Phát triển hệ chương trình xử lý, phân tích tài liệu phân cực kích thích ở Việt Nam

  • Số trang: 133 |
  • Loại file: PDF |
  • Lượt xem: 31 |
  • Lượt tải: 0
nhattuvisu

Đã đăng 26946 tài liệu

Mô tả:

MUC LUC Trang MODAU 4 ChUOng 1: TONG QUAN VE CAC PHl/ONG PHAP PHAN ClTC KICH THICH DONG MOT CHIEU 1.1 13 Vai net ve lich su phat trien ctia phuong phap ph^n cue kich thich J3 1.2 Coche ciia hien tucmg phan cue kich thich 1.3 Cac phuong phap phan cue kich thich thuong dung \j 21 1.3.1 Mot so he cue do cabdn 21 1.3.2 Mot vai phuangphap do sdu PCKT thong dung 24 1.4 Diem qua m6t vai phuofng phap do s^u dien tro vi phan da duac de xuat cai tien 30 1.4.1 Phuofng phap do sdu dien chung 30 1.4.2 Phuang phap do sdu khdu trittrudng 33 1.4.3 Phuang phap do sdu dien doi xitng ludng cue hap nhdt 35 1.4.4 Mot so nhdn xet ve edc phuang phap do sdu dien tra vi phan da duae de xudt edi tien 1.5 38 Cac ton tai chinh trong ap dung phuofng phap phan cue kich thich dong mot chieu o Viet Nam K^luan 42 45 Chuang 2: NHUNG DE XUAT U6\ TRONG PHUONG PHAP DO SAU PHAN c u e KICH THICH 47 2.1 Dat va'nde 4-7 2.2 G\6\ thieu cac thong so PCKT mdi 48 2.3 Ca sof de xuat cac phuang phap do sau PCKT cai tien 50 2.3.1 Ca sd de xudt phuang phap do sdu PCKT doi xung cai tien 50 2.3.2 Ca sd de xudt phuang phap do sdu PCKT luang cue cai tien... 51 2.4 52 Gioi thieu cac he cue do sau phan cue kich thich cai tien 2.4.1 He cue do sdu PCKT doi xicng edi tien 52 2.4.1.1 Mo td he cue do sdu PCKT doi xicng edi tien KM-01 52 2.4.1.2 Qui trinh do dgc ngodi thue dia 55 2.4.2 He cue do sdu PCKT luang cue edi tien 56 2.4.2.1 Mo td he cue do sdu PCKT ludng cue true edi tien KM-02.... 57 2.4.2.2 Mo td he cue do sdu PCKT ludng cue xieh dao edi tien 58 2.4.2.3 Qui trinh do dge ngodi thue dia 60 2.4.3. Mot so nhdn xet 61 Ket lutin 64 Chuofng 3: HUCiNG PHAT TRIEN MC*I VE X U L Y , PHAN TICH TAI LIEU DO SAU PHAN c u e KICH THICH 3.1 Dat van de 3.2 Cac phep bien doi mdi - mot hudfng phat trien \t xu ly, phan 65 65 tieh tai litn do sau PCKT 67 3.2.1 Phuang phap do sdu PCKT doi xicng 67 3.2.2 Phuang phap do sdu PCKT luang cue 70 3.3 75 Tmh cac thong so PCKT mdi tren mo hinh ly thuyet 3.3.1 Tinh cac dudng cong do sdu dien tra va do sdu phdn cue tren mdi trudng 3 lap 3.3.1.1 Casdly thuyet 3.3.1.2 Cac kit qud tinh todn 75 75 78 3.3.2 Kiem ehicng tinh dung dan vd tinh uu viet eua edc phep bien doi mdi tren mdi trudng 3 Idp 3.3.2.1 Doi vdi phuang phap do sdu PCKT doi xicng 81 81 3.3.2.2 Doi vdi phuang phap do sdu PCKT ludng cue 84 3.3.3 Mot so nhdn xet ve tinh chat ca bdn vd khd ndng eua ede thong sdmdi trong khdo sat mdi trudng dia chat 3.4 86 Kiem chutig tinh dung d^n va tinh uu viet ciia cac phep bien 87 d6i mdi tren moi trucmg thuc td'. 3.4.1 Doi vdi phuang phap do sdu doi xicng PCKT 88 3.4.2 Doi vdi phuang phap do sdu PCKT ludng cue 90 3.5 Cong thiic bien doi Petrovski cai tien 96 3.6 Gidi thieu ve he chuang trinh xir ly, phan tich 98 98 3.6.1 Ngon ngUMatlab 3.6.2 He chuang trinh xu ly, phdn tieh 100 Ket luan 101 Chuang 4: CAC KET QUA THlTNGHIEM 103 4.1. N6i dung ap dung thir nghiem thuc te eua cac d6 xuat mdi 103 4.2. Ket qua ap dung cac di xuat mdi de khai thac tai lieu do sau PCKT doi xiing da c6 104 4.2.1 Dae diem dia chat vd tinh chat vat ly cua tuyen 20 104 4.2.2 Ket qud xu ly, phdn tich tai lieu do sdu PCKT doi xung 105 4.2.2.1. Ket qud theo tai lieu do sdu PCKT doi xicng thong thudng 105 4.2.2.2 Ket qud dp dung ede de xudt mdi dekhai thde tai lieu 108 4.3. 