1. Reasons of theme selection
1.1. In respect of theory
Local and international context
Fatherland protection is always an important task of each country. The facts
show that the hostile enemies often use any schemes and expedients to oppose and
destroy the development and protection course of socialist fatherland in each country.
Actually, in the mid-twenty century, the imperialism and hostile enemies found that it
is not easy to use the armed violence to wipe out socialism in each country or
worldwide. Therefore, they must change their strategies in combination of using their
strong military forces to deter, using the so-called “peaceful” measures for the
purpose of opposing, destroying and overturning the socialist countries.
“Peaceful evolution” strategy is the basic strategy of the imperialism and
hostile enemies by using the non-armed measures to weaken a government from its
internal structure and come to overturn the socialist countries.
Contents of “peaceful evolution” strategy are that the enemies use economic,
politic, ideological, cultural, social, external-affair, security schemes, etc in
combination of military deterring to destroy and weaken the internal structures of
socialist countries; activate the conflicts in the society, develop the opposition
political forces in the name of freedom, democracy, human right, religious and ethnic
freedom, encourage economic privatization and politic pluralism; spread political,
economic, ideological and living models of capitalism, make working people
equivocal about the class and class struggles. Especially, they encourage the capitalist
way of living and step by step make part of pupils, student to fade the objectives and
ideology of the socialism; thoroughly exploit and take full use of difficulties,
mistakes of the Party, and Socialist State in the social life to create pressure;
gradually transform and change the political guidelines and social mechanism.
Purpose of the so-called “peaceful evolution” of the enemies is to weaken the
internal structure and come to overturn socialist mechanism. “Peaceful evolution”
strategy of the imperialism and hostile forces is one of the causes leading to the
collapse of socialist countries in Eastern Europe and Soviet in early last decade of
Schemes and practices of the enemies against Vietnam’s revolution:
imperialism which is led by the American imperialism and international hostile forces
is actively and crazily taking various actions to destroy the international revolution in
order to completely wipe out the remaining socialist countries, in which Vietnam is
one of their focuses.
Major method that the United States and hostile forces use to destroy
Vietnam’s revolution is to take the “peaceful” strategy, riot and overturning and may
carry out invasion war directly. They advocate overturning socialist mechanism in
Vietnam by first and major method of “peaceful evolution”. However, in order to
gain the given targets and create significant pressure on our country, they will
combine the “peaceful evolution” with riot and overturning. “Peaceful evolution” is
to more instable elements to the politic system and social disorders, especially in the
key areas and big cities to cause the puzzled psychology to the people while they are
preparing forces, conditions and chances to carry out overturning of the State power,
socialism at the convenient time they consider.
Objective of “peaceful evolution” strategy of the enemies is to activate the
politic and economic freedom, upon which transforming Vietnam into capitalism
orbit; involving Vietnam gradually dependent on the United States, taking their
influence in Vietnam and relevant countries to create foundation for development in
Their “peaceful evolution” measure is to appose and destroy in a
comprehensive manner in respect of political, ideological aspects, personnel
organization, culture-information, socio-economy, religions and race, diplomacy and
To carry out riots and overturning in order to upset the leadership role of
Vietnamese Communist Party, upset socialism, Central and local governments. Riots
and overturning plays a decisive, complicated role from small to large scales, from
some places to many places, regions, which may occur at the same time in all the
localities nationwide. The internal and external hostile forces will use the legal
agencies such as embassies, foreign representative agencies, offices of religious
organizations, etc, the secrete locations prepared in advance in order to instruct the
internal operations and contact with outsiders. If riots and overturning occur, they
quickly announce establishment of their power, action guidelines and call for the
foreign countries and international organizations to support and acknowledge them.
Imperialism may use the quick-response forces to interfere and support the riot and
overturning forces and quickly legalize their actions.
For students in universities, colleges
Article 2, Law on amending and supplementing some articles of Law on
Education (having come into effect since 01/7/2010) defines: Objective of education
is to train Vietnamese people to be developed comprehensively, having morality,
knowledge, sense and occupation, honest with national independence ideology and
socialism; establish and improve personality, quality and capability of citizens,
meeting the course of Fatherland development and protection.
