Model and solution of municipal solid waste management in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city through 2030

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRANING MINISTRY OF CONSTRUCTION HANOI ARCHITECTURAL UNIVERSITY ******* LE CUONG MODEL AND SOLUTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE PERI-URBAN AREAS OF HANOI INNER-CITY THROUGH 2030 MAJOR: URBAN AND CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT MAJOR CODE: 62.58.01.06 ABSTRACT OF DOCTORATE DISSERTATION HA NOI - 2015 The dissertation is completed in Hanoi Architectural University Dissertation Supervisors: 1. Hoang Van Hue, Prof., Ph.D 2. Cu Huy Dau, Assoc. Prof., Ph.D Referee 1: Nguyen Hong Tien, Assoc. Prof., Ph.D Referee 2: Nguyen Lan, Prof., Ph.D Referee 3: Tran Thi Huong, Assoc. Prof., Ph.D The oral defense of this dissertation before the Doctorate Board was held: At hour day month year 2015 The dissertation can be found at the National Library or at the Library of Hanoi Architectural University 1 INTRODUCTION 1. The necessity of the dissertation subject Currently, Hanoi City generates about 6,500 tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) per day, of which the amount of solid waste generated from 12 urban districts of about 3800 tons, from the suburban area district (District 9) is about 1110 tons; The remaining solid waste is generated from the remaining districts [3], [73]. The process of urbanization, expansion and development of Hanoi City has a strong impact on the socio-economic conditions, infrastructure of peri-urban areas. The creation of new districts, villages turned into wards and peri-urban areas fluctuate by the urban management policies and administrative measures. Poor infrastructure, solid waste management in peri-urban areas is inadequate; waste collection, transportation and disposal services of Urban Environment Company (URENCO) does not reach far areas. In many rural areas, the garbage collection model by self-governing citizens has formed. However, only few models operate effectively. In suburban areas, where the urbanization process developed rapidly, if the waste is not managed well cause environmental pollution [22]. Therefore the subject "Model and solution of municipal solid waste management in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city through 2030" is necessary. 2. Purposes of the research - Improving the efficiency of state management in the MSW collection, transportation and disposal services in peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city. - Building a model and solution of MSW management of in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city relevant to the planning of solid waste management of Hanoi through 2030. 3. Object and scope of the research 3.1. Object of the research: Municipal solid waste; Industrial solid waste and trade villages belonging to other research. 3.2. Scope of the research: 9 suburban districts which have the administrative boundaries adjacent to the urban districts of Hanoi as planned through 2030. 4. Research method and approach (1) Investigation method; (2) Synthesis and analysis methods used in Planning; (3) Inheritance method; (4) Comparison and control method; (5) Expert opinion method. This dissertation approaches in suburban areas which are in the "Moving" status, 2 always changing in the process of urbanization and expansion of the City. 5. The science, practice significance and new contributions of the dissertation 5.1. The science and practice significance of the dissertation a. The science significance Using scientific arguments, dissertation was to clarify the concept of peri-urban areas, building a theoretical and practical basis on which a model and solution of MSW management in peri-urban areas of Hanoi through 2030 is proposed. b. The practice significance Dissertation contributes to the implementation of the Solid waste disposal planning of Hanoi through 2030, with orientations toward 2050. 5.2. New contributions of the dissertation 1. The dissertation was to clarify the concept of peri-urban areas, the difference between the peri-urban areas and suburb areas, factors affecting MSW management in peri-urban areas. 2. Propose a model of organizational structure of URENCO in districts, environment service cooperatives, self-governing sanitation teams; clarify the responsibilities and duties of the concerned organisations and individuals. 3. Propose a general model of MSW disposal in nine suburban districts; determine the location, size, capacity and processing technology of solid waste treatment facilities in suburban areas for suburban districts planned with or without MSW disposal facilities. 