112 Ket qua ap dung phuang phap do sau PCKT luang cue cai tien 4.3.1 Dae diem dia chat vd tinh chat vat ly cua tuyen Sll 112 4.3.2 Ket qud xic ly, phdn tich tai lieu 112 Ket luan 118 Ket luan va kien nghi 121 Tai lieu tham khao 125 4 MODAU 1. Tinh can thiet cua de tai: Cac phuang phap Dja Vat ly la nhung cOng cu manh dung de nghien cun trai dat. Chung lien tuc duge bo sung, hoan thien va phat trien. Trong to hop phuang phap Dia Vat ly tham do, cac phuang phap Phan cue kich thich (PCKT) chiem mot vi tri quan trong va hien nay vSn la mot trong nhiing phuang phap Dia Vat ly tham do thong dung nhat. So vdi phan Ian phuang phap Dia Vat ly khac, phuang phap PCKT eo nhiJng uu diem nhu: chu tiinh ky thuat do dac tuang doi dan gian va khong doi hoi may mdc thiet bi qua phiic tap, tinh vi; xit ly so lieu nhanh chong bang tay hay tren may tinh vdi chi phi thap nhung kha nang giai quyet da dang, hieu qua kinh t6' cao. Do do, phuang phap PCKT da dugc ap dung of nhieu nude tren the gidi va ngay ca a nude ta, thudng chiem mot ty le kha cao trong khoi lugng tham do dien ndi chung, no ngay cang dugc su dung pho bien trong cong tac tham do Dia Vat ly. Sau nhi6u nam lien tuc phat trien, ngay nay phuang phap PCKT da trdf thanh mot trong phuang phap chii dao de nghien euru dia chat c6 hieu qua kinh te va khoa hoc cao. Cac phuang phap PCKT cho phep xac dinh su thay doi dien tra suat va do phan cue theo chi6u sau cua v6 trai dat, dugc sir dung rong rai d^ ve ban do dia chat, nghien ciiu cau true, tim kiem cac khoang san c6 ich cQng nhu trong dia chat cong trinh va dia chat thuy van.... Nhiem vu chii yen ciia phuang phap PCKT la chi ra dugc vi tri tuang d6i cua cac doi tugng dia chat can tim. Trong nhimg dieu kien thuan Igi cd the xac dinh b6 day cac I6p dat da cau thanh lat cat dia-dien, hinh dang, kich thude, chieu sau the nam cua cac doi tugng nghien cuu trong pham vi sai so cho phep cua phuang phap. Nhu chung ta da biet, of nude ta tir trudc den nay, cac tham so truyen thong da va dang dugc sir dung pho bien trong viec xir ly, phan tich tai lieu PCKT la do phan cue bieu kien % va dien trd sua't bieu kien A • Co nhieu each khac nhau: tinh toan cac dudng cong 7^ va p^ d6'i vdi moi trudng phan Idp, dong nhat, song phing ngang tren may vi tinh bang phuang phap lua chon de xay dung cac ban chuan; tinh 7^ -- f(ABl2) true tiep tii dudng cong p^ = f{ABI2)\ chuyen cac gia mat cat thanh cac mat cat ban dinh lugng; su dung cac tham so thuc nghiem S, va Z^ (vdi 5,1a thdi gian ma tai do cd do phan cue giam di mot nua, Z^ = 0,75 . 5^ . % ) ; do phan cue bieu kien tuang dd'i A^ va do phan cue bieu kien tong hgp Al, toe do suy giam the phan cue Vpc Tuy nhien, phai cong nhan rang vi th6ng tin con ngheo nan va phuang phap xir ly, phan tich cdn han ehe nen ket qua thu dugc con chua dap ling dugc ydu cau mong muon. Cd the diem qua mot vai nguyen nhan ciia tinh trang tren la do: + Chi do true tiep dugc tiing loai dudng cong ling vdi m6t loai \\t cue nen chi phan anh dugc mot dac trung nao do ciia moi trudng nghien ciiu. + Cac cong thiic chuyen doi giua cac dudng cong nham thu dugc nhieu loai thong tin cho den nay vSn chua thuc su cd hieu qua, doi khi cdn lam cho "meo" thong tin va khdng on dinh. + Cac phuang phap s6 dung de xu ly, phan tich tuy da dugc nang cao khi ap dung nhung thanh tuu mdi hien dai cua Toan hoc va Tin hoc, nhung van cdn nhieu han che do tinh khong on dinh va da tri cua bai toan ngugc. Doi khi vSn chi luan giai mot each dinh tinh va chi sir dung dau hieu diem gSy hoac diem udn ciia dudng cong de du bao hoac cdn sir dung qui luat bien doi ciia dudng cong dien trd de gan cho cac Idp dia - dien cac gia tri do phan cue bieu kien do dugc bang thiet bi do tuang duang vdi dudng cong dien trd. Chinh vi vay ma d6i khi cdn nh^m Ian khi du bao cac di thudng trien vong khoang san, lien ket di thudng cdn chua dat y6u cau mong muon. Lam th6' nao de khac phuc tinh trang nay, nham nang cao do tin cay, tao dieu kien md rong pham vi ap dung ciia phuang phap PCKT trong ditu kien dia-di6n phiie tap?. Do chinh la mot muc tieu kha hap dan da I6i cudn su dau tu suy nghi ciia kha nhi6u nha khoa hoc trdn the gidi va trong nude trong nhieu nam qua. Cd the ndi rang cho den nay hau nhu tat ca cac tac gia deu tap trung sure lue cua minh theo hai hudng chinh sau: • Cai tien cac he thiet bi do (may mdc, he cue do, phuang phap do ngoai thuc dia...) de cd the do true tiep dugc cac thong tin can thiet ngoai thuc dia. • Tim ra cac cong