JOIN STOCK COMPANY STUDENT’S FULL NAME : PHAM NGUYEN DOAN TRANG STUDENT ID : CGS00018264 INTAKE : MAY 2014 ADVISOR’S NAME & TITLE : DR. NGUYEN THE KHAI (DBA) August 2015 ADVISOR’S ASSESSMENT ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Advisor’s signature Nguyen The Khai, DBA Page 1 of 60 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to acknowledge the help of several individuals because without their assistance, guidance, and understanding this research would not have been possible. Firstly, I am very grateful to my advisor DBA. Khai Nguyen. His patience, time, and commitment, in addition to his constant encouragement, effort, constructive comments, support, and individualized attention were a major source of inspiration. Thank you for trusting in me. The other members of my committee were also great assets. Thanks to the board of managers and all employees of TRACODI for their precious comments and helps to collect data for this thesis. I wish to give my sincerest and deepest gratitude to my family and all of my sweet friends for their encouragement, and great support. Page 2 of 60 TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLE ....................................................................... 5 ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................... 6 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ......................................................................... 7 1.1. INTRODUCTION OF TRACODI .......................................................... 7 1.1.1. Company Description ............................................................................. 7 1.1.2. History and Milestones ........................................................................... 8 1.1.3. Organizational structure of TRACODI ................................................. 11 1.2. RESEARCH INTRODUCTION ........................................................... 11 1.2.1. Motivation of the study......................................................................... 11 1.2.2. Significance of the study....................................................................... 13 1.2.3. Purpose of the study ............................................................................. 13 1.2.4. Question of the study ............................................................................ 13 CHAPTER 2: LITTERATURE REVIEW ......................................................... 14 2.1 DEFINITION OF CONSTRUCTS ........................................................ 14 2.1.1. Job satisfaction ..................................................................................... 14 2.1.2 Job Interdependence ............................................................................. 14 2.1.3 Supervisory Support ............................................................................. 15 2.1.4 Developmental Experiences.................................................................. 16 2.1.5 Job Role Discretion .............................................................................. 16 2.2. THEORY OF JOB SATISFACTION ................................................... 18 2.2.1. Job satisfaction theories traceable to employee performance ................ 18 2.2.2. Two-factor theory ................................................................................. 18 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH MODEL AND HYPOTHESES ............................ 23 3.1 RESEARCH MODEL ............................................................................ 23 3.1.1 Dependent Variables............................................................................. 23 3.1.2 Independent Variables .......................................................................... 23 3.2 CONSTRUCTS ...................................................................................... 24 3.3 SUMMARY OF HYPOTHESES ........................................................... 24 Page 3 of 60 3.4 DATA COLLECTION ........................................................................... 24 3.5 MEASURE OF EACH CONSTRUCT .................................................. 25 3.5.1. Job Satisfaction..................................................................................... 25 3.5.2. Job Interdependence ............................................................................. 27 3.5.3. Supervisory Support ............................................................................. 29 3.5.4. Developmental Experiences.................................................................. 30 3.5.5. Job Role Discretion .............................................................................. 31 3.6 DATA ANALYSIS ................................................................................. 33 CHAPTER 4: ANALYSIS AND RESEARCH................................................... 34 4.1. DATA ANALYSIS ................................................................................. 34 4.2. RELIABILITY STATISTICS ............................................................... 35 4.2.1. Main Construct – Job Satisfaction ........................................................ 35 4.2.2. Construct: Job interdependence ............................................................ 35 4.2.3. Construct: Supervisory Support ............................................................ 35 4.2.4. Construct: Developmental Experiences................................................. 35 4.2.5. Construct: Job Role Discretion ............................................................. 36 4.3. