Management competency based training for construction engineering occupations in construction colleges

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING THE VIETNAM INSTITUTE OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES DAO VIET HA MANAGEMENT COMPETENCY BASED TRAINING FOR CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING OCCUPATIONS IN CONSTRUCTION COLLEGES Major: Education Management Code: 62 14 05 14 SUMMARY OF PH.D. EDUCATION SCIENCE THESIS Hanoi, 2014 The dissertation is completed at: THE VIETNAM INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION SCIENCES Instructor: Prof.Dr.Sc. Nguyen Minh Duong Dr. Phan Chinh Thuc Reviewer 1: Ass.Prof.Dr. Do Minh Cuong General Directorate of Vocational Training Reviewer 2: Ass.Prof.Dr. Phan Van Nhan The Vietnam Institute of Education Sciences Reviewer 3: Ass.Prof.Dr. Bui Minh Hien Hanoi National University of Education The thesis is defended before the juridical board at the Institute level at The Vietnam Institute of Educational Sciences, 101 Tran Hung Dao, Hanoi On ……………………… 2014 The dissertation can be found at: 1. The Vietnam National Library 2. The Library of The Vietnam Institute of Educational Sciences 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Reasons for choosing topic The resolution of the 8th Conference of the Party XI confirmed viewpoints: “Development of Education and Training (MOET) is to enhance the intellectual, human resources training, talent fostering. Moving up the process of education from mainly equipped with the knowledge to comprehensive capacity and quality development of learners. Learning by doing, linking theoretical to practical, school education combined with family education and social education.” Competence Based Training (CBT) has been being the new trend of education and training and has made fundamental changes in the teaching process. Advantages of CBT have met the needs of both learners and employers. Construction is a multidisciplinary field of economics, related to many fields, influenced by scientific and technological advances such as mechanics, electronics, materials technology, construction, ... Demand for high-quality human construction industry today is huge. However, quality of training did not meet the practical requirements of production ... This is a great challenge as well as a motivation for the Training Facilities (TF) who must actively look for solutions to meet the labor needs of the engineering industry. The network of TF in Ministry of Construction (MoC) includes 33 schools. For years, the schools have had a positive innovation in training, started training with CBT or credit training; however, the deployment process has been still struggling, as results have not achieved the desired goals. This is due to many reasons, but the main reason is most of schools have not renewed the way of training management (TM). For the above reasons, the authors selected topic “Management competency based training for construction engineering occupations in construction colleges” for the PhD. thesis. 2. Research purposes Proposed solutions to manage CBT for construction engineering occupations (CEO) in construction colleges, to gradually improve the quality and efficiency of training and to meet the requirements of practical production and demand for business sector in construction. 3. Subjective and objective research * Subjective research: Train CBT in construction colleges. * Objective research: Manage CBT in construction colleges. 4. Scientific hypothesis Nowadays, CBT is being implemented in colleges of construction; however, the way of management of vocational training in general and TM of CEO in particular have not been renewed. So there are still weaknesses and shortcomings from input 2 management, the teaching process management, output management and ability to adapt to the impact of the new context; therefore, the quality of training did not meet the requirements of enterprises. If it is synchronized the techniques training management on CBT include the management of inputs, management of the teaching process, manage the output elements, ... it will take steps to improve the quality and efficiency training to meet the business requirements of the construction industry. 5. Research tasks - Do research and development of a theoretical basis for vocational training and TM on CBT. - Assess the reality of training and TM of CEO on CBT in construction colleges. - Recommend solutions of training TM of CEO on CBT in construction colleges. - Test the feasibility and practicality of the solution. 6. Limit the scope of the study - The thesis is limited according to research of TM of CEO on CBT the vocational college level (VC) in construction colleges. The survey was carried out in all colleges under the MoC who train CEO. - The test is limited to 2 solutions and conducted at the College of Urban Works Construction (MoC). 7. Approach and methodology * Approach - Approach to the market. In the market mechanism, schools need to be managed and operated under the laws of the market economy. The quality is the deciding survival factor of training colleges, therefore, the colleges must continually improve quality to meet customer needs and to be competitive, survive and thrive in the market economy and international integration. In short, training management must be to quality-oriented. - Approach to outputs target: Competency based training. Training technical workers must be moved to reach the goal, taking the target as the target output towards the formation of power needed for students so that after graduation they can do in the position certain employees in accordance with professional standards and have the opportunity to find work. - Approach to process. The quality of the whole process! To manage the training towards quality needs to manage from the input, the teaching process to the output, and also pay attention to the impact of the new context, especially the renovation of fundamental and comprehensive education and training, advancement of science and technology of the construction industry... 