MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
THE VIETNAM INSTITUTE OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES
DAO VIET HA
MANAGEMENT COMPETENCY BASED TRAINING
FOR CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING OCCUPATIONS
IN CONSTRUCTION COLLEGES
Major: Education Management
Code: 62 14 05 14
SUMMARY OF PH.D. EDUCATION SCIENCE THESIS
The dissertation is completed at:
THE VIETNAM INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION SCIENCES
Prof.Dr.Sc. Nguyen Minh Duong
Dr. Phan Chinh Thuc
Reviewer 1: Ass.Prof.Dr. Do Minh Cuong
General Directorate of Vocational Training
Reviewer 2: Ass.Prof.Dr. Phan Van Nhan
The Vietnam Institute of Education Sciences
Reviewer 3: Ass.Prof.Dr. Bui Minh Hien
Hanoi National University of Education
The thesis is defended before the juridical board at the Institute level at
The Vietnam Institute of Educational Sciences, 101 Tran Hung Dao, Hanoi
On ……………………… 2014
The dissertation can be found at:
1. The Vietnam National Library
2. The Library of The Vietnam Institute of Educational Sciences
1. Reasons for choosing topic
The resolution of the 8th Conference of the Party XI confirmed viewpoints:
“Development of Education and Training (MOET) is to enhance the intellectual,
human resources training, talent fostering. Moving up the process of education
from mainly equipped with the knowledge to comprehensive capacity and quality
development of learners. Learning by doing, linking theoretical to practical, school
education combined with family education and social education.”
Competence Based Training (CBT) has been being the new trend of education
and training and has made fundamental changes in the teaching process.
Advantages of CBT have met the needs of both learners and employers.
Construction is a multidisciplinary field of economics, related to many fields,
influenced by scientific and technological advances such as mechanics, electronics,
materials technology, construction, ... Demand for high-quality human construction
industry today is huge. However, quality of training did not meet the practical
requirements of production ... This is a great challenge as well as a motivation for
the Training Facilities (TF) who must actively look for solutions to meet the labor
needs of the engineering industry. The network of TF in Ministry of Construction
(MoC) includes 33 schools. For years, the schools have had a positive innovation in
training, started training with CBT or credit training; however, the deployment
process has been still struggling, as results have not achieved the desired goals.
This is due to many reasons, but the main reason is most of schools have not
renewed the way of training management (TM).
For the above reasons, the authors selected topic “Management competency
based training for construction engineering occupations in construction colleges”
for the PhD. thesis.
2. Research purposes
Proposed solutions to manage CBT for construction engineering occupations
(CEO) in construction colleges, to gradually improve the quality and efficiency of
training and to meet the requirements of practical production and demand for
business sector in construction.
3. Subjective and objective research
* Subjective research: Train CBT in construction colleges.
* Objective research: Manage CBT in construction colleges.
4. Scientific hypothesis
Nowadays, CBT is being implemented in colleges of construction; however, the
way of management of vocational training in general and TM of CEO in particular
have not been renewed. So there are still weaknesses and shortcomings from input
management, the teaching process management, output management and ability to
adapt to the impact of the new context; therefore, the quality of training did not
meet the requirements of enterprises. If it is synchronized the techniques training
management on CBT include the management of inputs, management of the
teaching process, manage the output elements, ... it will take steps to improve the
quality and efficiency training to meet the business requirements of the
5. Research tasks
- Do research and development of a theoretical basis for vocational training and
TM on CBT.
- Assess the reality of training and TM of CEO on CBT in construction colleges.
- Recommend solutions of training TM of CEO on CBT in construction colleges.
- Test the feasibility and practicality of the solution.
6. Limit the scope of the study
- The thesis is limited according to research of TM of CEO on CBT the vocational
college level (VC) in construction colleges. The survey was carried out in all
colleges under the MoC who train CEO.