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS ............................................................... 36 4.4. CORRELATIONS STATISTIC ............................................................ 37 4.5. HYPOTHESIS TESTING RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ................. 39 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS.......................................................................... 42 5.1. CONCLUSIONS..................................................................................... 42 5.2. RECOMMENDATIONS FROM THE RESEARCH RESULTS ........ 42 5.3. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH........................................................ 44 5.4. LIMITATION OF RESEARCH............................................................ 44 5.5. FURTHER RESEARCH DIRECTIONS .............................................. 44 REFERENCES .................................................................................................... 45 APPENDIX .......................................................................................................... 49 APPENDIX 1: SURVEY .................................................................................. 49 APPENDIX 2: PRESENTATION ................................................................... 57 Page 4 of 60 LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLE FIGURE Figure 1: Organizational Chart of TRACODI------------------------------------------- 11 Figure 2: Proposed Research Model of Employee Job Satisfaction in TRACODI 23 TABLE Table 1: Cronbach's Alpha- Internal consistency .................................................. 34 Table 2: Cronbach's Alpha of Construct Job Satisfaction ...................................... 35 Table 3: Cronbach's Alpha of Construct Job Interdependence .............................. 35 Table 4: Cronbach's Alpha of Construct Supervisory Support ............................... 35 Table 5: Cronbach's Alpha of Construct Developmental Experiences.................... 35 Table 6: Cronbach's Alpha of Construct Job Role Discretion ................................ 36 Table 7: Descriptive Statistics ............................................................................... 36 Table 8: Correlations ............................................................................................ 38 Table 9: Model Summary....................................................................................... 39 Table 10: Coefficientsa ......................................................................................... 40 Table 11: Hypothesis Statistics .............................................................................. 40 Page 5 of 60 ABSTRACT This purpose of this research is to find the factors influence to the Job Satisfaction of employees working at TRACODI. This study examines the impact of Job Interdependence, Supervisory Support, Developmental Experiences, and Job Role Discretion to Job Satisfaction of employees. Data was collected through the use of standardized questionnaires. Questionnaires were given personally to 310 managerial and non- managerial employees of TRACODI; there were 290 questionnaires returning, in which 272 completely responses were used for the statistical analysis. The collected data were computed and analyzed through factor analysis, Cronbach’s alpha, descriptive statistics, correlation, and multiple regression analysis. Result: The results support the hypothesis that Job Interdependence, Supervisory Support, Developmental Experiences, and Job Role Discretion have positively relationship with employee’s job satisfaction. Conclusion: The findings in this study would help managers of TRACODI to formulate strategies that involved work factors such as distributive and procedural justice to improve the management of human resource development. These strategies would help to influence positive behaviors among employees, and hence achieve effectiveness and high productivity in the organization. Therefore, it was worth the effort for the organization to train and educate their managers on the impact of perceptions of organizational justice on the motivation and commitment of their employees. Keywords: Job satisfaction, Job Interdependence, Supervisory Support, Developmental Experiences, and Job Role Discretion. Page 6 of 60 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION I would like to introduce a research about “Job Satisfaction: Factors affecting it in Transport And Industry Development Investment Join Stock Company (TRACODI)”. 1.1. INTRODUCTION OF TRACODI 1.1.1. Company Description TRANSPORT AND INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENT (TRACODI) JOIN STOCK COMPANY was established by the General Shareholders Meeting on March, 27 2013, it has been officially changed from one member limited liability company investments Industrial Development and Transportation (TRACODI Co., Ltd.) to a joint stock company since April 04, 2013. The precursor of TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENT JOINT STOCK COMPANY (TRACODI) is TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENT CORPORATION (TRACODI) – State-owned Enterprise directly under the Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications, established under Decision No. 1988/QD/TCCB-LD on 10/30/1990. Address: 89 Cach Mang Thang 8, Ben Thanh Ward, District 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Tel: (84 8) 38330314 - 38330315 - 38323941 to 39259689 Fax: (84 8) 38330317 E-mail: tracodi@tracodi.com.vn Website: www.tracodi.com.vn Tax ID: 0300482393 Page 7 of 60 Spread over more than 20 years of construction and