4. Propose three models of MSW management: (1) MSW is collected and sorted at the source and transported to the final disposal; (2) The MSW management model for residential areas in urbanization towns and communes; (3) The MSW management model for residential areas of agricultural communes; The process of collecting, sorting, transport and disposal of MSW in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city through 2030. 5. Propose mechanisms and policies for socialization of MSW management services in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city. 6. Some scientific concepts of solid waste and solid waste management 7. The structure of the dissertation In addition to the appendix, references... the content of the dissertation consists of three main chapters with a total of 158 pages: 3 Prologue (9 pages); Chapter 1. Overview of MSW management in urban and peri-urban areas (60 pages); Chapter 2. Science and practice basis of the dissertation (37 pages); Chapter 3. Proposed model and solution of solid waste management in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city through 2030, with orientations toward 2050 (48 pages); Conclusion and Recommendation (4 pages) Chapter 1. OVERVIEW OF MSW MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AND PERI-URBAN AREAS 1.1. Suburban areas and peri-urban areas 1.1.1. The concept of suburban and peri-urban areas a. Inner city and suburbs Hanoi is the Capital City which has district-level administrative units including districts, towns. The inner city consists of inner districts which include of wards. The the suburbs consists of outer districts which include of communes and towns [5]. b. Peri-urban areas It can be seen that there are differences in interpretation and definition of periurban areas. But in the majority of cases, peri-urban areas are considered including all communes, towns territory near or even adjacent to the inner city area is specified via the administrative measures [30],[41]. 1.1.2. The difference between suburban and peri-urban areas Peri-urban areas belong to the suburb and are close to the inner districts. 1.2. The process of formation and development of peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city 1.2.1. The formation and development of the districts of Hanoi * The period 1954-1994: Before 1995, Hanoi has only 4 inner districts. * So far: Hanoi has 12 inner districts, 01 towns and 17 outer districts. 1.2.2. Peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city through 2030 a. Peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city through 2030: All communes and towns in nine districts (Dan Phuong, Hoai Duc, Thanh Oai, Thanh Tri, Thuong Tin, Gia Lam, Dong Anh, Chuong My and Me Linh) near or adjacent to the 12 inner districts of Hanoi. 4 Figure 1.1. Center urban and suburban areas of Hanoi city in the period 2014 – 2030 (the period of the inner city of Hanoi has 12 counties) [54] (photo by the dissertation author) b. Peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city expected for the period 2030 – 2050 To determine the peri-urban areas should be based on time and planning stage. Review and assessment: During the development and expansion of Hanoi City, along with the creation of new districts, Peri-urban areas will always be in “moving” status. 1.3. The basic characteristics of the peri-urban areas - Classification of peri-urban residential areas 1.3. The basic characteristics of the peri-urban areas - Economy: Unlike rural areas, peri-urban areas include a more comprehensive economic activity. - Social: In peri-urban area, population composition is inhomogeneous, educational level and awareness of people is higher than in rural areas. Social relationships are more complex and more multidimensional. The variability of the peri-urban area is very large, there are a lot of people moving from rural areas to urban and peri-urban areas. Careers changing trends to services, handicraft, because of reduction of agricultural land. - Environment is polluted, infrastructure is overloaded and rapidly degraded. 1.3.2. Classification of peri-urban residential areas In the study area, there are 183 towns and 12 communes with a total of 733 5 residential areas: 462 agricultural residential areas; 180 service residential areas and 91 residential areas of trade village. 1.4. Current status of MSW management in urban and peri-urban areas in some countries in the world a. Developed countries: Japan, Singapore. b. Developing countries: Thailand, The Philippines. c. Review and assessment: In developed countries: The legal system is perfect and well-enforced; Synchronous infrastructure system, modern technology create favorable conditions for the collection and disposal of waste; The process of collection, transport and disposal of MSW is reasonable; Sorting waste at sources is highly focused and well implemented, thereby promotes reuse thoroughly, reduces the volume of waste sent for processing; Share responsibilities and obligations between the State - Business People; Reasonable service fee. In developing countries (Thailand, The Philippines, Malaysia): The collection, sorting at sources of MSW is well implemented; Recycling of MSW is well developed. 