- The test is limited to 2 solutions and conducted at the College of Urban Works
7. Approach and methodology
- Approach to the market. In the market mechanism, schools need to be managed
and operated under the laws of the market economy. The quality is the deciding
survival factor of training colleges, therefore, the colleges must continually
improve quality to meet customer needs and to be competitive, survive and thrive
in the market economy and international integration. In short, training management
must be to quality-oriented.
- Approach to outputs target: Competency based training. Training technical
workers must be moved to reach the goal, taking the target as the target output
towards the formation of power needed for students so that after graduation they
can do in the position certain employees in accordance with professional standards
and have the opportunity to find work.
- Approach to process. The quality of the whole process! To manage the training
towards quality needs to manage from the input, the teaching process to the output,
and also pay attention to the impact of the new context, especially the renovation of
fundamental and comprehensive education and training, advancement of science
and technology of the construction industry...
- Methods of theoretical studies: Collect relevant information, analyze, synthesize,
evaluate and apply to the construction of a theoretical basis.
- Practical research methods: Analyze the activity of training management
according to CBT shows the actual situation in organization, management training
process in order to identify strengths, weaknesses and causes, as the basis for the
identification of innovative solutions for training management. Some methods are
used such as: survey method using questionnaires; Summation method of education
experience; Test methods.
- Other methods: Methods of experts; Methods of mathematical statistics.
8. The argument for protection
1) TM is crucial to the success or failure of the market mechanism in the colleges.
To improve the quality and effectiveness of training which can be met the business
requirements, the colleges must renew methods of TM that is the key step and
breakout step in each college; Accordingly, The colleges should use the views,
modern management model in TM.
2) Applying the model CIPO: CBT depends on the inputs, the teaching process, the
output elements, and attention to the impact of the new context, especially
renewing fundamental and comprehensive education and training, scientific and
technological progress of the construction industry and the market economy is
consistent with the TM of CEO profession towards quality.
3) Implement training method according to CBT is necessary for colleges of
construction to be able to quickly innovated training output approach, gradually
improving the quality of training to meet customer requirements and contribute to
the development of the country's construction industry.
9. New contributions of the thesis
* Methodologically: Applying CIPO models and philosophies, principles of
CBT, the author has developed a theoretical basis for management of CBT.
* Practicality: Assessing the situation of training and TM of CEO in
construction colleges based on the followings: quality and effectiveness of training;
manage the enrollment, teaching staff development, improve physical facilities and
teaching equipment, organize the teaching process, assessment outputs and output
information as the basis for proposing practicality solutions. 6 recommend
solutions is practical and feasible to manage TM of CEO on CBT in construction
colleges with the teams: manage the inputs, the teaching process, and the output
THEORETICAL BASIS ON VOCATIONAL MANAGEMENT OF
COMPETENCY BASED TRAINING
1.1. Overview of research issues
+ About CBT: Along with the development of behavioral learning theory and
training approach targeted output, CBT was conducted very early in some
industrialized countries. Many studies of foreign scholars have analyzed, evaluated,
summarized and suggested the ability to apply training methods of CBT on
Education and Training. There have been numerous reports summarizing on CBT
that strongly growth in the 1990s with a series of big organization in the United
States, Britain, Australia, New Zealand, Wales etc. and in many Asian countries
such as Singapore, India, the Philippines, Brunei, Malaysia,… Each country, each
organization applied training methods of CBT with different level based on each
factual condition. All above researches showed: CBT is a tendency that many
nations, many scientists are interested in research in many different angles and
application in the teaching process at universities, professional and vocational
colleges. Theory of CBT is applying appropriate depending on the characteristics
of each country.
+ About vocational training management: has many professionals, scientists’
research with many angles, different approaches to each national institution, and
each stage of development. Recently, Vocational training management has been
studied towards to marketing and concerned by management professionals.