Education on national defence – security is a part of people education, a
substantial content in development of an entire-people national defence and people
security; one of the main subject in education and training program, from high school
to university and political, administrative schools, mass organizations.
This is for the purpose of making contribution to training people to be
developed comprehensively and aware of basic contents on national defence,
security; tradition on struggle against the foreign invaders, duties and obligations of
the citizens with Fatherland protection; enhancing patriotism, love of socialism; being
aware of the schemes and practices of the hostile forces; having basic knowledge of
guidelines on national defence, public security and state management on national
defence and security; having required skills of national defence, security, military
skills to participate in construction and strengthening of the entire-people national
defence, people security to keep readiness to protect Vietnam fatherland.
Over the past 50 years, since the issuance of Decree No. 219/CP (28/12/1961)
of the Government’s Council (which is now the Government) on training common
military skills have been included in the teaching program for pupils and students
from high school to universities. Since 1991, after the Decision No. 2732/QD dated
28/10/1991 of Minister of Education and Training, this subject is changed into the
National Defence education and now it is the National defence – security (Decision
No. 81/2007/QD-BGDDT dated 24/12/2007 by Ministry of Education and Training
in respect of issuance of program on National defence – security for college and
1.2. Practical aspect
By school year of 2011-2012, the whole country has 414 colleges and
universities (188 universities: 138 public universities, 50 non-public universities; 412
colleges: 196 public colleges, 30 non-public colleges) with 2,162,106 students
(University: 1,435,887 students, college: 726,219 students). The whole country has
55 centers for education of national defence – security (16 centers were established
under Decision No. 07/2003/QD-TTg dated 09/01/2003 of the Prime Minister
approving Planning for network of National Defence Education Centers in period of
2001-2010; 16 centers were established under Decision No. 638/QD-TTg dated
21/5/2009 of Prime Minister approving Project for establishment of centers for
education of national defence – security at the military schools in period of 20092015 and the coming years and 3 centers for education of national defence – security
established by the Ministry of Education and Training), 13 faculties and 26 divisions
(or group) of national defence – security with nearly 573 managers and lecturers. At
the Departments of Education and Training of 26 key provinces and cities, there are
sectarian officers; in high schools and trade schools, the teachers of national defence
– security education are arranged.
Over the past 50 years, education of national defence – security has gained the
considerable results. The subject has provided the young generation knowledge of
national defence, security, military orderly routines, styles, principles and generation
by generation of students during the war left their schools to take duties of fighting
against the enemies to liberate the nation, making contribution to the national
reunification and during the peaceful time, making significant contribution to
development and protection of Vietnam.
Besides the gained achievements, there exist some limitations in education of
national defence – security to the students as follows:
- Network of national defence- security education in the entire-people
education system is in lack of quantities and weakness of quality;
- There exist several unreasonable matters on the lecturers: lack of quantity and
the unqualified lecturers still remain;
- Investment in facilities, infrastructure, means of teaching for national defence
– security education fails to correspond to its task; application of information
technology is not in due care;
- It is slow in development and implementation of policies for the lecturers and
Education of national defence – security to the pupils, students have duly cared
by our Party, State and people with many directives, decrees on education of
national defence – security and the approval by the Prime Minister on Network of
National Defence-Security Education Centers for students; Resolution of 9th congress
of Party’s Central Executive Committee (IX session) on development of education
and training include a paragraph: “key measure is to renovate and improve the State
management capability in education and training”; The 11th National Congress of the
Party defines: “make basic and comprehensive renovation on education – training,
improve quality of education, especially tertiary education soon”.
In the great demanding of requirement on renovation of tertiary education and
with the existing education of national defence – security and from the legal bases
presented hereinabove, we select the study theme: “Management of national
defence-security education for students of Vietnam universities in the new
2. Study purposes
On basis of theoretical and practical studies on management of national
defence – security education for university students, recommend some solutions to
enhance the management of national defence – security for students of Vietnam
universities in the new context.