thiic de tinh chuyen doi giiia cac loai dudng cong nham tang lugng thong tin phuc vu cho cong tac xir ly, phan tich. Tuy vay, cac he thiet bi cdn phiic tap ca ve he cue do ISn cac phep do; c6ng thiic bi6n doi giua cac dudng cong cdn phai tinh qua phep dao ham khong on dinh. Mac du cd nhi6u cd gang nhung cho den nay, dieu ba't hgp ly neu tren vSn chua dugc hoan toan giai quyet. Chung toi cho rang cd the giai quyet tirng phan hoac triet de nhiing van di ca ban cdn ton tai neu tren m6t each thiet thuc (tuy theo muc dich va doi tugng nghien ciiu) bang each ket hgp ca hudng de xuat cac thong sd PCKT mdi cd nhiing uu diem han (nhu do phan giai cao han, tong hgp thdng tin han...) vdi viec cai tien cac he thiet bi do, tim ra cac edng thiic bien doi thong tin chinh xac han. Cd nhu vay mdi mong tang them nhieu thong tin khac loai thu dugc tuf moi trudng thuc te, nham lam phong phii han cac thong tin, tang do chinh xac phuc vu cho cong tac xu ly, phan tich dat hieu qua nhat. De thuc hien dugc y tudng nay, trong pham vi de tai luan an, vdi mong mudn gdp phan khac phuc nhiing ton tai tren, chiing toi da nghien ciiu de xua't cac thong sd PCKT mdi (dac bi6t la thong sd PCKT Petrovski 7 ) de xir ly. phan tich tai li6u PCKT hieu qua han. Tur cac ket qua do thu duge bang mot loai he cue thdng thudng nao dd ta vSn cd dugc thong tin tin cay cua cac loai dudng cong khac thong qua cac phep bien doi dai sd dan gian. Tat ca cac thong tin nay da dugc khai thac triet de trong he chuang trinh tu dong xir ly, phan tich tong hgp, ma nd dugc viet bang ngon ngu cap cao MATLAB nhu mot san pham phan mtm vdi cac chiic nang hoan toan tien ich, dd sir dung, gan giii vdi thuc te. Giai phap nay khong chi da dugc chiing minh bang mo hinh ly thuyet, ma cdn da dugc kiem nghiem tren moi trudng thuc te vdi cac he cue do va cac phep do mdi ma tac gia da dt xuat, dac biet cdn dugc ap dung de khai thac cac tai lieu thuc te cu ciia phuang phap do sau PCKT thong thudng, lam md rong va nang cao tinh hieu qua kha nang ap dung thuc te cua phuang phap. Day la mot van d6 hap dan, hoan toan mdi can thiet phai lam, dd Cling chinh la hudng suy nghi nghien ciiu va ket qua dat dugc cua tac gia trong thdi gian qua. 2. Muc tieu va cac nhiem vu cua luan an: • Muc tieu: Hoan thien he chuang trinh xir ly, phan tich tai lieu PCKT tren ca sd de xua't thong sd PCKT mdi 7^; thiet lap cac phep bien doi dai sd dan gian, ap dung de tinh toan khai thac, bo sung them cac thong tin cd ich doi vdi tai lieu PCKT da cd tCf trude den nay, cung nhu ap dung cho cac tai lieu mdi thu dugc bang cac phuang phap cai tien nham nang cao do chinh xac cua phuang phap. • Cac nhiem vu: 1. Tim hieu, phan tich tong hgp nhiing ket qua nghien ciiu cua cac tac gia trudc. Dua ra va xay dung ca sd ly thuyet ciia thong sd PCKT Petrovski 8 2. Dua tren nguyen ly chong cha't dien trudng, dua ra cac cong thiic bi6'n d6i giiia cac dudng cong PCKT sao cho khac phuc dugc cac nhugc diem ca ban ve tinh khong on dinh cdn tdn tai tii trudc den nay. 3. Chiing minh tinh diing dan cua cac phep bien doi dd tren mo hinh ly thuyet va kiem nghiem tren moi trudng thuc te. 4. xay dung cac thuat toan xir ly, phan tich qua cac phep bien doi dai sd neu tren va thiet lap he chuang trinh tu dong tuang ling bang ngon ngii MATLAB. 5. Cai tien cac he cue do va quy trinh do nham thu dugc thong tin dSu vao phu hgp de xir ly. 6. Tien hanh thir nghiem ap dung phuang phap mdi trong thuc te, ciing nhu khai thac cac tai lieu da cd de cd ket luan \t tinh hieu qua cua cac de xuat theo hudng phat trien xir ly, phan tich mdi. 3, Cac ket qua mdi: 1. Lan dau tien de xuat va sir dung thong sd PCKT Petrovski /j^ mdi ed do phan giai cao, xay dung dugc ca sd ly thuyet va chiing minh dugc cac uu diem cua chiing so vdi cac tham sd truyen thong p^, rj^ , 2. Dua ra dugc cac phep bien doi mdi gifla cac dudng cong do sau PCKT. Da chiing minh dugc tinh diing dan ciia cac phep bien doi dd tren mo hinh ly thuyet va moi trudng thuc te. Day ciing chinh la mot phan thuat toan xir ly, phan tich tai lidu PCKT theo hudng mdi de xuat nay. 3. Vdi thuat toan da thiet lap, xay dung dugc he chuang trinh tu dong bang ngon ngir MATLAB nhu mot san pham phSn mem vdi cac chiic nang hoan toan tien ich, d6 sir dung, giao dien va dd hoa tot, gan giii vdi thuc te. 4. Cai tien cac he cue do va quy trinh do hgp ly nham giam thieu cac phep do, khdng lam phiic tap quy trinh thuc dia ma ta vSn cd dugc dii thong tin can thiet. 