3 * Methodology - Methods of theoretical studies: Collect relevant information, analyze, synthesize, evaluate and apply to the construction of a theoretical basis. - Practical research methods: Analyze the activity of training management according to CBT shows the actual situation in organization, management training process in order to identify strengths, weaknesses and causes, as the basis for the identification of innovative solutions for training management. Some methods are used such as: survey method using questionnaires; Summation method of education experience; Test methods. - Other methods: Methods of experts; Methods of mathematical statistics. 8. The argument for protection 1) TM is crucial to the success or failure of the market mechanism in the colleges. To improve the quality and effectiveness of training which can be met the business requirements, the colleges must renew methods of TM that is the key step and breakout step in each college; Accordingly, The colleges should use the views, modern management model in TM. 2) Applying the model CIPO: CBT depends on the inputs, the teaching process, the output elements, and attention to the impact of the new context, especially renewing fundamental and comprehensive education and training, scientific and technological progress of the construction industry and the market economy is consistent with the TM of CEO profession towards quality. 3) Implement training method according to CBT is necessary for colleges of construction to be able to quickly innovated training output approach, gradually improving the quality of training to meet customer requirements and contribute to the development of the country's construction industry. 9. New contributions of the thesis * Methodologically: Applying CIPO models and philosophies, principles of CBT, the author has developed a theoretical basis for management of CBT. * Practicality: Assessing the situation of training and TM of CEO in construction colleges based on the followings: quality and effectiveness of training; manage the enrollment, teaching staff development, improve physical facilities and teaching equipment, organize the teaching process, assessment outputs and output information as the basis for proposing practicality solutions. 6 recommend solutions is practical and feasible to manage TM of CEO on CBT in construction colleges with the teams: manage the inputs, the teaching process, and the output elements. 4 CHAPTER 1: THEORETICAL BASIS ON VOCATIONAL MANAGEMENT OF COMPETENCY BASED TRAINING 1.1. Overview of research issues * Overseas + About CBT: Along with the development of behavioral learning theory and training approach targeted output, CBT was conducted very early in some industrialized countries. Many studies of foreign scholars have analyzed, evaluated, summarized and suggested the ability to apply training methods of CBT on Education and Training. There have been numerous reports summarizing on CBT that strongly growth in the 1990s with a series of big organization in the United States, Britain, Australia, New Zealand, Wales etc. and in many Asian countries such as Singapore, India, the Philippines, Brunei, Malaysia,… Each country, each organization applied training methods of CBT with different level based on each factual condition. All above researches showed: CBT is a tendency that many nations, many scientists are interested in research in many different angles and application in the teaching process at universities, professional and vocational colleges. Theory of CBT is applying appropriate depending on the characteristics of each country. + About vocational training management: has many professionals, scientists’ research with many angles, different approaches to each national institution, and each stage of development. Recently, Vocational training management has been studied towards to marketing and concerned by management professionals. * In the country + About CBT: In our country, from 1987 to 1990, modular training skills have been organized by Institute of Vocational Scientific Research and Vocational Technical Center. They have organized several conferences and began testing short-term training in a number of vocational training centers. In 1990s, many studies of inland and outland scholars, organizations researched, analyzed, evaluated, reviewed and proposed specific solutions, to introduce CBT in vocational teaching and vocational teachers in Vietnam. + About vocational TM: Vocational TM in Vietnam is also the subject of management scientists, research professionals, seeking application in the past dozen years with each stage of development of the country. Recently, trend of innovation in vocational TM in Vietnam has accessed to the world; especially when we are deepening integration, development opportunities open up along with the challenges with a negative impact on education and training system. 5 In short, CBT is a training method which is not new to the world but in Vietnam it has mainly been applying in vocational training. The research in Vietnam is not much; most of the research has just mentioned viewpoint, orientation, or research applying only in a narrow range, a part of the teaching process, practical teaching management when applying CBT methods. Vocational TM on CBT has not had yet, therefore that is a new way to contribute to the effective implementation of CBT in vocational training. In the dissertation, the author has studied, inherited, compared with multiple points, the data from the studies mentioned above. 