3. Object and subject of study
3.1. Object of study
Management of national defence–security education for university students.
3.2. Subject of study
Management of national defence–security education for university students in
the new context.
4. Scientific hypothesis
Education of national defence–security for university students received
numerous achievements. However, this work faces several limitations:
- Unprofound awareness in every level.
- Objectives, contents and methods have not closely linked to modern trend.
- The teachers and trainers have not strong motivation.
- Lack of teaching facilities and instruments.
Education of national defence – security for students at present is very
important. If measures for management of national defence – security education for
university students covering comprehensiveness of the teaching process are propose,
it increases the results of national defence – security education for students of
Vietnam universities in the new context.
5. Tasks of study
To achieve the aforesaid purposes, the following tasks are set out:
5.1. Study of theoretical bases on management of national defence – security
education for students in universities.
5.2. Evaluate management status quo of national defence – security education
for students in the existing universities.
5.3. Recommend some solutions to enhance management of national defence –
security education for students of Vietnam universities in the new context.
6. Scope of study
6.1. Study of management of national defence – security education for students
of northern universities.
6.2. The study is carried out for the time of education renovation.
7. Methodology and method of study
a) Systematic review
Education of national defence – security for students is a process including:
objectives, contents of program, methods of training students at tertiary level;
education of national defence – security for students of universities is at the aim of
perfecting their personalities in the new context.
b) Historical materialism: review the matters in correlation with economic
development and culture of the nation.
Organise management over education of national defence – security for
students in universities in conformity with the Vietnam education in the new context.
7.2. Method of study
7.2.1. Method of theoretical study
+ Objective: clarify the theory on education of national defence – security for
students in the new context.
+ Contents: contents of program, method of teaching, teachers and teaching
+ Method of organisation: obtain opinions from the theorists in combination
field study to form the data.
7.2.2. Method of practical study
- Summarize experience in management of national defence – security
education for students in some universities.
- Specialist method: access to the specialists, obtain their opinions on
evaluation of situations and measures of improving efficiency of national defence –
- Actual survey (delivering questionnaires):
+ Subject: management staff, lecturers and students.
+ Quantity: Management staff, lecturers: 300 questionnaires and students:
- Observation: visited and attended some lessons at the training bases
- Interview (for some lecturers and students)
7.2.3. Experimental method
- Carried out experiments in two centers for education of national defence –
security (Hanoi 1 and Hanoi 2 areas).
8. Defending theoretical poits
8.1. Education of national defence – security for students in universities is an
important education content that helps to establish comprehensive personality of the
students, strengthening their awareness and responsibilities in development and
protection of the country;
8.2. Education of national defence – security is implemented by training. The
training must be ensured on basis of comprehensiveness of the training process by
combining the elements, i.e. objectives, contents, methods, trainers, learners,
8.3. Management of this process (training) must be done having regard to four
matters: planning, organising, instructing and examining-evaluating.
9. Structure of the theme
Apart from the preface, conclusion and recommendations, the theme comprises
three chapters, namely:
Chapter 1. Theory on management of national defence – security education for
students of Vietnam universities in the new context
Chapter 2. Practical bases of management of national defence – security
education for students in Vietnam universities
Chapter 3. Solutions for enhancing management of national defence – security
education for students in Vietnam universities in the new context
THEORY ON MANAGEMENT OF NATIONAL DEFENCE – SECURITY
EDUCATION FOR STUDENTS OF VIETNAM UNIVERSITIES IN THE
This Chapter comprises the major sections as follows:
1.1. History of theme study
1.2. Basic definitions of the theme
1.3. Characteristics of management of national defence – security
education for university students in the new context
1.4. Key matters in management of national defence – security education
for university students
The study focuses on the following:
1.1. HISTORY OF THEME STUDY
1.1.1. In the World
In Soviet (before) and Russian Federation (now), study and management of
national defence awareness education for the managers, staff, students, pupils are
paid due attention by the State. In the study titled “Social problems of military
education, written by E.G.Vapilin and Colonel Mulinva in 2001: “Methodologies on
development of military education theory in Russia”...partially reflects the urgent
requirements of national defence education for the youth in Russia in the context of
rapid movement and development of international and Russian situations.