development, TRACODI constantly sustainable development, stability and assert it position, creating prestigious brands in the fields of construction traffic , industrial and civil; labor export service, import and export goods services and tourism services; joint ventures in the country and abroad; projects investment. From small initial capital mainly office equipment with less than 10 employees, the Company has developed a long way in all areas of production and business activities, the Company owns capital can apply to participate in major projects with over 300 employees and labor management field. With expanded strategic direction and continued growth, TRACODI is ready into joint ventures with enterprises at home and abroad for business and production in the fields of investment, industrial production, construction, labor export, import and export goods, travel, etc. (“Source: www.tracodi.com.vn”). 1.1.2. History and Milestones TRACODI is abbreviated from its English name of TRAnsport and COmmunication Development Investment Joint Stock Company. TRACODI is a State-owned Enterprise established on 30/10/1990 according to the Decision No. 1190/QD/TCCB-LD issued by the Minister of Ministry of Transport Stage 1990 – 1995 With the first function of consulting foreign investment in mainly transport and communication field, TRACODI has successfully consulted many projects as well as joined many projects with foreign owned capital. On 02/05/1992 VIETNAM TAXI COMPANY (VINATAXI) was established between TRACODI and Tecobest Investment Ltd. (Hongkong). This is a public transportation, calculating charges by taxi meter firstly in Vietnam. On 24/08/1993 VIKO MIXED ASPHALT AND BATCHED CONCRETE CO., LTD. (DONGAH-TRACO) was established between TRACODI and Transport and Communication Mechanical Enterprise No. 2 and Dong-Ah Construction Industrial Co., Ltd. (Korea), Page 8 of 60 On 07/09/1994 AN GIANG BUILDING MATERIAL EXPLOITING AND PROCESSING CO., LTD. (ANTRACO) was established between TRACODI and An Giang. On 11/09/1995 TELENZ-TRACODI ENGINEERING INVESTMENT AND CONSTRUCTION CO., LTD. (TELENZ-TRACODI) was established between TRACODI and Telenz International Ltd. and Fletcher Construction New Zealand & South Pacific Limited (New Zealand). In the years 1994, 1995 construction activity developed, TRACODI was awarded many industrial projects. Its enterprises were established in turn as Construction Enterprise No. 1, Construction Enterprise No. 2, Construction Enterprise No. 3, Construction Enterprise No. 4, Center Construction Enterprise. On 24/07/1993 LABOUR MANAGEMENT AND TRAINING CENTER (TRACODI-LAMATCEN) was established. Also in 1993 Ha Noi People’s Committee granted the Licence for establishing TRACODI Branch - Representative Office in Ha Noi. Stage 1996 – 2000 On 30/12/1996 TRACODI co-operated with Thien Nam Co. (Vietnam) and Caltex Kuo Pte. Ltd. (Singapore) for establishing CALTEX BITUMEN VIETNAM LIMITED with mainly activity of import, storage, mix, package and distribution of bitum. On 18/09/1996 the Department of Tourism granted the licence for establishing TRACODI TOURIST CENTER (TRACODI TOURIST). On 18/05/1999 the foreign partner of TELENZ-TRACODI Joint Venture Company was replaced by Keppel Communication Pte. Ltd. (Singapore) and the name was changed into FOLEC COMMUNICATIONS VIETNAM LTD. (FOLEC VIETNAM) by the decision of the Ministry of Planning and Investment. On 03/07/2000 TRACODI Branch in Da Nang was established. During years 1997, 1998, 1999, TRACODI met many difficulties such as many projects had finished yet, outstanding debts from loan for investment. Page 9 of 60 However, the situation gradually improved by the Board of Directors. TRACODI recovered and developed step by step. Stage 2000 – 2005 This stage was developed well in most of fields: construction, labors export, tourism, joint venture. All activities brought high benefit. During this period, TRACODI joined a lot of prominent science experiment projects such as Project of consolidating lime for weak foundation in Mekong River Delta, Urban Garbage Press Truck Project, Pre-produce House Project for Plain of Reeds, etc. … In the end of 2002 TRACODI Party Committee decided to invest the industrial field for job creation. After many months of study, TRACODI defended successfully the Pre-feasibility Study Report of Phuong Nam Kenaf Pulp Mill Project with capacity 100,000 MT/year in Long An province. Stage 2005 to now On 23/03/2006 Ground Breaking Ceremony for building Phuong Nam Kenaf Pulp Mill was held. During this stage, TRACODI have gathered its strength for investing and building Phuong Nam Kenaf Pulp Mill. Due to subjective and objective causes, construction of the Mill has been delayed. TRACODI is facing difficulties of raw material, professional power source, payment of loan, etc. … On 16/06/2007 TRACODI was officially conversed into a one member limited liability company – Transport And Industry Development Investment Company Limited (TRACODI Co., Ltd.). In 02/2008 TRACODI made a trial for producing Medium Density Fiber (MDF) board at Wilhelm-Klauditz-Institut (WKI), Braunschweig, Germany to get figures for the Feasibility Study Report for investing and building Phuong Nam Melaleuca Medium Density Fiber Factory (Phuong Nam MDF). On 10/06/2008 Long An Province People’s Committee and the State Capital Investment Corporation signed the Transferring Minutes to transfer the right to Page 10 of 60 represent the State-owned capital in TRACODI from Long An Province People’s Committee to the State Capital Investment Corporation (SCIC). In 2008 TRACODI have being implemented to finish the process of