1.2. Basic concepts * Competence and Competency Based Training Competence is understood that capability or functionality to execute well one the job but not quite clear for particular work as well as the standard regulations to estimate its level. CBT is the combination of three elements of knowledge, skills and professional attitude that each individual needs to complete the mission and work of a professional standard rules of certain conditions. * Training management Management is the impact of customer management subjects to be managed in a particular environment with the tools and management methods appropriate to achieve its objectives. Management has four functions: Planning; Organization of implementation; Leadership and direction; Testing and evaluation. Training is done to an individual who has become CBT according to certain standards through activities of teaching and learning associated with moral education, personality learners to meet manpower requirements of the market labor. Training management is subject to the impact of customer management to be managed in the training process through the function of managing and using the tools and methods appropriate management to achieve common goals the training process and students have been prescribed a standard CBT. * Standard jobs and outputs Professional standards (or standard CBT) is a set of rules to do the work and achieve the level required to perform the work at locations corresponding to the employee's job levels. Standard output is the school's commitment to the objectives of social education (knowledge, skills, and attitudes) of a training program (TP), thereby confirming CBT for the specific work that students will be in accordance with prescribed standards in the field of vocational training after school. 6 1.3. Competency Based Training * Philosophy of CBT: Philosophy of CBT is the training process based on the specified criteria for a profession and training that standard that is not based on the training time. * Characteristics of CBT: To develop the TP according to CBT should be treated by a three - aspect system: Identify competency, develop the competency and Evaluate objectively capacity. To determine the competency, the starting point is usually the outcomes and output-oriented is the most basic characteristics with main meaning of CBT, it orients and focuses on result, at the output of the training process, that means: Each learner can do something in a certain situation as labor standards set out. Characteristics of CBT have two components: Teaching and learning CBT and evaluating and certifying of CBT. * Content of CBT: The content of CBT is the integration of the system of scientific knowledge, techniques, methods related to occupation; system of vocational skills; experience systems innovation activities and knowledge systems of occupational attitudes to ensure that students have the ability to adapt to changes in production practices. * CBT in relation to the labor market: Process of CBT must have closed ties to the labor market through a system of skill standards and recognition skills. * Organize CBT: To determine a learner who has completed TP, they based on proficiency in all CBT in TP in the standard output. The amount of time is not required for learning because students can learn according to ability and pace of their own, not dependent on others, as long as enough time to absorb and be proficient in the CBT. This allows students to be able to study and finish school at any given time. Academic record of each individual and everyone learns adequate storage. Learners can study the transition from the program or school does not need to repeat the CBT based on the credit system has previously granted. CBT focuses on solving problems for learners. The assessment of learning outcomes of learners based on performance criteria, they are determined primarily from professional standards. * Conditions for CBT: Precondition for training organizations as the CBT is to identify a CBT system as outputs of the training process and orientation as the basis for all subsequent activities of teachers and students. The requirements (conditions) organize CBT: + Construction and development TP of CBT according to each grade level on the basis of professional standards; + Ensure the necessary conditions for team teachers, facilities and equipment for training to meet the training requirements of the CBT; 7 + Use appropriate tools to manage training following the learners’ demand and the ability. Use management software combined with support from Internet connectivity to create the electronic portal for the process of “transactions” between TF and learners. 1.4. Training management according to CBT 1.4.1. Training management towards quality: TM with the biggest aim is to continuously improve the quality and effectiveness of training, because the training quality is of vital concern training facilities in the market mechanism. Some models of TM toward to quality has been studied and applied as model of TM and CIPO model. The quality of training does not exist as itself but there is a process, UNESCO has launched CIPO management model, in which has components: input management (Input), process management (Process), output management (Output / Outcome), and the impact of context (Context). Along with the management approach according to the process, CIPO has added components impact of context; that means, after taking into vocational TM, CIPO model training process has controlled all factors and the impact of the economic environment - social up to the training process to meet quality-oriented practical requirements of production and business needs. Meanwhile, TM will be placed in an environment of “movement” with more comprehensive meaning ... In short, TM should be a process-based approach; oriented output approach - CBT; market access - towards quality. 1.4.2. Applying model management CIPO in vocational training of CBT: According to Figure 1.6, the groups of management content consists of: input management, process management, output management and the impact of context to vocational TM. + Input management: - Management counseling, vocational guidance and vocational enrollment as CBT, including: manage admissions policies, admissions process (Learners’ subheadings, class layers,...) and help secondary vocational students choose a career according to CBT. - Manage and develop TP as CBT. On market access perspective, to develop vocational TP as CBT, TF must keep abreast of the needs of the business, updating the achievements of advanced science and technology related jobs and feedback from users employers, students had to go to work after graduation, to improve individual courses completed, CBT modules must suit with new requirements of the labor market. - Manage the quality assurance