* In the country
+ About CBT: In our country, from 1987 to 1990, modular training skills have been
organized by Institute of Vocational Scientific Research and Vocational Technical
Center. They have organized several conferences and began testing short-term
training in a number of vocational training centers. In 1990s, many studies of
inland and outland scholars, organizations researched, analyzed, evaluated,
reviewed and proposed specific solutions, to introduce CBT in vocational teaching
and vocational teachers in Vietnam.
+ About vocational TM: Vocational TM in Vietnam is also the subject of
management scientists, research professionals, seeking application in the past
dozen years with each stage of development of the country. Recently, trend of
innovation in vocational TM in Vietnam has accessed to the world; especially when
we are deepening integration, development opportunities open up along with the
challenges with a negative impact on education and training system.
In short, CBT is a training method which is not new to the world but in
Vietnam it has mainly been applying in vocational training. The research in
Vietnam is not much; most of the research has just mentioned viewpoint,
orientation, or research applying only in a narrow range, a part of the teaching
process, practical teaching management when applying CBT methods. Vocational
TM on CBT has not had yet, therefore that is a new way to contribute to the
effective implementation of CBT in vocational training. In the dissertation, the
author has studied, inherited, compared with multiple points, the data from the
studies mentioned above.
1.2. Basic concepts
* Competence and Competency Based Training
Competence is understood that capability or functionality to execute well one
the job but not quite clear for particular work as well as the standard regulations to
estimate its level.
CBT is the combination of three elements of knowledge, skills and professional
attitude that each individual needs to complete the mission and work of a
professional standard rules of certain conditions.
* Training management
Management is the impact of customer management subjects to be managed in
a particular environment with the tools and management methods appropriate to
achieve its objectives. Management has four functions: Planning; Organization of
implementation; Leadership and direction; Testing and evaluation.
Training is done to an individual who has become CBT according to certain
standards through activities of teaching and learning associated with moral
education, personality learners to meet manpower requirements of the market labor.
Training management is subject to the impact of customer management to be
managed in the training process through the function of managing and using the
tools and methods appropriate management to achieve common goals the training
process and students have been prescribed a standard CBT.
* Standard jobs and outputs
Professional standards (or standard CBT) is a set of rules to do the work and
achieve the level required to perform the work at locations corresponding to the
employee's job levels.
Standard output is the school's commitment to the objectives of social education
(knowledge, skills, and attitudes) of a training program (TP), thereby confirming
CBT for the specific work that students will be in accordance with prescribed
standards in the field of vocational training after school.
1.3. Competency Based Training
* Philosophy of CBT: Philosophy of CBT is the training process based on the
specified criteria for a profession and training that standard that is not based on the
* Characteristics of CBT: To develop the TP according to CBT should be
treated by a three - aspect system: Identify competency, develop the competency
and Evaluate objectively capacity.
To determine the competency, the starting point is usually the outcomes and
output-oriented is the most basic characteristics with main meaning of CBT, it
orients and focuses on result, at the output of the training process, that means: Each
learner can do something in a certain situation as labor standards set out.
Characteristics of CBT have two components: Teaching and learning CBT and
evaluating and certifying of CBT.
* Content of CBT: The content of CBT is the integration of the system of
scientific knowledge, techniques, methods related to occupation; system of
vocational skills; experience systems innovation activities and knowledge systems
of occupational attitudes to ensure that students have the ability to adapt to changes
in production practices.
* CBT in relation to the labor market: Process of CBT must have closed ties to
the labor market through a system of skill standards and recognition skills.
* Organize CBT: To determine a learner who has completed TP, they based on
proficiency in all CBT in TP in the standard output. The amount of time is not
required for learning because students can learn according to ability and pace of
their own, not dependent on others, as long as enough time to absorb and be
proficient in the CBT. This allows students to be able to study and finish school at
any given time. Academic record of each individual and everyone learns adequate
storage. Learners can study the transition from the program or school does not need
to repeat the CBT based on the credit system has previously granted. CBT focuses
on solving problems for learners. The assessment of learning outcomes of learners
based on performance criteria, they are determined primarily from professional
* Conditions for CBT: Precondition for training organizations as the CBT is to
identify a CBT system as outputs of the training process and orientation as the basis
for all subsequent activities of teachers and students. The requirements (conditions)
+ Construction and development TP of CBT according to each grade level on the
basis of professional standards;
+ Ensure the necessary conditions for team teachers, facilities and equipment for
training to meet the training requirements of the CBT;
+ Use appropriate tools to manage training following the learners’ demand and the
ability. Use management software combined with support from Internet
connectivity to create the electronic portal for the process of “transactions” between
TF and learners.