5. Ket qua do, xir ly va phan tich tai lieu theo phuang phap mdi, eQng nhu ap dung khai thac cac tai lieu p^, 7^ thuc te da cd de cd dugc 7^ vdi do phan giai cao, chieu sau nghien ciiu Idn da chiing minh hieu qua dia chat ciia de xua't mdi ap dung trong thuc te. 4, Y nghla khoa hoc va thiic te: • Y nghia khoa hoc: 1. Thong sd PCKT Petrovski 7^ dugc xac lap va khai thac cd ca sd khoa hoc, lam tang dang ke lugng thong tin hiiu ich. Chiing cd do phan giai cao nen phan anh sat thuc han hieu ling PCKT cua cac doi tugng nghien ciiu; tang do phan giai doi vdi cac di thudng yeu. 2. Phep bien doi thong tin da dt xua't va sir dung chi qua cac phep tinh dai sd dan gian, khdng phai thuc hien qua cac phep tinh dao ham cd tinh khong on dinh, nen chiing da khac phuc dugc cac nhugc diem cdn ton tai trudc day. Cac phep bien doi nay cd do tin cay va khoa hoc cao. Phat trien he thong chuang trinh xir ly, phan tich tai lieu PCKT tren ca sd cd lua chon thong tin dang tin cay nhung mang tinh tong hgp han. 3. De xua't cai tien he cue do va qui trinh do hgp ly, thuan tien, cd tinh kha thi trong thuc te. • Y nghla thuc te: \. Hudng xir ly, phan tich tai lieu PCKT mdi thong qua cac phep bien d6i da de xua't lam ro han va tang dd tin cay ciia cac ket qua du bao dia chat vi lam phong phii them nhieu thong tin bo ich. Trong trudng hgp thuan Igi cd the dung kd't qua du bao de theo doi, phat hien cac ddi tugng can tim. 2. Md rong va nang cao kha nang ap dung ciia phuang phap PCKT, chang nhiing ddi vdi cac phuang an do mdi, ma cdn khai thac bo sung them dugc cac thong tin cd ich khac giiip cho cong tac xir ly, phan tich tai lieu 10 PCKT eua cac phuang phap cii da cd trudc day. Trong trudng hgp cd the cdn giiip cho viec kiem tra, phat hien cac ddi tugng can tim ddi vdi cac phuang an cii da dugc thuc hien. 3. Kha nang thir nghiem va ap dung vao san xuat la hien thuc. 5. Cac luan diem mdi chii yeu cua luan an 1. Tir cac ket qua do thu dugc bang m6t loai he cue thong thudng nao dd ta vSn cd dugc thong tin tin cay cua cac loai dudng cong tuang ling vdi cac he cue khac thong qua cac phep bien doi dai sd dan gian khong phai tinh dao ham, nen da md rdng va nang cao cd hieu qua kha nang ap dung thuc te cua phuang phap. 2. Y nghia cua viec de xuat thong sd PCKT mdi Petrovski 7^, ed do phan giai cao va mang tinh tong hgp. Phat trien he chuang trinh tu dong xir ly, phan tich tai lieu PCKT bang ngon ngii MATLAB, theo hudng khai thac thong sd PCKT Petrovski ^^va cac phep bien ddi da de xuat, nham xir ly, phan tich tai lieu PCKT hieu qua han. 6. Bd cue cua luan an Ngoai phan md dau, phan ket luan va kien nghi, danh muc cac tai lieu tham khao, ngi dung luan an dugc trinh bay trong 4 chuang. Chuorng 1: Tong quan ve phuang phap do sdu phdn cue kich thich ddng mot chieu, Trong chuang nay chiing tdi trinh bay vai net ve lich sir phat trien ciia phuang phap phan cue kich thich (PCKT); ca che cua hien tugng PCKT; nhiing net tong quan hien trang eua cac phuang phap do sau dien vi phan tren the gidi va trong nude cd lien quan den de tai, danh gia uu diem va nhugc 11 diem ciia cac phuang phap nay; cac tdn tai chinh trong ap dung phuang phap phan cue kich thich ddng mot chieu d Viet Nam. Chuang 2: Nhiing de xudt moi trong phuang phap do sdu PCKT Trong chuang nay chiing tdi trinh bay wt cac tham sd PCKT truyen thong; gidi thieu cac thong sd PCKT mdi; ca sd dt xuat va gidi thieu ve cac ht cue, qui trinh do sau PCKT cai tien. Chuang 3: Hu&ng phat trien m&i ve xvt ly, phdn tich tdi lieu do sdu