In China, national defence education is undertaken by the Ministry of Defence.
Under the annual plan of the Government, every university takes their students to the
military units to study national defence for two months. In this time, the military units
takes the soldiers to experience field study with outdoor barracks and barracks
become the center for education of national defence.
1.1.2. In Vietnam
Establishment of the country must combine with its protection – it is a rule
summarized by our nation for thousands of years in our history. In the feudal
regimes, the dynastries ruled the country in different contexts, but the national
protection scheme was always in due care and attention. Gathering soldiers, tranining
them, release of people’s tax liability as the durable expedient, etc are valuable and
become the scientific documents on national defence of our country.
In 1961, implementing Decree No. 219/CP of the Government’s Council,
“Military training is a main subject in high schools. In 1966, Ministry of Univerrsity
– Trade Schools (it is now Ministry of Education and Training) issued a consistent
military training program applicable to the universities, colleges and trade schools.
Contents of program mainly focus on training common knowledge and basic military
In 1991, Chairman of Ministerial Council (Prime Minister now) issued
Directive No.420/CT on national defence and officer on brobation in students; further
cofirming: “national defence education is required for the programs of high schools,
trade schools, colleges and universities, both public and private sectors and different
types of training; it is an important task in strategy of training new people to educate
the youth in general and pupils, students in particular the patriotism, love of
socialism, awareness of principle and organization, collective spirit, military thinking
and knowledge, preparing human resources and training talents in service of
Fatherland protection”. To meet the tasks of Fatherland protection in the renovation
course of the country, Ministry of Defence coordinated with Ministry of Education
and Training to compile and issue a Program on National Defence Education as the
replacement for common military training program. Obviously, since 1991, the
common military training program has been renamed to the Program on national
On 10/7/2007, the Government issued Decree No. 116/2007/ND-CP on
education of national defence – security. Accordingly, về GDQP -AN, Program on
national defence education for pupils and students has been amended and added with
knowledge of security and updated with the latest national defence and military
knowledge. Program on national defence –security education for university, college
level was issued under Decision No. 81/2004/QD-BGDDT dated 24/12/2007
(replacing National Defence Program under Decision No. 12/2000/QD-BGD&DT).
Since then, the subject of national defence education is officially renamed to national
defence – security education and now it is Circular No. 31/2012/TT-BGDDT dated
Objectives of national defence – security education for pupils and students are
to: contribute to comprehensively educate pupils and students the patriotism, love of
socialism, pride and respect of traddition of struggle against foreign invaders of our
nation and Vietnam people armed forces; enable them to have precautions to the
schemes and expedients of the hostile forces; to have required military skills to
participate in development and consolidation of entire-people national defence,
people security and take readiness to protect Vietnam socialist fatherland.
In the new context, national defence – security matter is considered the hot
current event of many countries in the World. Management and improvement of
quality of national defence – security education for managers, staff, employees,
pupils and students are always taken care by the leaders, policy-makers, researchers
and those who are in charge of management and education in many countries around
1.2. KEY DEFINITION OF THE STUDY
1.2.1. National Defence
National Defence is the national protection of a country, including an
aggregate of internal and external affaires in respect of military, political, economic,
cultural, scientific aspects, etc of a state and its people to defend the country, creating
comprehensive strength; in which military power is typical, at the aim of keeping
peace, wiping out and preventing the war activities of the enemies and being ready to
fight successfully against the invasion wars in any form and scale.
National Security is the sustainable stability and development of socialism and
the Socialist Republic of Vietnam; the inviolability of independence, sovereignty,
reunification and territorial integrity of the country.