1.4. Training management according to CBT
1.4.1. Training management towards quality: TM with the biggest aim is to
continuously improve the quality and effectiveness of training, because the training
quality is of vital concern training facilities in the market mechanism. Some models
of TM toward to quality has been studied and applied as model of TM and CIPO
model. The quality of training does not exist as itself but there is a process,
UNESCO has launched CIPO management model, in which has components: input
management (Input), process management (Process), output management (Output /
Outcome), and the impact of context (Context). Along with the management
approach according to the process, CIPO has added components impact of context;
that means, after taking into vocational TM, CIPO model training process has
controlled all factors and the impact of the economic environment - social up to the
training process to meet quality-oriented practical requirements of production and
business needs. Meanwhile, TM will be placed in an environment of “movement”
with more comprehensive meaning ... In short, TM should be a process-based
approach; oriented output approach - CBT; market access - towards quality.
1.4.2. Applying model management CIPO in vocational training of CBT:
According to Figure 1.6, the groups of management content consists of: input
management, process management, output management and the impact of context
to vocational TM.
+ Input management:
- Management counseling, vocational guidance and vocational enrollment as
CBT, including: manage admissions policies, admissions process (Learners’
subheadings, class layers,...) and help secondary vocational students choose a
career according to CBT.
- Manage and develop TP as CBT. On market access perspective, to develop
vocational TP as CBT, TF must keep abreast of the needs of the business, updating
the achievements of advanced science and technology related jobs and feedback
from users employers, students had to go to work after graduation, to improve
individual courses completed, CBT modules must suit with new requirements of
the labor market.
- Manage the quality assurance conditions, meet the requirements of CBT,
including: Manage the recruitment process, use, training and retraining teachers to
teach CBT; manage the procurement process, construction, maintenance and use of
equipment and teaching aids for CBT.
- Management Admissions
- Manage the development
TP of CBT
- Manage the quality
(teachers, facilities and
- Manage the process
of teaching CBT
- Manage the evaluation
of outputs CBT
- Manage work diplomas
and certificates modular
- Prospects for career
Tác động của bối cảnh đến VTM
- Institutional, policy, population...
- Progress of science and technology
- Relationship schools and businesses
- International Integration, Competition Partner
- Investment in vocational training...
Figure 1.6: Applying the model CIPO in management CBT
+ Process management:
Process management is to manage the process of teaching and learning
occupations - a process that combines continuous interlocking, flexible, flexibility
between teaching and learning process for the assessment of teaching and learning
in order to ensure the implementation of CBT are fulfilled from initial preparation
to the final result.
To manage the process of teaching and learning on CBT need for planning,
directing and administering learning TP process which was designed to meet the
requirements of the CBT. In this process, note the evaluation of teaching and
learning outcomes of CBT to ensure results are evaluated according to the process
and through standards CBT.
+ Output management:
- Management assessment outputs of CBT. Outputs (for CBT) was assessed
with a combination of knowledge, skills, attitudes. The availability of corporate
professionals engaged in the process as checking the quality of products before
- Manage certification, diploma apprenticeship of CBT. Noting the degree of
flexibility of certificates (credits) per module and the assemble of completed
certificates to get diplomas corresponding to the level of training as prescribed.
- Manage Output information. Through enterprises’ needs as employment
(location, quantity, degree requirements...), prospects for career development...;
through management of multi-dimensional information from the environment of
economic development - society, from enterprises and from students who have
graduated from surveys track... TF can develop system of labor market information,
implement consultancy and support students to find jobs...