phdn cue kich thich. Trong chuang nay chung toi trinh bay v6 ca sd ly thuyet cua cac phep bien doi mdi - mot hudng phat trien ve xii ly, phan tich tai lieu PCKT; tinh toan va kiem chiing tinh diing dan, tinh uu viet ciia cac phep bien doi mdi tren md hinh ly thuyet 3 Idp va moi trudng thuc te, tii dd cd mot sd nhan xet \t tinh cha't ca ban va kha nang eua cac thong sd mdi trong khao sat moi trudng dia cha't; gidi thieu cong thiic bien ddi Petrovski cai tien; gidi thieu \t he chuang trinh xir ly, phan tich lap bang ngon ngii MATLAB. Chuang 4: Mot so ket qud thu: nghiem Trong chuang nay chung toi trinh bay mot sd net chinh ve dac diem eua viing nghien eiiu thir nghiem; cac ket qua xir ly, phan tich tai lieu theo hudng mdi ddi vdi cac tai lieu thuc te, tii dd nit ra ket luan ve hieu qua ap dung thuc te ciia cac de xuat mdi. 7. Ldi cam on Ban luan an nay dugc hoan thanh tai Bg mon Dia Vat ly, Khoa Vat ly, Trudng Dai hoc Khoa hoc Tu nhien - Dai hoc Qudc gia Ha Noi, dudi su hudng dan khoa hoc cua PGS.TSKH. Tang Mudi, PGS.TS. Le Viet Du Khuang. Trudc het, tdi xin bay td Idng biet an sau sac ddi vdi cac thay true tiep hudng dan khoa hoc - PGS.TSKH. Tang Mudi va PGS.TS. Le Viet Du Khuang 12 - vl su tan tinh chi bao, giiip dd tdi trong qua trinh thuc hien va hoan thanh luan an. Trong thdi gian hoe tap va nghien ciiu, de hoan thanh ban luan an nay, tdi cdn nhan dugc su giiip da ciia Bd mdn Dia Vat ly, Khoa Vat ly. Tac gia da nhan dugc nhCrng y kien ddng gdp quy bau va sau sac ciia: GS.TSKH. Ngd Van Buu, GS.TSKH. Lam Quang Thiep, GS.TSKH. Pham Nang Vu, GS.TS. Bui Cong Que', PGS.TSKH. Mai Thanh Tan, GS.TS. Nguyen Trong Nga, PGS.TS. Nguyen Nggc Thiiy, TS. Nguyen Tai Thinh, TS. Nguyen Nggc Loan, TS. Doan Van Tuyen... va nhieu nha khoa hoc khac. Ngoai ra, tac gia cdn nhan dugc su giup da nhiet tinh, cd hieu qua ciia TS. Nguyen Tai Thinh va cac can bg Doan Dia Vat ly mat dat thudc Lien doan Vat ly-Dia chat trong qua trinh thu thap tai lieu va do dac thir nghiem tren thuc te. Tac gia xin chan thanh cam an sau sdc de'n cac dan vi va ca nhan ndi tren. Nhan dip nay, tdi xin cam an su quan tam, dong vien, iing ho va tao dieu kien thuan Igi eua GS.TSKH. Nguyen Van Mau cung tap th^ lanh dao trudng Dai hoc Khoa hoc Tu nhien - DHQGHN; xin cam on GS.TS. Mai Trong Nhuan ve su giiip dd chan thanh ddi vdi tdi trong qua trinh thuc hien, hoan thanh luan an va thu dugc ke't qua tot dep. 13 Chircmg 1 T6NG QUAN VE CAC PHl/ONG PHAP PHAN Cl/C KICH THICH DONG MOT CHIEU 1,1 VAX NET VE LICH SlT PHAT TRIEN CUA PHl/ONG PHAP PHAN CUC KICH THICH Nam 1912 nha Dia Vat ly ngudi Phap K. Schlumberger de ra y tudng sir dung hien tugng phan cue kich thich vao dieu tra nghien ciiu dia cha't - khoang san. Cho den nay, sau mot khoang thdi gian khong dai so vdi thdi gian ra ddi cua cac phuang phap Dia Vat ly khac, phuang phap phan cue kich thich (PCKT) da dugc hinh thanh va nhanh ehdng dugc ap dung rong rai tren the' gidi va nude ta trong dieu tra dia cha't tim kiem va tham dd khoang san. • 0 Lien X6 (cQ) viec nghien ciiu hien tugng phan cue kich thich cua da't da va quang ciing nhu nghien ciiu phuang phap va che' tao thiet bi ghi chinh xac the' phan cue kich thich dugc nhieu nha khoa hoc va to chiic Dia Vat ly quan tam, thu dugc nhiing ket qua dang ke ca ve ly thuye't va thuc nghiem. Trudc khi ra ddi tram do phan cue kich thich kieu VP-59, phuang phap do sau PCKT duge ddng dao cac nha Dia Vat ly, Dia chat ap dung va thir nghiem bang cac may do dien the thong thudng nhu EP-1, ESK-1 cd lap them bg phan phu de dieu chinh thdi gian phat ddng qua dat va thdi gian ghi cac tin hieu tren nhieu viing khac nhau da khang dinh tinh uu viet cua phuang phap ddi vdi quang xam tan ma cac phuang phap Dia Vat ly khac it cd hieu qua. Tijr khi ra ddi tram tham dd dien VP-59 do VITR, VNHIGEOPHYSIKA va MPZ nghien ciiu che tao, tiep sau la cac tram hoan thien han nhu: VP.62, VP0.62 va VPP-67..., phuang phap do sau PCKT da dugc ap dung pho bien trong 14 cong tac tim kie'm