1.2.3. National defence - security
National defence – security is the combination between the national defence
and security to establish comprehensive strength in the peaceful time as well as war
time at the aim of defending and construction of the country.
1.2.4. National defence – security education
National defence – security education is an activity with plan, content, method
and form suitable with each subject, at the aim of providing them knowledge,
experience improvement, military skills and matters of national defence-security
required for them to enable them to well implement national defence – security
obligation of national protection as assigned..
1.2.5 National defence – security education for students
National defence – security education for students is an activity with plan,
program, contents, methods and forms introduced by the educators to the students for
the purpose of transmitting knowledge, training military skills, developing military
and security capability as required so that they can be always ready to fulfill their
obligations of national defence, security to protect Vietnam socialist country.
1.2.6. Management of National defence – security education for students
Management of National defence – security education for students is a
targeted and organized activity to control, guide the education prcesses, activities of
the staff, lecturers and students, mobilizing various resources to effectively implement
the program, contents of method and form of education organization as planned.
1.3. CONTENTS OF MANAGEMENT OF NATIONAL DEFENCE – SECURITY
EDUCATION FOR UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
1.3.1. Management of national defence education network for university
Network of national defence – security education units for university students
includes the units providing national defence – security education for students of
colleges, universities and some military schools (Officer academies, military
academies, military zones, provinces).
Network of national defence – security education units for university students
includes: center, faculty, division (group) of national defence – security education,
network of national defence – security education located nationwide, mainly situated
in the big cities with numerous colleges and universities.
Management of national defence education network for students in universities
and colleges is the State management, specified by the laws (Ministry of Education
and Training); vocation training colleges managed by the Ministry of Labours,
Invalids and Social Affairs. The management is consistent from the Central to the
training units specified by the legal documents, for the purpose of consistency in
implementation of laws in a serious and fair manner in education and training.
Conclusion of Chapter 1
The world and regional situations are in complicated development. Imperialism
and internal and external hostile forces will strengthen the “peaceful evolution”
strategy, riots and overturning to oppose and destroy Vietnam revolution. They try to
take use of the matters, e.g. “race”, “religion”, “democracy”, “human right”, to cause
socio-political instability to create the reasons for them to interfere from the outside.
We must foresee all the difficulties that may arise, especially the bad impacts from
socialism-oriented market economy. Every development of the aforesaid situations
has direct or indirect impact on the education of national defence – security at present
time as well as in the time to come.
We must well understand that, in order to successfully fulfill our obligations of
developing entire-people national defence, people security, Vietnam socialist
protection, one of the first tasks is to improve quality, efficiency of national defence –
security education in the national education system. From our opinions, the sectors
should further conduct careful research and grasp thoroughly Directive No. 12CT/TW dated 03/5/2007 by the Politbureau on enhancing leadership power of the
Party in respect of national defence, security education in the new context; Decree
No. 116/ND-CP dated 10/7/2007 by the Government on national defence – security
education; 8th Central Resolution 8 (9th term) on strategy for national protection in the
new context; Resolution No. 08 of the Politbureau on national security. Accordingly,
it is to focus on improving quality, efficiency of lecturers of national defence –
security education at the existing national defence –security education units. The
facts show that, together with standardizing the programs, textbooks and documents
for teaching national defence – security, it is necessary to develop project for training,
improving and using the national defence – security teachers at tertiary level. This is
an urgent issue. If we fail to own qualified teachers of national defence – security to
supplement to the existing sectarian officers, we cannot implement thoroughly the
objective of training people with comprehensive development, good morality, health
and knowledge of national defence, security, military skills to participate in the
course of development and protection of the country.
PRACTICAL BASES OF MANAGEMENT OF NATIONAL DEFENCE –
SECURITY EDUCATION FOR STUDENTS IN VIETNAM UNIVERSITIES
This Chapter deals with the following:
2.1. Survey of status
2.2. Status management of national defence – security education for
students in the existing universities
2.3. Causes of the aforesaid status
The Study focuses on the following matters:
2.1. MANAGEMENT STATUS OF NATIONAL DEFENCE – SECURITY
EDUCATION FOR STUDENTS IN THE EXISTING UNIVERSITIES
2.1.1. Status of national defence – security education network and organization
on network of national defence – security education units for students in universities
Organisation network of national defence – security education from the Central
to the localities in the natonal eduction system includes agency of consultancy,
steering education tasks, improving knowledge of national defence – security
education and the units carrying out national defence- security education.