+ The impact of context to training management of CBT
- Institutional and policy: the impact of Resolution, Education Law, Vocational
Training Law, Decree,... is driven to open the way for the development of
- Progress of science and technology: updated impact, application,... make
vocational training be adapted to the volatility of the labor market when the
production process, the service has been upgraded, the rapid development of
- International integration, competition partners: these effects helped TF have
comparable conditions, determine the location, value, their brand not only within
the country but also the region and the world; at the same time, provide a bridge to
fully utilize the benefits of the association, cooperative education, training and
technology transfer, access to the world's advanced TP.
In addition, the TF need to consider factors other impacts on population, the
situation of economic development - social, investment in education and training ...
to have driven consistent growth, although the effects on this brings the macro
level, but also at many of the most influential TM of CBT.
1.4.3. Matrix of management functions and content of management CBT
TP of CBT
- Planning for
- Planning to
The management functions
TP of CBT
TP of CBT
teaching of CBT
- Planning for
Management the Planning the
outputs of CBT
the output of
Adapting to the
adapt to the
context to TM
- Organizing for
outputs of CBT
the output of
to the effects
outputs of CBT
the output of
plans to adapt to
the effects of
the output of
adapt to the
Conclusion of Chapter 1
CBT has been formed and developed long ago and are now being applied to the
development conditions of Vietnam. The biggest advantage of this method of
training is conducted training process based on the capacity of the school and
“outcomes” are always the closest proximity to the practical requirements of
production and business needs... however, to better promote these advantages
requires accompanying conditions (TP, team teachers, teaching equipment,...) must
be synchronized and met the requirements of the training process; simultaneously
select the optimal model of TM. CIPO model is suitable for TF to use in managing
CBT by approach in applying this model is a process-based approach, approachoriented output and market access - towards quality. The construction of matrix
functions CIPO has managed to facilitate navigation and access the features and the
core issue in management of CBT that should focus on practical research and
propose for appropriate solutions TM.
THE REALITY OF TRAINING MANAGEMENT ON CBT FOR
CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING OCCUPATIONS IN CONSTRUCTION
2.1. Characteristics of skilled labor in the construction industry
Labor’s engineering construction industry specific nature, diverse professions,
level uneven. Industry structure in many fields of construction occupations heavy,
dangerous, often climbs or conditions of labor in complex terrain, extreme weather
... (accounting for 40% of the total portfolio heavy jobs, toxic, hazardous material
production sectors of both countries). In recent years, along with the development
of the country, many construction projects have been implemented with new
building technologies; tools of labor, modern equipment; many industrial facilities,
construction materials had mechanization and automation to improve working
conditions, prevention of labor accidents and occupational diseases...
2.2. The network of vocational training facilities of the Ministry of construction
Currently, the network of public training facilities in construction industry
concludes: 1 Institute; 4 universities; 4 colleges; 7 vocational colleges, 9
professional high schools, 7 vocational schools. There are 5 colleges of
construction training technique to building with vocational college – level.
2.3. Survey on the reality of training management on CBT for CEO
* The purpose and content of the survey: Acquire information as a basis for a
realistic assessment of the status of training and training management CBT in the
field of construction in colleges through discussions with the leadership, staff of
management and teachers; also sent questionnaires to four contents: input
management; process management; output management; ability to adapt to the
impact of context to training management. Actual survey in enterprises in the
construction sector and send the questionnaire on the status of workers using
construction techniques, the subjective assessment in the enterprises about the
quality of training, relationship with training facilities, ...