va tham dd khoang san d Lien Xd. Cung vdi su ra ddi cac tram do PCKT tren mat dat, VITR va MPZ da nghien ciiu che tao cac tram do phan cue trong 16 khoan kieu VPS-63 va san xuat hang loat vao nam 1964. Den nay da md rong kha nang ap dung cua phuang phap d ca tren mat dat va dudi mat dat. Dd la cac may do PCKT bang ddng mot chieu. Vao nam 1972, Lien Xd da che tao tram do PCKT bang ddng xoay chieu INFA2-VP de do pha phan cue trong gidi han tan sd tii 0,3 den 78 HZ. Tiep sau dd la che tao tram VP-F vao nam 1975. Tii dd da tao ra dieu kien ap dung rdng rai phuang phap phan cue xoay chieu trong tim kiem va tham dd khoang san. Su ra ddi va phat tri^n eua cac thiet bi do PCKT ndi tren da tao dieu kien di sau nghien ciiu ban cha't cua hien tugng phan cue kich thich, xay dung ca sd ly thuyet cua phuang phap tren ca sd tong hgp cac thanh qua nghien ciiu ap dung cua nhieu nha Dia Vat ly d Lien Xd va nude ngoai, cac phuang phap do PCKT d thuc dia va phuang phap tinh toan xir ly ke't qua. Mot trong sd cac cong trinh tong hgp neu tren phai ke de'n la cdng trinh cua Comarov V.A [70], [71]. Tii dd del nay, ciing vdi su ap dung ky thuat dien tir va tin hoc, phuang phap do sau PCKT khong ngiing dugc md rdng pham vi ling dung, do cd su cai tien ve may do va phuang phap tinh toan. Trong sd cac phuang phap tham dd, phuang phap do sau PCKT dugc coi la phuang phap chii yeu de phat hien va theo ddi cac than quang xam tan. Dang chii y la ngoai cac tham sd do phan cue bieu kien 7^ va dien trd suat bieu kien p^ da sir dung them tham so td'c dd suy giam he sd phan cue kieh thich theo thdi gian tinh bang [%/ms] do ddi tugng sulfur - vang gay ra [66] cd gia tri han han so vdi da vay quanh. • 6 cac nude XHCN Ddng Au (cu) nhu Hungary, Tiep Khac, CHDC Diic, Nam Tu, Ba Lan , phuang phap do sau PCKT dugc ap dung pho bien va cd hieu qua trong dieu tra dia chat, tim kiem va tham dd khoang san cua 15 • tiing nude. Viec ap dung phuang phap do sau PCKT d cac nude nay di theo hudng thuc dung han nen cd su hgp tac vdi cac nude tu ban nhu Canada, My.... nham che tao may do gon nhe, ghi sd va tu ddng tinh toan ke't qua ngay tii nhiing nam 1980. Rieng d Hunggary, Vien Dia Vat ly ELLGI (Budapet) luc dd da che' tao may do phan cue cd kha nang do 11 gia tri he so phan cue sau khi ngat ddng phat tao thuan Igi cho cac nghien ciiu dac trung suy giam ciia the PCKT theo thdi gian. Cac nghien ciiu ciia cac nha Dia Vat ly Hunggary nham phan biet quang va da vay quanh dua tren cac tinh toan hang sd thdi gian r^ = f{t) va ty sd bien do 2 thanh phan chinh gay nen the phan cue kieh thich la Wi va W2. Chiing da dat dugc nhiing ket qua nhat dinh va dugc cdng bd trong cac tuyen tap cdng trinh nghien ciiu hang nam eua Vien. Cac may do phan cue do cac nude XHCN Ddng Au (cii) dugc xem nhu la mot tien bg ky thuat trong he thong XHCN liic ba'y gid nhu may DIAPIR E+T cua Hunggary, may IPOR cua Tiep Khac Dd la cac may do true tiep cac ket qua 7^ va p^ bang dong ho chi thi kim hoac hien sd. • O Trung Qudc, phuang phap do sau PCKT ciing duge phat trien gan nhu dong thdi vdi qua trinh phat trien d Lien Xd (cii). Do cd su cai tien may do dien the' kieu UJ-18 thanh may do kieu DDJ-I, nen phuang phap do sau PCKT duge ap dung rdng rai va pho bien trong tim kiem va tham dd khoang san d Trung Qudc. May do DDJ-I la may xach tay, ed do ben ca hoc cao, nen da tao thuan Igi cho viec md rdng pham vi ap dung cua phuang phap do sau PCKT. Hien nay Trung Qudc da che tao cac thiet bi do phan cue cd vi xir ly nhu DFJ-5 dat trinh do trung binh tien tien. • O cac nude tu ban phuang Tay, phuang phap PCKT dugc nghien ciiu, thir nghiem va ap dung rat sdm. Tu" nhiing nam 1950, cac cdng ty tu nhan nhu Newmont Mining Co., Me Phar Geophysics Ltd., Sharp Instrument... da ap dung cd ke't qua phuang phap do sau PCKT trong tim kiem khoang san. Cac may do phan cue bang ddng xung va xung doi chieu cd chu ky da dugc che 16 tao d My va Canada (Cdng ty Scintrex, Mc Phar Intrument, Phoenix