- Central Council for National Defence – Security Education;
- Zone Council for National Defence – Security Education;
- Provincial Council for National Defence – Security Education;
- District Council for National Defence – Security Education;
- Commune Council for Military Obligation.
Council for National Defence – Security Education of different levels has
standing assistants; the Central Council is located in Ministry of Defence; Zone
Council is located in Commander of Military Zone; provincial/city council is located
in the military headquarters of such province/city; district council is located in the
district military headquarters and Commune Council for military obligation will take
responsibility to carry out education and improving knowledge of national defencesecurity education.
Council for national defence – security education of different levels fulfill this
tasks as another works assigned. Prime Minister deices to establish, stipulate
functions, duties of the Central Council for National Defence – Security Education
and Zone Council for National Defence – Security Education. Chairman of provincial
people’s committee decides to establish, stipulate functions and duties of provincial,
district and commune council for national defence – security education.
Ministry of Education and Training takes responsibility to help Minister of
Education and Training to take State management over national defence – security
education for pupils and students and other national defence assignments under the
management of the Ministry.
Diagram 2.1. Organisation of National Defence – Security Education of
Education and Training Sector
Ministry of E&T
Center for National
Education and Security
Faculty of National Defence
– Security Education
Division of National Defence –
To date, the whole country has 74 national defence – security education units
for students of universities and colleges; 35 centers for national defence – security
education for students with 282 management staff, lecturers, in which 8 centers
operating with 22,150 pupils and students; the remaining units are under
construction; 13 faculties of national defence – security education with 159
management staff and lecturers; 26 divisions with 132 lecturers thereof.
Network of national defence – security for university students includes centers,
faculties and division (group). The centers in question are managed by two methods:
- Managed by the Central level: Ministry of Education and Training, Ministry
of Culture, Sport and Tourism;
- Managed by local level: Provincial/district officer academy, provincial/city
Besides, there are two universities which take direct management, i.e. Vietnam
National University in Hanoi managing Center for National Defence-Security
Education of Vietnam National University in Hanoi and Vietnam National University
in Ho Chi Minh city managing Center for National Defence-Security Education of
Vietnam National University in Ho Chi Minh city.
According to evaluation of the Central Council for National Defence – Security
Education and agencies of Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Education and Training,
learning national defence – security education subject in the Centers for national
defence – security education provided better quality and efficiency for students than
learning in the faculties and division of national defence – security education.
To date, the whole country has 13 faculties and 26 divisions of National
defence – security education under the universities and colleges. These faculties and
divisions provided national defence – security education for 30% of students of
universities and colleges.
2.1.2. Results of national defence – security education of students of universities
Results of studying and examination of the Central Council for National
defence – security education, 100% students passed, in which the good and fair
results accounted for 85%. By surveying, 96% management staff, lecturers and
students stated that the existing program is suitable, 0.4% stated that it should be
amended in conformity with the existing conditions.
Students showed their serious awareness of studying, fulfilling 11 orders in a
day and 3 orders in a week as well as extracurricular activities in the centers for
national defence – security education; awareness of studying and complying with
orders and regulations is considerably increased.
- National defence – security education subject has experienced over 50 years
of establishment and development since the Decree No. 219/CP dated 28 December
1961 by the Council of Government (which is the Government now) on common
military training for students from high school to tertiary level.
- Documentation from the Central to local level is quite full and consistent.
- To date, the Prime Minister has approved to establish 32 centers for national
defence – security education nationwide (the centers of national defence – security
education for students were established).
- Basically, its lecturers are the sectarian army officers to deliver the national
defence – security education for students. They are fond of their jobs, devoted and
well-trained in the military academies.