restructure company (equitization) 1.1.3. Organizational structure of TRACODI Figure 1: Organizational Chart of TRACODI 1.2. RESEARCH INTRODUCTION 1.2.1. Motivation of the study Human resource is a key factor for the success of an organization. The satisfaction of their employees which make them work hard to offer to companies. The measure of employee satisfaction to identify the factors which most impact on Page 11 of 60 employee satisfaction; Thus it can help companies better understand the level of satisfaction of employees. From which it can help decision makers to improve the working environment, use the right people, exploitation of human resources in the company and bring the highest satisfaction for employees. Development trend of the economy: The economy is growing and opening up many opportunities to work for employees. Competition among enterprises is increasingly high, but people are important resources in creating a competitive advantage for businesses. The pressures from the economy, from a competitive market forcing businesses to pay more attention to the human factor in the organization, including issues made for employee satisfaction. How can business leaders recognize the system complex needs of workers, particularly the needs of the "talent". Through the study of the business activities in Vietnam, the study and understanding of the needs of the workers have not been implemented on a regular basis and disseminated. The majority of enterprises still conduct transactions through unofficial channels and not be institutionalized into the corporate policies. This makes it difficult now to know the heart, the real aspirations of employees. Consequence is very improbable that employees feel dissatisfied with their organization and looking to a new work environment, or still try to maintain but to work perfunctorily and inefficiently. Moreover, the enterprise does not understand the needs of employees can create separation, detailed displacement between groups, the parts together, affect the performance of the business. For now, in the period of economic integration, competition increasingly fierce, human resource has an important role in creating a competitive advantage. Especially with those businesses are on the rise, the search and confirmation its position on the market as Transport and Industry Development Investment Join Stock Company (TRACODI) present the more need to pay attention to employee satisfaction. Promoting the development of the company at present assessing the satisfaction of the employees is very helpful. Page 12 of 60 This research can be done as a landmark initial data for comparison during the development activities in the future the company may increase the satisfaction of employees? This is the first step for organizations that can increase employee loyalty to the company 1.2.2. Significance of the study This study will be conducted from either managerial employees or nonmanagerial employees to exclude the bias of self-report. The opinion of employees in TRACODI about the impact of job interdependence, supervisory support, developmental experiences, and job role discretion on TRACODI employee job satisfaction will be collected to see what the being implemented side evaluates the company HRM policies. 1.2.3. Purpose of the study The purpose of the current study is to investigate the impact of job interdependence, supervisory support, developmental experiences, and job role discretion on TRACODI employee job satisfaction. 1.2.4. Question of the study This study addresses some points follow: - How is the impact of Job Interdependence on TRACODI employee Job Satisfaction? - How is the impact of Supervisory Support on TRACODI employee Job Satisfaction? - How is the impact of Developmental Experiences on TRACODI employee Job Satisfaction? - How is the impact of Job Role Discretion on TRACODI employee Job Satisfaction? Page 13 of 60 CHAPTER 2: LITTERATURE REVIEW 2.1 DEFINITION OF CONSTRUCTS 2.1.1. Job satisfaction Locke (1969) defined job satisfaction as the extent to which the expectations that an individual holds for a job match what one actually receives from the job. Job satisfaction can be characterized as an attitude concerning the extent to which people like or dislike their jobs (Spector, 1997). There are two common approaches to the measurement of job satisfaction. The global approach assesses job satisfaction based on an individual’s overall affective reaction to his or her job. By contrast, the composite approach examines the pattern of attitudes a person holds regarding various facets of the job such as coworkers, fringe benefits, job conditions, nature of the work itself, policies and procedures, pay, and supervision (Spector, 1997). Individuals often differ in their degree of satisfaction across facets (e.g., someone may be very satisfied with supervision, but dissatisfied with pay). The distinction between the two measurement approaches is important as research has shown that there are only modest correlations between global and composite measures of job satisfaction (Scarpello & Campbell, 1983). 