Geophysics, Huntec, Crone Geophysics). Cac tap doan md Idn nhat da hoan thanh cac xir ly khoa hgc va ap dung rdng rai phuang phap do sau PCKT d nhieu nude tren the gidi. 6 Canada, My, Irland, Perue, Ao, Nam Tu, Phan lan, Iran, Tho Nhi Ky va cac nude khac, nhd phuang phap do sau PCKT da phat hien md da kim, ddng, kim loai quy hiem cd quy md Idn. Ngay nay cac may do PCKT da dugc cac nude phuang Tay hoan thien va che' tao cd do chinh xac cao va ed nhieu tinh nang khac nhau nhu IPR-12 cua Canada, GPR-12 cua My, SYSCAL-R2 ciia Phap. Nhd dd da nang cao hieu qua va pham vi ap dung ciia phuang phap do sau PCKT. • 6 Viet Nam, tii nhiing nam 1970 phuang phap do sau PCKT dugc dua vao thir nghiem tren ddi tugng Pyrit d viing md Giap Lai (VTnh Phu) va ddng Sinh Quyen (Lao Cai) khi ta nhap dugc tram VP-62 cua Lien Xd. Sau dd phuang phap dugc trien khai thir nghiem tren cac ddi tugng khac nhu ddng Ta Khoa (San La), chi kem Chg Dien (Bae Thai), mangan (Bac Thai) va mot sd viing md khac. Ke't qua cho tha'y phuang phap da td ra cd nhieu hieu qua trong viec tim kie'm, phat hien cac than quang ndi tren, dac biet la quang xam tan ma trude dd rat khd phat hien nd bang phuang phap dien trd va dien trudng tu nhien. Viec phat hien di thudng phan cue ma sau dd dugc cdng trinh khoan sau tim ra than quang pyrit so 12 d Giap Lai da khang dinh vai trd chii yeu cua phuang phap do sau PCKT trong tim kiem quang pyrit d Viet Nam. Trong khoang 10 nam trd lai day, phuang phap do sau PCKT dugc md rdng cho nhieu loai khoang san, dac biet la khoang san cd ty le khoang vat dan dien dien tir thap nhu molipden (Sapa - Lao Cai), thiec (Quy Hgp - Nghe An), apatit (Lao Cai), thach anh - sulfur chiia vang d Cao Ram (Hoa Binh), d Na Pac (Lang San), d Cam Tam (Thanh Hoa).., vang-antimon d Ta Sdi ( Nghe An), Nam San - Na Pac (Hoa Binh), antimoan d Khe Chim - Ddng Md (Quang 17 Ninh). Phuang phap do sau PCKT da duge md rdng ap dung de xac dinh do tong khoang hoa cua nude dudi dat viing ddng bang Nam Bd. Cac may do PCKT pho bie'n d nude ta hien nay van la cac tram VP - 62 va VP - 062, DDJ-I, DIAPIR E+T, DGJ-1 cai tien cua Trung Qudc. Nam 1989 ta nhap dugc tram do phan cue xoay chieu VP-O eua Lien Xd (cii). Gan day ta da nhap duge may do phan cue SYSCAL-R2 eua Phap. Vdi tinh hinh thiet bi nhu vay, d Viet Nam cho de'n nay mdi chi ap dung do PCKT bang ddng mot chieu hoac xung doi chieu la chii yeu. Cd the ndi rang phuang phap do sau PCKT d nude ta dugc ap dung mudn han nhieu so vdi cac nude phat trien tren the' gidi, song lai dugc phat trien manh me trong cdng tac dieu tra, tim kiem va tham dd khoang san. Trong tim kiem phat hien hau he't cac khoang san ma to hgp khoang vat tao quang cd khoang vat dan dien dien tir thi phuang phap do sau PCKT deu cd mat va dugc ap dung de tim kiem phat hien chiing. Ciing do hieu qua cua phuang phap ma ty trong dau tu cho phuang phap nay kha Idn, khong nhiing d Viet Nam ma cdn tren the' gidi. Theo cac tai lieu thd'ng ke ty le chi phi cho cdng tac Dia Vat ly tim kiem va tham dd khoang san tren the' gidi tii nam 1958 de'n 1970 cho thay ty le chi phi cho phuang phap do sau PCKT chiem tdi han 50% vao nam 1970 da chiing td vai trd chii dao cua phuang phap nay trong td hgp cac phuang phap tim kie'm tham dd khoang san [71]. 1.2 CO CHE CUA HIEN Tl/ONG PHAN Cl/C KICH THICH Cho de'n nay, chua cd cdng trinh nao nghien ciiu hoan chinh ve hien tugng PCKT, cac ket qua nghien ciiu [71], [80], [81], [82] chii yeu bang thuc nghiem d6u cho rang ca che hien tugng PCKT la cac qua trinh ly hoa phiic tap xay ra d ranh gidi tiep xiic giiia khoang vat ran vdi dung dich dien phan choan trong Id hong cua da khi cd ddng dien chay qua. Hien tugng PCKT cd the khai quat gdm 3 dang chinh sau: 18 - Do su bie'n dang dien kep d ranh gidi 2 pha ran va Idng cua dat da lien ke't d trang thai chuyen ddng nhiet. Khi dd trudng dien nguyen sinh lam dinh hudng md men Idp dien kep, Idp dien kep bi bien dang khdi vi tri can bang, tao thanh trudng dien thii cap