* Time and respondents: From June to December 2012, the author surveyed 7
colleges and 2 colleges who were upgraded to university in 2011; and sent
questionnaires to 150 teachers, 50 staff of management, and 175 students of five
schools in Ministry of Construction. For the enterprises in the construction sector,
the author surveyed 6 enterprises; sent questionnaires to 30 staff of technique, 120
2.4. The reality of CBT in construction colleges
* Fields of training in the colleges of construction: The TF in MoC are
training 45 jobs in 4 vocational groups
* Teaching and learning of CBT: The Colleges of construction are planning
training and applying the methods of annual statutes for the main system. The
result is the “output” of the training process is not much difference, which has not
met the requirements of the business. Through the survey, the colleges of
construction realized the defect when they has developed teaching and learning
CBT but still struggling with the so-called “modeling” of CBT that matches with
the TF. Processes, facilities, tools of TM does not change. As a result, the process
of implementing asynchronous CBT, TM has still imposed administrative style as
traditional training then led to internal conflicts within the organization, so the
implement effective training did not achieve as expected.
* Evaluation and validation of CBT: Evaluation and validation of CBT are not
implemented as methods of CBT. The Colleges are still evaluating traditionally
instead of taking CBT as a basis for deployment. Therefore, the evaluation results
can not express the basic criteria of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Instead of all is
the overall points classification and the final report of the school year as the
traditional way of training. Quality training on perspectives subjective assessment
is only average meeting the requirements of the engine manufacturers use manual
labor and semi-mechanized. With modern production facilities, advanced
technology lines, a high rate of automation, the students‘ ability after graduation is
still a big challenge. Students after graduation usually weak in the "soft skills" such
as communication skills, planning skills work, monitoring skills, self-assessment
skills, teamwork skills, ... Results of the surveys for engineering and technical job
working construction with 56.93% workers are employed after 6 monthgraduation, working entirely properly accounted for 50.36% and industry 70.80%
are employed in accordance with the level of training.
2.5. The reality of the training management CBT for CEO in construction
* Input management:
+ Managing admissions officers has made certain changes in order to continue to
attract students from a variety of sources, many different systems. However,
admission is not valued on a regular basis, continuously throughout the year so
there is no long-term plan, the case remains officially notify Enrollment 1 year, and
classified input capacity of the school has not been made.
+ Managing objectives, TP was directed towards to equilibrium density theory practice; ensured systematic and scientific; just pay attention to the strength,
continuity between the TP. However, during the process adjustment of TP, the
basis for the implementation is derived from the existing conditions of the school,
so TP still has distance to produce realistic, timely update the progress of science in
construction technology; TP is still pretty heavy on theory, not sticking to the
standard of CBT.
+ Managing quality assurance conditions to meet the requirements of vocational
CBT was also interested in concerned schools, that is: every year there are specific
activities to improve the quality of teachers and staff of management, gradually
improve physical facilities, teaching equipment. However, the level of skills and
teaching ability of teachers with the teaching room facilities has met the
requirements of integrated teaching CBT is difficult for the colleges.
* Process management:
Managing the teaching and learning process in construction has renewed but not
quite suitable with certain requirements of CBT. Planning, directing and
implementing training plans have yearly training style and entirely made by the
school according to “time axis” rather than based on the basis of study plan by
students independently according to the courses or CBT modules. Managing the
teachers’ activities remains a hierarchical form, lacks of adequate procedures,
guidance and supervision, assessment and final review. Managing the students and
learning activities always correct with regulations, but the biggest drawback of the
TF is the management of learning activities outside of class and outside the school;
especially self-study activities of students. Managing the teaching evaluation
results and implementation of the very general, although there have been oriented
for teachers to deploy for the purposes of knowledge, skills, attitudes, but all
schools have let teachers and departments free, no specific regulations about how,
standard, criteria evaluation.