1.5. Current status of MSW management in urban and peri-urban areas in some cities in Vietnam 1.5.1. MSW management in urban and peri-urban areas in Ho Chi Minh City In addition to the formal system (CITENCO, other public service companis) that controls urban solid waste managemen, the non-formal system established by the residentials responsible for the collection of solid waste, including individuals, 30 enterprises and 05 cooperative unions. The rate of collection and transportation of solid waste between the private sector and the state is 40% and 60%; MSW disposal is mainly undertake by private companies. 1.5.2. MSW management in urban and peri-urban areas in Danang City Currently, Danang Urban Environment Company collected an average of 574 tons of solid waste per day, nearly about 88% of the amount of waste generated. 1.5.3. MSW management in urban and peri-urban areas in Haiphong City Currently, most of the suburban districts of Haiphong City do not have concentrate waste disposal facilities (except for Gia Minh waste disposal area in Thuy Nguyen District). 1.5.4. Review and assessment According to statistics of the Department of Infrastructure, Ministry of 6 Construction, as of April 2012, the total amount of MSW generated in the whole country is over 61,500 tons per day, of which urban MSW accounts for over 50%, rural areas of less than 50%. In Vietnam, solid waste in urban and peri-urban areas have yet to be sorted at source; The proportion of solid waste collection in urban areas is 83%, in rural areas is 30%. Landfill is still MSW disposal forms (accounting for 8083% of MSW), secondary compost products (7%), the recovery and recycling of waste in the private facilities (10-12%). There have not yet been a synchronous system of collection, transportation and disposal of waste, still lack of waste disposal facilities at the locals, rural districts. 1.6. Current status of MSW management in urban and peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city 1.6.1. Current status of MSW management in Hanoi City - Sorting: Only a few of wards, commues develop 3R project. - Collection and transport: In addition to the Urban Environment Company of Hanoi City (URENCO) there are (1) URENCOs of Dong Anh, Gia Lam, Soc Son and Thanh Tri districts; (2) Private enterprises (Thang Long Environment JSC, Thanh Cong Cooperative, Green Environment); (3) Ha Dong Environment Public Service JSC, SonTay Urban Construction And Environment JSC. … - The current status of MSW disposal: landfill, composting, recycling. 1.6.2. Current status of MSW management in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city MSW management in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city is fully insufficient in sorting, collection, transport and disposal. 1.6.3. Management mechanisms and policies of MSW of Hanoi City Management mechanisms and policies of MSW are still some shortcomings need to be adjusted in the near future. Also, some additional legislation on socialization of MSW management is needed in order to attracting the private sector to the collection, transportation and disposal of MSW. 1.7. Some models of socialization of MSW management in Vietnam and in Hanoi City 1.7.1. Some models of socialization of MSW management in Vietnam [47] Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh are the two leading cities in socialization of MSW management. In other localities, there are private enterprises such as Kien An municipal Administration Compamy, Do Son Public Service Company (Haiphong City), Cam Pha Industry JSC, An Lac Vien Limited Company (Quang Ning Province), Huy Hoang Limited Company (Lang Son Province)… In solid waste 7 disposal, there is also the participation of private sector, for exemple SERAPHIN Company, Tam Sinh Nghia Company. In the whole country, there are 274 environment service co-operatives, of which 154 specialized in environment. Many enterprises work very effectively, for exemple Thanh Cong Co-operative. … 1.7.2. Some models of socialization of MSW management in Hanoi City In Hanoi, in addition to the Hanoi URENCO, there are a number of private companies: Thang Long JSC, Tay Do JSC, Green JSC, Thanh Cong Co-operative…; self-governing teams in Thanh Tri District, Xuan Mai Environment Service Limited Company, model in Lai Xa hamlet (Kim Chung commune, Hoai Duc district), model of solid waste of Van Dinh town (Van Dinh district)… 1.7.3. Evaluate the effectiveness of the MSW management socialization model The dissertation summarized and used matrix to evaluate the effectiveness of MSW management socialization models in some localities such as: waste collection self-governing teams in Yen Lang commune (Vu Thu district, Thai Binh province), in Nam Cuong commune (Yen Bai city, Yen Bai province) and in Cua Lo Town, Nghe An province… 1.8. Overview of the related researches 1.8.1. Criteria for selecting the subjects, thesis, dissertations: subjects, new researches published recently and directly related to the dissertation. 