Nhiên liệu hàng hải (marine fuel) - nhóm 4

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NHIÊN LIỆU HÀNG HẢI (MARINE FUEL) NHÓM 4: ĐỖ THỊ LIÊN NGUYỄN NGỌC NGHIỆP CONTENT  Thực trạng  Lịch sử hình thành động cơ hàng hải  Động cơ hàng hải  Nhiên liệu hàng hải và nguồn gốc  Tiêu chuẩn đánh giá  Tính chất nhiên liệu và phụ gia  Nhiên liệu hàng hải trong tương lai MARINE TRAFFIC Delivery Locations 300,000 cubic metres in Singapore 300,000 cubic metres in Tanjung Bin 275,000 cubic metres floating storage in Tanjung Pelepas anchorage Dung quất 70.000 tones = 56,000 cubic metres IN VIET NAM SO SÁNH GIÁ CẢ DIESEL, XĂNG, MARINE Vùng 1 Vùng 2 Xăng RON 95 24.710 25.200 Xăng RON 92 24.210 24.690 DO 0,05S 22.960 23.410 DO 0,25S 22.910 23.360 Dầu hoả 22.400 22.840 Sản phẩm PRICES Diesel oil: 990.77 USD/ tone HISTORY OF MARINE ENGINE 1950s 1920s First half of 20th century • Steamship popular • Diesel and residual increase • Diesel more benefit due to small difference of cost • Innovations for diesel engine to use heavier fuels. • High alkalinity cylinder lubricants for high sulphur residual fuels 1960s Start of 21st century Considerable benefit due to cheaper residual fuels. Diesel ships accounted for 98% fleet. Diesel ship using residual fuels popular NGUYÊN LÍ HOẠT ĐỘNG CỦA ĐỘNG CƠ HÀNG HẢI  Động cơ 2 thì: tạo công và nén trước; nén và hút Ưu điểm: hiệu suất riêng (hiệu suất trên dung tích) cao. Thiết kế đơn giản động cơ hai thì mang lại nhiều ưu điểm như dễ bảo trì hơn và có khối lượng di động (trục khuỷu, píttông,...) nhỏ hơn. Vận tốc pittong nhỏ Thích hợp cho tàu thủy công suất lớn (nòng xy lanh 1 mét) ĐỘNG CƠ 4 KÌ Tốc độ pittong bé hơn, công suất nhỏ hơn, cháy sạch hơn hai kỳ. Chỉ thích hợp cho loại tàu thủy hạng nhẹ TIÊU CHUẨN KHÍ THẢI CHO MARINE FUEL Tier 2* Marine Emission Standards Category 1 2 Displacement (D) CO NOx+THC PM dm3 per cylinder g/kWh g/kWh g/kWh Power ≥ 37 kW D < 0.9 5.0 7.5 0.40 2005 0.9 ≤ D < 1.2 5.0 7.2 0.30 2004 1.2 ≤ D < 2.5 5.0 7.2 0.20 2004 2.5 ≤ D < 5.0 5.0 7.2 0.20 2007a 5.0 ≤ D < 15 5.0 7.8 0.27 2007a 15 ≤ D < 20 Power < 3300 kW 5.0 8.7 0.50 2007a 15 ≤ D < 20 Power ≥ 3300 kW 5.0 9.8 0.50 2007a 20 ≤ D < 25 5.0 9.8 0.50 2007a 25 ≤ D < 30 5.0 11.0 0.50 2007a * - Tier 1 standards are equivalent to the MARPOL Annex VI Tier I NOx limits a - Tier 1 certification requirement starts in 2004 Date “Blue Sky Series” Voluntary Emission Standards Displacement (D) NOx+THC PM dm3 per cylinder Power ≥ 37 kW & D < 0.9 0.9 ≤ D < 1.2 1.2 ≤ D < 2.5 2.5 ≤ D < 5.0 5.0 ≤ D < 15 15 ≤ D < 20 & Power < 3300 kW 15 ≤ D < 20 & Power ≥ 3300 kW 20 ≤ D < 25 25 ≤ D < 30 g/kWh 4.0 4.0 4.0 5.0 5.0 g/kWh 0.24 0.18 0.12 0.12 0.16 5.2 0.30 5.9 0.30 5.9 6.6 0.30 0.30 Tier 3 Standards for Marine Diesel Category 1 Commercial Standard Power Density (≤ 35 kW/dm3) Engines Power (P) Displacement (D) NOx+HC† PM kW dm3 per cylinder g/kWh g/kWh P < 19 D < 0.9 7.5 0.40 2009 19 ≤ P < 75 D < 0.9a 7.5 0.30 2009 4.7b 0.30b 2014 D < 0.9 5.4 0.14 2012 0.9 ≤ D < 1.2 5.4 0.12 2013 1.2 ≤ D < 2.5 5.6 0.11c 2014 2.5 ≤ D < 3.5 5.6 0.11c 2013 3.5 ≤ D < 7 5.8 0.11c 2012 75 ≤ P < 3700 Date † Tier 3 NOx+HC standards do not apply to 2000-3700 kW engines. a - < 75 kW engines ≥ 0.9 dm3/cylinder are subject to the corresponding 75-3700 kW standards. b - Option: 0.20 g/kWh PM & 5.8 g/kWh NOx+HC in 2014. c - This standard level drops to 0.10 g/kWh in 2018 for < 600 kW engines. Tier 3 Standards for Marine Diesel Category 1 Commercial High Power Density (> 35 kW/dm3) Engines And All Diesel Recreational Engines Power (P) Displacement (D) NOx+HC PM kW dm3 per cylinder g/kWh g/kWh P < 19 D < 0.9 7.5 0.40 2009 7.5 0.30 2009 4.7b 0.30b 2014 D < 0.9 5.8 0.15 2012 0.9 ≤ D < 1.2 5.8 0.14 2013 1.2 ≤ D < 2.5 5.8 0.12 2014 2.5 ≤ D < 3.5 5.8 0.12 2013 3.5 ≤ D < 7 5.8 0.11 2012 19 ≤ P < 75 75 ≤ P < 3700 D < 0.9a Date a - < 75 kW engines ≥ 0.9 dm3/cylinder are subject to the corresponding 75-3700 kW standards. b - Option: 0.20 g/kWh PM & 5.8 g/kWh NOx+HC in 2014. TYPES OF MARINE FUELS  MGO (Marine gas oil) made from distillate only.  MDO (Marine diesel oil) - A blend of heavy gasoil that may contain very small amounts of black refinery feed stocks, but has a low viscosity up to 12 cSt so it need not be heated for use in internal combustion engines  IFO (Intermediate fuel oil) A blend of gasoil and heavy fuel oil, with less gasoil than marine diesel oil  MFO (Marine fuel oil) or HFO (Heavy fuel oil) - Pure or nearly pure residual oil. MGO Distillate Fuels MDO IFO MFO Residual Fuels OTHER CLASSIFICATION • According ISO 8217 standard: DMX • special light distillate intended mainly for use in emergency engines. DMA • Also called MGO • free from traces of residual fuel DMB • Also called MDO • May have traces of residual fuel • can be high in sulfur DMC • contain residual fuel, and is often a residual fuel blend Distillate Fuels Standards have also been developed for biodiesel fuels and their blends. RX* • Residual (nondistillate) • identified by their nominal viscosity (e.g., RMA10, RMG35,…) Residual Fuels CII (CALCULATED IGNITION INDEX )  Same CN CCAI (CALCULATED CARBON AROMATICITY INDEX)
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