2.1.2. Job Interdependence Job interdependence is a job attribute that has demonstrated motivational effects in many studies (Kiggundu, 1981, 1983; Van der Vegt & Van De Vliert, 2005; Wageman, 1995). More specifically, studies have reported a positive relationship between task interdependence and extrarole or cooperative behavior (Anderson & Williams, 1996; Pearce & Gregersen, 1991; Wageman & Baker, 1997). While some of these researchers have divided task interdependence into “initiated” and “received” components, for our purposes we combined these into “reciprocated” task interdependence, as developed by Pearce and Gregersen (1991), accepting their argument that initiated and received interdependence have too high a covariance to be viewed as independent constructs. Regardless of the type of task interdependence studied, one theoretical basis as to why task Page 14 of 60 interdependence leads to cooperative behavior is that the interactive nature of the tasks contributes to experienced responsibility for the other’s outcomes (Kiggundu, 1983; Pearce & Gregersen, 1991). A second theoretical grounding for the motivating effects of task interdependence relies on the view that an employee with a long-term time horizon will contribute to other workers efforts if they believe their coworkers will reciprocate. This common human tendency has been incorporated into organizational behavior literature from sociology, namely from social exchange theory (Blau, 1964), and the norm of reciprocity (Gouldner, 1960). 2.1.3. Supervisory Support Supervisor support is defined as employees’ belief concerning the extent to which supervisors value their contributions and care about their well-being. Employees need motivation to expend greater efforts and more personal resources in innovative tasks when supervisor exhibit their individual consideration toward followers, followers are likely to perceive the warmth and consideration from their supervisors. Similarly, employees who perceive support from their supervisors often feel obligated to pay back supervisors’ favors or kindness by helping supervisors to reach their stated goals (Eisenberger et al. 2002). Jung et al. (2003) indicated that leadership is positively associated with employee-perceived empowerment and support for innovation. Creativity and innovation is an area where supervisors can have a strong impact on employee creativity through their influence on the context within which employees work (Shalley and Gilson, 2004). In order for innovative behavior to occur, supervisor needs to foster, encourage, and support creativity (Shalley and Gilson, 2004). Janssen (2003) found evidence that employees responded more innovatively to higher levels of job demands when they perceived that their efforts were fairly rewarded by their supervisor. Oldham and Cummings (1996) found that supportive, non-controlling supervisors created a work environment that fostered creativity. Open interactions with supervisors and the receipt of encouragement and support lead to enhanced employee creativity (Tierney, Farmer, and Graen 1999). This Page 15 of 60 means that employees who perceive a fair balance between supervisor’s inducements relative to their work efforts will respond with more innovative behavior. According to social exchange theory additional arguments can be derived for a relationship between supervisor support and innovative behavior. Direct supervisors can act as organizational agents. Employees tend to view actions by agents of the organization as actions of the organization itself. Therefore, they reward favorable supervisor treatment with desired behaviors. 2.1.4. Developmental Experiences Developmental job experience as an individual’s experience of taking on demanding assignments that offer opportunity for learning and leadership. The extent to which an assignment brings developmental job experience can depend on how the particular employee views the opportunity in his or her own mind. Developmental assignments usually share some common features: unfamiliar responsibilities, opportunity to create change, high levels of responsibility, working across boundaries, and managing diversity. (Yuntao Dong, Myeong-Gu Seo, and Kathryn M. Bartol, 2014) Developmental job experience is associated with growth and future benefits as well as with substantial risks and uncertainty. Depending on whether an individual perceives the assignment as a challenge or a threat, combined with their ability to use coping skills, he or she will experience pleasant or unpleasant feelings. These feelings lead to an overall positive or negative outcome. The authors examined advancement potential as a positive outcome and turnover intention as a negative outcome in the study. The authors explained that because developmental job experience can contribute to both pleasant and unpleasant feelings at the same time, both positive and negative outcomes can occur. 2.1.5. Job Role Discretion The notion of discretion occurs when someone has the freedom and authority to take action and is aware of this freedom (Finkelstem et al., 2009, p. 26; Hackman & Oldham, 1975). A definition on discretion in the English Dictionary for Page 16 of 60 Advanced Learners (2001, p. 435) is: “if someone in a position of authority uses their discretion or has the discretion to do something in a particular situation, (hey have the freedom and authority to decide what to do”. It may occur in different forms like employee, job or managerial discretion that all are used in the literature. This study takes the main focus on job discretion that is involved with the extent of discretion that belongs to a certain job. Job discretion can be seen as an extension of the concept of managerial discretion. Furthermore, job discretion is closely related to the concept of job autonomy. Both managerial discretion and job autonomy are discussed to provide insights on the differences and similarities, resulting in better understanding of job discretion. This is also known as “job autonomy” and is explained in the organizational behavior literature by Hackman and Oldham (1975, p. 162) as “the degree to which the