* Output/Outcome management:
+ As required by the standard output, students know all goals, content, degree
requirements and graduation that should be achieved in terms of knowledge, skills,
attitudes and other soft skills. However, the assessment of vocational outcomes
were performed by the teachers of the school; for short-term training, depending on
the agreement now, may invite experts from the enterprises participate in
+ The schools are not allowed to certify for completed each module CBT for
students, they only have right to certify a diploma once after the final graduation
exam. So, the way to conduct diplomas and certificates are not properly training
requirements of CBT - CBT accumulating certificates to obtain the corresponding
+ The schools do not manage the outcome information and multi-dimensional
information involved (students, businesses, academic experts, and other
associated...) in order to affirm the value of the outcome of the training process,
that is the CBT; so there was no chance to take advantage of the tremendous
benefits from this work, for example, it cannot be advised, recommended jobs for
graduating students in organization and system; It also cannot be developed a
system of labor market information; coordination process between the school and
enterprise is lack of the systems, according to local interests of each side, It cannot
be defined and coordinate long-term sustainable...
* The ability to adapt to the impact of factors in the context of management
CBT: The ability to adapt to the impact of factors in the context such as: policy, the
advancement of science and technology, international integration, competition
partners, investment in vocational training ... starts with awareness of the managing
board; that means TF can make the most of the opportunity and accept the negative
impact due to challenges from external factors impact almost depends on the
capacity of the managing board. So, here is the process of “one-way” and although
this has the advantage of directing unity, but the downside is appearing “lag” in the
adaptation or appear “flaw” because it could not cover shouted out each specific
content or the subject's capacity management when evaluating the impact of these
factors is not good.
2.6. The weaknesses and causes
* The weaknesses: Teaching and learning CBT; evaluation of teaching and
learning outcomes of CBT has not been implemented correctly so quality and
effective training in the colleges of construction were not high, they did not meet
the requirement of practical production and enterprises’ needs. Managing input was
still passive: enrollment plan is unsystematic; managing TP is one-way subjective,
they meet the existing conditions of the school only. They have not engaged with
enterprises so TP has not met with the needs of practical produce; managing and
organizational conditions to ensure the quality have not been effective so
integrated teaching capacity of teachers and staff room facilities integrated teaching
have not met the conditions for training. Managing the teaching process is still
under rigid plan year with “time axis”, it has not organized to learn approach CBT;
managing the evaluation of teaching results has not had a standard process and the
lack of assessment criteria. Output/Outcome management is loose: managing
assessment outputs/outcomes and diploma and certificate are done traditionally, it
has not taken the standard CBT as a basis of evaluation, and it has not had
involvement of the business on standardization and evaluation of CBT from
students. Managing of outcome information is “stalled” or local, temporary so TF
have no chance to take the benefits. Maintaining and developing the relationships
between schools and enterprises have not been implemented in a systematic manner
and have not expanded on the content and form of collaboration. The face of the
impact of context on the training facilities has not been ready, the direct perception
of leadership... causes the “lag” in the adaptation and “flaw” in content managing.
* Causes: The leaders’ thought has not quite renewed, directed drastic shortage,
the inspection is bureaucratic, loose managing, and it has not adjusted timely and
logical problems arising in TM. The process of managing is inconsistency, also
fragmentary. Tools and methods of innovation managing are not up process of
Conclusion of Chapter 2
The realities of managing CBT in the colleges of construction posed some specific
problems to be solved in each managing group. The main cause is the training
management system is operating inefficient. To overcome these, training facilities
need unified management model and note the followings:
- Student recruitment, as a people who is looking for the way without “overall
roadmap”, requires planning and organization of career counseling and doing
student recruitment based on CBT.
- Development programmer of vocational training on CBT needed to direct from
leaders about the activities and the final results are TP must be met to professional
- The conditions to meet the quality assurance requirements of CBT need to be
improved for implementing with clear rules and procedures.
- Teaching and learning process should have organized scientifically to transform
the way to teach as CBT.
- Evaluating outputs results need to be closely monitored to “ship product” can
meet “customer’s” requirements.
- Considered the school as a “corporate training” in the market economy is
responsible for implementing the “managing outcome information” as a process of
“product warranty” to maximize the benefits.