Epc^^*(t). Trudng thii ca'p nay hinh thanh tiic thdi va ciing tat di nhanh va chi ton tai tdi 2-3 giay say khi ngat ddng phat. - Do dien phan va phan ling oxy hoa khir xay ra d be mat khoang vat dan dien dien tir va mdi trudng dan dien ion. Khi cd ddng dien chay qua quang dan dien dien tii, theo hudng ddng dien chay tdi thi hien tugng dien phan tao thanh khi H^, hudng ngugc lai thi tao thanh khi CL", O", tir dd tao nen cac pin yeu td. Ddng thdi do san pham dien phan d hai phia vat quang ciing xay ra phan ling dxy hda khir lam xuat hien cac dien tich trai dau. Ket qua tao thanh trudng dien phan cue thii cap Epc*-*(t). So vdi trudng Idp kep, trudng do dxy hoa khir xay ra eham han va tdn tai ciing lau han, thudng keo dai tdi 7-8 giay sau khi ngat ddng phat. - Do phan cue ndng do: Trong Id h6ng eua dat da, cd dung dich dien phan, do su ha'p thu ciia set tao nen cac vimg cd ndng do khac nhau. Khi cd trudng dien ben ngoai lam cac ion chuyen ddng, lam mat can bamg trang thai ban dau tao nen trudng thii ca'p Epe*^*(t). Trudng dien nay xay ra cham va tdn tai tdi vai chuc giay sau khi ngat ddng phat. Nhu vay, the' PCKT chi tdn tai chii yeu trong mot khoang thdi gian nha't dinh sau khi ngat ddng phat. Ne'u dung thiet bi do the PCKT trong khoang thdi gian thich hgp ay, ta se nhan dugc the PCKT. Do phan cue bieu kien la ty sd hieu dien the' phan cue AUpc{t) do d thdi die'm t sau khi ngat ddng phat va hieu dien the AL'' do duge d thdi diem chua ngat ddng phat (tinh theo ty le %) khi cting dieu kien thu phat: %= Af/pc(t) Bil^lOO% ^ ^ — ° (1.1) 19 7^(0 la ham ciia thdi gian, cd quy luat suy giam tuang tu nhu the' phan cue AUpc(t), Ham //^(t) dugc ggi la ham dd phan cue bieu kien cua mdi trudng. • D6 thi bi^u dien dd phan cue bieu kie'n 7^ (/) theo kich thudc he cue r dugc ggi la dudng cong do sau phan cue [15]. Bai toan phan bd the' eua ngudn dien ddng khong ddi cudng do I tren mat nira mdi trudng phan Idp, ddng nha't, song phang ngang da dugc nhieu tac gia quan tam va giai hoan chinh. Theo Vanhian [68J khi phat ddng khong ddi I bdi ngudn diem dat tren mat mdi trudng nira khdng gian ddng nhat vd han, dien trd suat p, dien the' tai diem each ngudn mot khoang r dugc tinh theo cdng thiic: U(r) (1.2) l7tr Khi phat ddng khdng ddi / bdi hai dien cue AB dat tren mat mdi trudng nira khdng gian ddng nha't vd han, dien trd suat p, hieu dien the' giiia hai dien cue thu MN dugc tinh theo cdng thiic: At/ = VI vay: P.=K trong dd: K= Ip( ITT \ 1 1 AM AN BM 1^ BN AU (1.3) l7t (1.4) AM AN BM BN, dugc ggi la he sd he cue do, phu thudc vao each bd tri he cue do va kich thudc giiia cac dien cue. Ddi vdi mdi trudng bat ddng nha't, cac dien trd suat that ciia mdi trudng khdng the tinh theo cdng thiic dan gian (1.2) nhu trong trudng hgp mdi trudng ddng nha't. Khi ay, dai lugng p{r) thay doi theo kich thudc r giiia ngudn phat 20 va diem do, dugc tinh theo (1.3), cd thii nguyen dien trd suat phan anh thong tin chung ve cau tnic va tinh cha't dien cua mdi trudng, ddng thdi phu thudc vao each bd tri he cue do. Ham p^ (r) dugc ggi la ham dien trd suat bieu kien ciia mdi trudng. Do thi bieu dien dien trd suat bieu kien Pi^{r) theo kich thudc he cue r dugc ggi la dudng cong do sau dien trd [15], [75]. Do phan cue bieu kie'n cd mdi quan he vdi dien trd sua't bieu kien cua mdi trudng phan cue va khdng phan cue. That vay, khi mdi trudng phan cue, trudng dien ciia chiing bieu dien bang bieu thiic: E = E,+E^^ (1.5) do dd hieu dien the' do dugc la: At/ = A[/o+At/^, (1.6) d day EQ , AUQ va Ep^, AC/^^ tuong ling la dien trudng va hieu dien the' do dugc khi mdi trudng khdng phan cue va mdi trudng cd phan cue. Tii bieu thiic tinh do phan cue bieu kie'n (1.1), ta cd: AUpc AU-AUf, Chia ca tu: so va mau sd cho dong phat / va nhan vdi he sd he cac K ta c6: _ 'Ik ~ Pl-Pk Pi (1-8) d day PI va p^ la dien trd suat bieu kie'n ciia mdi trudng khi d trang thai phan cue va khdng phan cue, tuang ling vdi cac tham sd dien trd suat la p] va p. cd quan he:
- Xem thêm -