job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the employee in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out”. Employees are given discretion by their employers to carry out tasks to be completed in a specified amount of time, rather than being told what to do at every moment (Prendergast, 2002). This implies that job autonomy refers to the extent of discretion about how to execute the job. Therefore discretion and autonomy are similar in addressing the extent of freedom in organizational or work related decisions and thus these concepts are tightly linked to each other. All employees have a certain degree of discretion that is given by the way their job is designed. It is clear that an agency issue may arise within the employment relationship when an organization provides more discretion towards the employees. An employee will try to maximize his own value at (lie expense of the organization, meanwhile the organization wishes to maximize profit. This conflict of interest illustrates a fundamental agency problem and is quite general, since it exists in all organizations and in all cooperative efforts (Jensen & Meckling, 1976). Higher job discretion provides more leeway to the employee to choose from a certain range of effort levels. In order to sustain effort at higher levels of Page 17 of 60 discretion and induce workers not to settle at their lowest possible point in the effort range, an organization must provide a financial motivation. 2.2. THEORY OF JOB SATISFACTION 2.2.1. Job satisfaction theories traceable to employee performance Job satisfaction at its most general conceptualization, is simply how content an individual is with his job. Simply stated, job satisfaction refers to the attributes and feelings people have about their work. Positive and favourable attitudes towards the job indicate job satisfaction. Negative and unfavourable attitudes towards the job indicate job dissatisfaction Armstrong (2003). This satisfaction may be affective: one-dimensional subjective construct representing an overall emotional feeling individuals have about their job as a whole Kalleberg (1977) and Moorman (1993). It may also be cognitive: more objective or logical evaluation of various facets of a job. Cognitive job satisfaction does not assess the degree of pleasure or happiness that arises from specific job facets, but rather gauges the extent to which those job facets are judged by the job holder to be satisfactory in comparison with objectives they themselves set or with other jobs. The two constructs are distinct, not directly related, have different antecedents and consequences though cognitive job satisfaction might help to bring about affective job satisfaction in the organization. 2.2.2. Two-factor theory Among the content theories of motivation, Herzberg (1959) theory emphasizing the motivator-hygiene factors sought to explain satisfaction and motivation in the organization. The theory focuses on outcomes of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The theory further found that certain aspects of a job cause satisfaction and therefore motivation, but certain aspects caused job dissatisfaction. Herzberg explained that the factors that lead to satisfaction or to dissatisfaction are different. Accordingly, he states that ‘the opposite of job satisfaction is not job dissatisfaction but, rather, no satisfaction; and the opposite of job dissatisfaction is Page 18 of 60 not job satisfaction but no satisfaction’ (Herzberg, 2003.91). This theory states that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction is a product of different factors - motivation and hygiene respectively. Motivation is seen as an inner force that drives individuals to attain personal and organizational goals. Motivational factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform and provide people with satisfaction. Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment like working conditions, interpersonal matters, organizational policies and so on (Hackman & Oldham, 1976). Factors that relate to job satisfaction are therefore called satisfiers or motivators. According to Weir (1976) and Syptak, Marsland & Ulmer (1999), the following factors stood out as ‘strong determinants of job satisfaction’. Achievement: This requires helping and placing employees in position that use their talents and not to set up for failure. It is achieved by setting clear, achievable goals and standards for each position, and making sure employees know what those goals and strategies are. Individuals should also receive regular, timely feedback on how they are doing and feel they are adequately challenged in their jobs. Recognition: Refers to the honour, favourable note or attention given to an employee for a ‘job well done’ or an outstanding behaviour. Individuals at all levels in the organization want to be recognized for their achievement on the job. The individual’s success does not have to be monumental before they deserve recognition. Employees should be acknowledged for doing something well immediately after their good work. Publicly appreciating them for finding solutions to a problem, writing a note of praise, establishing a formal recognition program like ‘employee of the month or year’, making periodic reports directly available to the employees themselves rather than to management, are some of the ways of recognizing employees. Work itself: This involves helping employees believe that the task they are doing is important and meaningful. Setting goals and reminding and emphasizing that their efforts lead to and contribute to positive outcomes and goal Page 19 of 60
- Xem thêm -