1.8.2. Assess the related scientific researches has been published: The dissertation presents the results of the study, the problems need for further research. 1.8.3. Comment and assessment: It can be seen, in Vietnam, the research subjects of the first group are mainly related to technique and technology of solid waste management; the research subjects of the second and the third groups is mainly related to the planning of solid waste area or solid waste landfills. There has been no overall and comprehensive research on MSW management in urban and peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city before the impact of the process of urbanization so far. 1.9. The problems need for further research - Clarifying the concept of peri-urban areas, suburbs. - Determine the size, capacity and processing technology of solid waste treatment areas, solid waste transfer station in peri-urban areas as planned. - Model and solution of MSW management in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city through 2030, with orientations toward 2050. - Research on the model of management structure and organisation of district URENCO, environmental service co-operatives and self-government sanitation 8 groups/teams; organic relationship between the units. - Mechanisms and policies for socialization of MSW management services and other related problems. Chapter 1 conclusion Chapter 2. SCIENCE AND PRACTICE BASIS OF THE OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE PERI-URBAN AREAS OF HANOI INNER-CITY THROUGH 2030 2.1. The scientific methodology of solid waste management system 2.1.1. The solid waste management system: is the set of elements or components that interact with each other in order to protect environment and for sustainable development. 2.1.2. Type of solid waste management systems in peri-urban areas: district URENCOs (state-owned of JSC); environmental service co-operatives (if exist); selfgovernment sanitation groups/teams in communes, towns. 2.1.3. The basic characteristics of solid waste management systems [35]: The system has boundary, lines between the boundary and the external environment; the systems change over time (moving status); the systems have hierarchy structure; the system have dominant. 2.1.4. Structure and organisation of the solid waste management systems There are three points need to be noticed when considering the structure of the systems: The target of system must be taken as the standard; Management must be associated with people in the system. When analyzing the organizational structure of the solid waste management system should note two levels: Individuals - units, of which responsibility must be taken as a standards to distinguish; Determine the formal structure of the systems. 2.1.5. Organizational structure types of solid waste management systems Organizational structure of functional type; Organizational structure of management subdivision type; Organizational structure of matrix type. 2.1.6. Limit and responsibility of solid waste management Thesis determined management limits and responsibilities for the district and inter-district, the communes and inter-communes... which objects managed by whom... 2.1.7. The tools for MSW management Legislation tools, economic tools, scientific and technology tools; ISO management, method of integrated management of solid waste in combination with 9 3R, 4R. 2.2. Factors influence the model and solution of MSWmanagement in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city 2.2.1 The natural, socio-economic and environmental conditions - The natural conditions in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi is the natural conditions of Hanoi. - Awareness of the people on environmental protection is not high enough, the backlog and perenniality of waste cause of environmental pollution; The gathering and disposal areas are temporary. - Infrastructure systems of the districts in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi are weak and inadequate; narrow road network makes it difficult for the collection and transportation of MSW. [59]. 2.2.2. Science, technique and technology keep an important role in the management, but the application of it in management is limited. 2.2.3. The impact from the mechanism conversion from centralized and administrative - subsidiary economic system to market economic system Old management method does not meet market mechanisms [78]. 