- Leadership of the Party, instructions of the State and due coordination of
various ministries, especially the Ministry of Education and Training, Ministry of
Defence and Ministry of Public Security in guiding and organizing implementation of
the national defence- security education subject.
- Students after completion of the course will be granted with a certificate
which serves as one of the conditions for graduation.
Provide the young scholars with necessary knowledge about the national
defence – security education; help them form their personalities and improve their
knowledge on the way of perfecting themselves, developing their profession and
protecting the country.
In the local and international context, besides the advantages, there remain several
difficulties and challenges. The entire Party, people and army have implemented a number
of works such as implementing Resolution of 11th Congress and tried to control inflation,
stabilize macro-economy, ensure the social welfare in accordance with Conclusion No. 02KL/TW dated 16 March 2011 by the Politbureau and plans, policies and measures under
Resolution No. 11/NQ-CP dated 24/02/2011 of the Government. The management staff and
lecturers of national defence – security education subject believe in, and are absolutely
faithful with the leadership of the Party, the instructions of the Government and always feel
assured of working, love the sector and profession, further study to improve the professional
skills and fulfill the assigned tasks.
The national defence – security education is getting more and more special attention
from the Party, the State and various sectors and authorities; making partial contribution to
successful implementation of the strategy that is to successfully develop socialism and
firmly protect the socialist country of Vietnam.
- Awareness of some staff and students about the national defence – security
education is not in corresponding to the objectives, requirements and tasks of the
subject (which is a main subject but is not in due care).
- There exist several problems in respect of quantity and quality of the lecturers
of this subject.
- Facilities and teaching instruments for this subject is insufficient and slowly
invested as planned.
- Coordination between management staff and lecturers is not consistent.
- Its fund is low against the requirement.
- Mechanism is not consistent, which causes difficulties for implementation.
Some staff, pupils and students fail to pay due attention to it as compared to the
role and position of the subject, so the investment for this task is slow and its
efficiency is not high.
Over the past years, national defence – security education work has achieved
the significant outcomes; those who graduated from universities and colleges have
advised their leaders and organization where they work to well implement national
defence-security education work; there are tens of thousands of graduated students
having taken the officer probation training, in which thousands of them have been
selected to work for the armed forces and some of them have held important
positions, even the general title.
2.3. REASONS FOR THE AFORESAID SITUATION
2.3.1. Reasons for the achievements, strength
The achievements of national defence – security education for university
students over the past years are mainly from the following reasons:
First, it is the effective leadership and instruction by the Party, Government,
ministries, departments and sectors at Central and local level.
Second, it is the right awareness of position and role of national defencesecurity education for university students.
Third, it is the structure, mechanism and condition for the national defencesecurity education to be developed and gradually perfected.
Last but not least, it is the socio-economic stability and development of the
country which facilitates the subject in the new context.
2.3.2. Reasons for weakness and shortcomings
The weakness and shortcomings of national defence – security education for
students over the past years are resulted from several causes, including the major
ones as follows:
Firstly, instructions for organization and delivery of national defence-security
education for students remain embarrassed and passive.
Secondly, it fails to meet the conditions required by the policies and tasks of
national defence-security education in the new context.
Thirdly, awareness of the concerned people about it is not profound.
Fourthly, it is the impacts of market economy’s left side.
Conclusion of Chapter 2
Renovation and improvement of management quality of national defence –
security education for students is an urgent requirement in the existing context. In the
global integration and cooperation context, among the countries the competition is
severe not only in economic field but in national defence – security field. In order to
improve quality of national defence – security education for students of Vietnam
universities, it is necessary to take full use of experience of other countries in the
World. It is one of the most important practices for research and working out the
measures to improve the management of national defence – security education for
university students in the new context.
Status of national defence- security education and management thereof for
university students over the past years has laid down many matters to be further
studied. They are the matters of organizing network of national defence-security
education for students; management, coordination with the ministries, sectors, sociopolitical organizations in management; management of objectives, contents of