SOLLUTIONS OF OF TRAINING MANAGEMENT ON CBT FOR
CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING OCCUPATIONS
From a theoretical basis and practical basis for the vocational TM according to
the approach CBT, combined with the strategic planning of human resources
development in Vietnam and the construction industry for the period 2011-2020, in
principle ensure uniformity, the practicality and feasibility the author proposed 6
* Solution 1: Managing consultancy and vocational enrollment according the
CEO on CBT
+ Aim of this solution: Overcome the deficiencies of the existing management
consulting career and vocational enrollment as CBT. Ensure the quantity and
quality suitable entrance to the capacity of individual learners and capable of
training facilities. Create a wide choice of suitable time learning ability and
aspirations of learners and job characteristics. Affirm the brand and reputation of
the school and vocational training. Create consistency, conformity with the overall
management of CBT.
+ The way to do: Implementation should be inherited and developed the enrollment
plan as an “overall roadmap” by these following steps:
1) Establish consultancy councils of vocational enrollment in construction
technique with involving of officials, experts and reputative businesses in the field
2) Make use of information systems and other communication channels to establish
a list of sources accessible entrance from schools, businesses,...
3) Develop an overall plan for enrollment activities throughout the year as the basis
for the detailed planning for each work- group, each moment... to ensure
enrollment activity engineering construction will be deployed continuously every
4) Invest in equipments and qualified staff of management to deploy the
management of enrollment in which must be with online enrollment system.
* Solution 2: Manage and develop the training program of CEO as CBT to
meet professional standards
+ Aim of this solution: Overcome weaknesses in management and development of
vocational TP, that is the steering has not unified, and has not the directed
breakthrough to open the way for businesses participating in the development of
vocational TP of the school. Be sure the standard of output and vocational TP as
CBT that meets with the practical production requirements and the needs of
employers. Affirm the commitment of quality training for customers; and the
specific basis for the self-assessment, quality control of TF.
+ The way to do: Managing and developing the vocational TP of CBT to meet
professional standards need to follow the cycle as shown in Figure 3.1.
Establish a Steering Committee, a standing unit
Plan and develop the training program
Direct, guide and organize the training program
Check and evaluate the training program
Issue output standard of training program
Organinize teaching as training program
Adjust, supplement annually
Figure 3.1: The cycle of management and development vocational TP as CBT
Establish consultancy and development council TP of CEO as CBT that meets
professional standards with the participation of experts from reputive businesses,
scientists in the field of construction. This Council will direct the development TP
to meet the most basic requirements of the following criterias: 1) Stick to the
practical requirements of production technology; 2) Update the rapid progress of
science and technology building; 3) In accordance with the training capacity of TF;
4) Affirm the value of output products as CBT. The management and development
of the TP should be implementend with synchronous following steps in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2: The Process of Management and edition the content of TP of CEO as CBT
to meet professional standards
that need to be
to standard of
output and TP
Description of work
Review standard of
output and TP; Collect
expert opinions and
survey the reputative
enterprises in the
field of construction
Have Seminars in the
that needs to
reports at the
need to be
overview with the
leading experts in the
field of construction
in the Training
Adjust comments and
documents related to
Have a meeting with
Scientific Council o
look through the
contents that need to
be adjusted and
Edit the contents of
the opinion in the
minutes and science
The draft has
Browser, sign, issue
* Solution 3: Manage the quality assurance conditions to meet the
requirements of CBT for CEO
+ The aim of the solution: Overcome weaknesses in the organization and
management of conditions that ensure quality training to meet the requirements of
CBT for CEO. Ensure enough number of teachers and capacity to integrate
teaching; system of facilities, teaching equipment sufficient to meet the level of
quality and service of modern vocational training CEO on CBT.
+ The way to do:
- About development management teachers to meet the requirements
professional teaching construction techniques as CBT: Need implementation cycle
as shown in Figure 3.2. One point to note is the survey of teachers’ capability must
be performed comprehensive and standards-based comprehensive teachers who
have some rules and regulations specific specialty. This cycle can be carried out
under the semester or school year.