2.2.4. MSW management service socialization: MSW management in general and MSW in peri-urban areas in particular, require the participation of the private economic sector and mobilization of community participation in the management of MSW. 2.2.5. Relationship factors between subjects, objects and objectives of the MSW management Balance harmoniously the interests, rights of the parties in the MSW management. 2.2.6. Cooperation in management : Ensuring social welfare, harmonious interests; Autonomy in coordination with state agencies, units and specialized organizations. 2.3. The legal basis 2.3.1. The current legislation on the MSW management Currently, the legal system of MSW management is relatively full and complete: Law on Environmental Protection of Vietnam 2014, Decree of Government 59/2007/NĐ-CP dated April 09, 2007 on solid waste management, Decision 2149/QD-TTg dated december 17, 2009 of the Prime Minister approving the national strategy for integrated management of solid waste up to 2025... 10 2.3.2. Sustainable development strategy for Vietnam for the period 2011 – 2020 Industrialization and modernization; Urbanization; Population control; protection of ecological environment. 2.3.3. The national strategy for the integrated management of solid waste through 2025, with orientations toward 2050 (by Decision 2149/QD-TTg dated December 17, 2009 of the Prime Minister approving the national strategy for integrated management of solid waste up to 2025 [53]): - 04 important goals to the year 2015, 2020 and 2025: (1) Prevention of solid waste generated; (2) Reduction of solid waste generated; (3) Promote the classification of solid waste at the sources; (4) Promote the collection, transportation and disposal of solid waste. 2.3.4. The socialization policy of environmental protection: The MSW management service is needed to be socialized; promote socialization - preferential policies for solid waste management socialization. 2.3.5. Overall planning of socio-economic development of Hanoi through 2020, with orientations toward 2030 (by Decision 1081/QD-TTg dated Jully 06, 2011 of the Prime Minister approving the master plan on socio-economic development of Hanoi city through 2020, with orientations toward 2030): Economic restructuring towards service. 2.3.6. General construction planning of Hanoi through 2030, with orientations toward 2050 [54] The center urban will be expanded to the West and to the South to ring road No.4 and to the North: Me Linh, Dong Anh districts; to the East: Gia Lam and Long Bien districts. 2.3.7. Orient planning of solid waste management of Hanoi through 2030 As planned, the MSW gathering and disposal system of Hanoi is divided into three areas, 6 transfer stations (10 ha) and 17 solid waste treatment facilities (430,15 ha). 2.4. The forecast amount of generated MSW in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi through 2030 By 2030, the population of the nine districts in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city will be 2,592,605 people, the total amount of MSW generated will be about 2177.8 tons per day, nearly 2 times the total amount of MSW generated in the periurban areas today. 11 Table 2.2. The forecast amount of MSW generated in the peri-urban areas through 2030 2010* through 2030 Districts Population W0 Amount Population W0 Amount (people) (Kg/peopl of MSW (people) (Kg/peopl of MSW e (T/day) e/day) (T/day) /day) Dan 74,9 174860 0,84 146,9 124900 0,6 Phuong Hoai Duc 188800 0,6 113,3 264320 0,84 222,0 Thanh Oai 159600 0,6 95,7 223440 0,84 187,7 Thanh Tri 168000 0,6 100,8 235200 0,84 197,6 Gia Lam 218275 0,6 131,0 305585 0,84 256,7 Dong Anh 321750 0,6 193,0 450450 0,84 378,4 Chuong My 275000 0,6 165,0 385000 0,84 323,4 Me Linh 187536 0,6 112,5 262550 0,84 220,5 Thuong Tin 208000 0,6 124,8 291200 0,84 244,6 Total 1851861 1110,0 2592605 2177,8 Chapter 2 conclusion Chapter 3. PROPOSE MODEL AND SOLUTION OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE PERI-URBAN AREAS OF HANOI INNER-CITY THROUGH 2030, WITH ORIENTATIONS TOWARD 2050 3.1. The views, goals and principles of solid waste management 3.1.1. The views: Integrated management of MSW in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city is the responsibility of the whole society; is one of the priorities of environmental protection in the suburb areas of Hanoi. 3.1.2. Target to build models: (1) The socio-economic objective; (2) technical objective; (3) The environmental protection objective. 3.1.3. The principle of building models: In accordance with the spatial development planning, general planning of solid waste management of the City. In accordance with the present technical infrastructure conditions and with that in the future. In accordance with the socio-economic conditions of the localities. 3.2. The model of organizational structure of MSW management in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city through 2030 3.2.1. The organizational structure of district URENCO In total nine districts in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city, only three 12 districts that have URENCOs (Dong Anh, Gia Lam, Thanh Tri). Therefore, the remaining six districts needed to establish URENCOs are: Dan Phuong, Hoai Duc Linh, Chuong My, Thanh Oai and Thuong Tin. The dissertation presents the organizational and managerial structures, functions and responsbilities of the district URENCO 3.2.2. Model of the sanitation co-operative Figure 3.1. The organizational and managerial structure of the sanitation The city should establish and develop sanitation co-operatives. With model, the State does not have to invest capital, facilities, equipment manufacturing operations. Besides, this model also helps resolve the problem of labors by attracting them to participate in co-operative activities, creating jobs income for them. this for idle and 3.2.3. The model of self-government sanitation group (team) Each commune forme a self-government sanitation team; Each village has a self-government sanitation group; Each group has from 2 to 4 employees, depending on the specific requirements of each village. The organizational structure of MSW management of commune is shown in Figure 3.2. 13 Commune People's Committee Sanitation Team Sanitation group 1 Sanitation group 2 Population Units Sanitation group 3 Figure 3.2. The organizational and managerial structure of the selfgovernment sanitation team 3.2.4. Assessment of the organizational structure model of district URENCO/sanitation co-operative, self-government sanitation group (team) Along with URENCO system of Hanoi today, the establishment and development of the system of district URENCO, sanitation co-operative; selfgovernment sanitation group (team) in peri-urban will be highly effective in terms of economic - society - environment. They are: a. On the economic side: enhance the capacity of the district URENCOs. With the models of the sanitation co-operative and the self-government sanitation group (team), State does not have to invest capital. Creating jobs will thereby raise incomes and living standards of the people in the peri-urban areas. b. On the social side: Raising awareness and responsibility of citizens in environmental protection; Create unity and consensus of citizens in the peri-urban areas, contribute to protecting the security and stability of the social order. c. On the environmental side: Expanding the scope and scale of sanitation services to all localities in urban areas where now Hanoi URENCO and other specialized units can not reach; Bringing the solid waste management service to rural areas in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi, thereby, remove the gap between the management service of municipal solid waste and solid waste management in rural areas. Solve the existing problems and shortcomings in the solid waste management in peri-urban areas today. 3.2.5. The difficulties and challenges when developting the models In order to establish the district URENCOs, it is necessary to establish effective management apparatus and to have enough resources (capital, material) to operate; while the capital resource for the construction of facilities, purchase of machinery and equipment for the collection, transportation, processing and recycling of solid waste by URENCOs, including the sanitation co-operatives is not small. This is also a drawback when we develop the models. 3.3. The general model of MSW disposal in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city through 2030 3.3.1. The model of concentrate MSW disposal for the districts that have waste disposal facilities 14 As planned, in 9 districts of the peri-urban areas, 5 districts need to adopt the model of concentrate MSW management with 7 disposal centers in the areas of concentrate MSW management as planned. These districts are: Dong Anh, Chuong my, Gia Lam, Thanh Oai, Dan Phuong. Figure 3.3. MSW disposal facilities in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city Table 3.1. The size, capacity and processing technology of the concentrate MSW disposal facilities in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city TT MSW disposal facilities Capacity Disposal technology (Tons/day) proposed by the dissertation 1 2 3 4 Viet Hung - Dong Anh district (8,7 ha) 500 Dong Ke – Chuong My district (24ha) 500 Nui Thoong - Chuong My district (10ha) 500 Kieu Ky - Gia Lam district (14ha) 500 - Incinerating; Aerobic composting then and incinerating. - Incinerating; Aerobic composting then and incinerating. - Incinerating; Aerobic composting then and incinerating. - Incinerating; Aerobic biological landfilling biological landfilling biological landfilling biological 15 TT MSW disposal facilities Capacity (Tons/day) (closed in 2040) 5 6 7 Phu Dong – Gia Lam district (20 ha) 500 Cao Duong – Thanh Oai district (20ha) 500 Phuong Dinh – Dan Phuong district (6ha) 500 Disposal technology proposed by the dissertation composting then and incinerating. - Incinerating; Aerobic composting then and incinerating. - Incinerating; Aerobic composting then and incinerating. - Incinerating; Aerobic composting then and incinerating. landfilling biological landfilling biological landfilling biological landfilling Figure 3.4. The model of concentrate MSW disposal for the districts that have MSW disposal facilities as planned 3.3.2. The model of concentrate MSW disposal for the districts that do not have MSW disposal facilities as planned 16 Figure 3.5. The model of concentrate MSW disposal for the districts that do not have solid waste disposal facilities, but transfer stations as planned Figure 3.6. The MSW transfer stations in the localities of nine districts in the periurban areas of Hanoi inner-city as planned Hoai Duc, Me Linh and Thanh Tri are the districts that have the rapid process of urbanization, but do not planned MSW disposal facilities. MSW generated from these districts should be collected and transported to the subdivision MSW transfer stations and transported for processing in the MSW nearest or Nam Son Waste 17 Disposal Complex of the City. 3.3.3. The gathering places, transfer stations of solid waste in the communes and districts The network of gathering places, transfer stations of solid waste must be in accordance with the solid waste treatment planning of Hanoi, the socio-economic development planning and other development plannings of the districts. 3.4. The model of MSW management in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city through 2030 3.4.1. General diagram of MSW management: The management model of collecting, sorting at source and transporting MSW to final disposal facility. Sources Collecting and sorting waste at sources Households Biodegradable waste Gathering, transport URENCOs Sanitation co-operatives Restaurants Markets, schools, offices Streets and public places Persistent waste Scrap collectors Recycled waste Households The final places MSW disposal facilities, transport stations as planned Scrap collecting units Composting in households (for agricultural communes) Figure 3.7. The model of collecting, sorting at source and transporting MSW to final disposal facility. 3.4.2. Model and solution of MSW management in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city through 2030, with orientations toward 2050: (1) The specific model of MSW management for residential areas of rapid urbanization communes; (2) The specific model of MSW management for residential areas of agricultural communes. 18 Commune People's Committee signs contracts with URENCOs/cooperatives MSW disposal facilities/ transport stations as planned Collecting, primary transport Solid waste gathering places villages, towns Residential waste gathering places URENCOs/ Sanitation co-operatives Collecting, secondary transport Rest. waste Officies waste gathering places gathering places khu dân cư Solid waste Solid waste Solid waste Solid waste Households Restaurants Markets, schools, offices streets, pavements, public places Collecting and sorting waste at sources Selfgovernment sanitation groups Figure 3.8. The model of MSW management for urbanization towns and communes in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city through 2030 MSW disposal facilities/ transport stations as planned Commune People's Committee signs contracts with co-operatives MSW collection places of hamlets Solid waste disposal in Households tại hộ gia đình Primary collection MSW collection places of villages Sanitation co-operatives Secondary collection MSW collection places of Markets, schools Solid waste Solid waste Solid waste Households Markets, schools, offices pavements, alleys Collecting and sorting waste at sources Selfgovernment sanitation groups nơi công cộng Figure 3.9. The model of MSW management for residential areas of agricultural communes 3.5. Propose the solution of MSW management (collection, sorting, transport and treatment) in the peri-urban areas of Hanoi inner-city through 2030 3.5.1. Generated MSW sources: household, offices, schools, ... 3.5.2. Collecting, sorting MSW at source: Principles and solutions for collecting, sorting MSW at source in combination with 3R and 4R now for the urbanization towns, communes and agricultural communes for each specific case: households, offices... 3.5.3. Collection and transportation of MSW: Process of collecting, primary transporting MSW from the generated sources to the gathering places and the
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