conditions, meet the requirements of CBT, including: Manage the recruitment process, use, training and retraining teachers to teach CBT; manage the procurement process, construction, maintenance and use of equipment and teaching aids for CBT. 8 Input management Process management - Management Admissions officers (HS) - Manage the development TP of CBT - Manage the quality assurance conditions (teachers, facilities and equipment ...) - Manage the process of teaching CBT Output management - Manage the evaluation of outputs CBT - Manage work diplomas and certificates modular CBT Management Information output: - Jobs - Prospects for career development Tác động của bối cảnh đến VTM - Institutional, policy, population... - Progress of science and technology - Relationship schools and businesses - International Integration, Competition Partner - Investment in vocational training... Figure 1.6: Applying the model CIPO in management CBT + Process management: Process management is to manage the process of teaching and learning occupations - a process that combines continuous interlocking, flexible, flexibility between teaching and learning process for the assessment of teaching and learning in order to ensure the implementation of CBT are fulfilled from initial preparation to the final result. To manage the process of teaching and learning on CBT need for planning, directing and administering learning TP process which was designed to meet the requirements of the CBT. In this process, note the evaluation of teaching and learning outcomes of CBT to ensure results are evaluated according to the process and through standards CBT. + Output management: - Management assessment outputs of CBT. Outputs (for CBT) was assessed with a combination of knowledge, skills, attitudes. The availability of corporate professionals engaged in the process as checking the quality of products before release. - Manage certification, diploma apprenticeship of CBT. Noting the degree of flexibility of certificates (credits) per module and the assemble of completed certificates to get diplomas corresponding to the level of training as prescribed. - Manage Output information. Through enterprises’ needs as employment (location, quantity, degree requirements...), prospects for career development...; through management of multi-dimensional information from the environment of economic development - society, from enterprises and from students who have 9 graduated from surveys track... TF can develop system of labor market information, implement consultancy and support students to find jobs... + The impact of context to training management of CBT - Institutional and policy: the impact of Resolution, Education Law, Vocational Training Law, Decree,... is driven to open the way for the development of vocational training... - Progress of science and technology: updated impact, application,... make vocational training be adapted to the volatility of the labor market when the production process, the service has been upgraded, the rapid development of technology . - International integration, competition partners: these effects helped TF have comparable conditions, determine the location, value, their brand not only within the country but also the region and the world; at the same time, provide a bridge to fully utilize the benefits of the association, cooperative education, training and technology transfer, access to the world's advanced TP. In addition, the TF need to consider factors other impacts on population, the situation of economic development - social, investment in education and training ... to have driven consistent growth, although the effects on this brings the macro level, but also at many of the most influential TM of CBT. 1.4.3. Matrix of management functions and content of management CBT order 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 2 Contents of management Planing CIPO Input management Managing Planning consultancy and counseling vocational and apprenticeship vocational enrollment of guidance and CBT vocational enrollment of CBT Manage Planning development TP development of CBT TP of CBT Manage the - Planning for quality recruitment, assurance retraining of conditions to teachers meet the - Planning to requirements of improve CBT teaching facilities Process management The management functions Organizing Leading Controlling Organizing career counseling and vocational enrollment of CBT Leading career counseling and vocational enrollment of CBT Controlling vocational counseling and vocational enrollment of CBT Organizing development TP of CBT - Organizing recruitment and retraining of teachers - Organizing teaching equipment Leading development TP of CBT Leading recruitment, retraining of teachers - Leading improving of teaching equipment Controlling development TP of CBT - Controlling the recruitment, retraining of teachers - Controlling for improving of teaching equipment 10 Manage the process of vocational teaching of CBT 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 4 - Planning for teaching profession, - Planning teaching results of CBT Output/Outcomes management Management the Planning the evaluation of evaluation of outputs of CBT outputs of CBT Management Planning the diplomas and delivery of certificates of diplomas and CBT certificates of CBT Manage the Planning the output acquisition information and multidimensional information processing on the output of CBT Planning Adapting to the proactively impact of adapt to the context to TM effects of context - Organizing for teaching profession, - Organizing teaching results of CBT - Leading activities of teaching and learning outcomes - Leading teaching results of CBT - Controlling the teaching process and learning outcomes - Controlling teaching results of CBT Organizing the evaluation of outputs of CBT Leading the evaluation of outputs of CBT Leading the delivery of diplomas and certificates of CBT Leading the acquisition and multidimensional information processing on the output of CBT Leading readily adapt to the effects of context Controlling the evaluation of outputs of CBT Organizing the delivery of diplomas and certificates of CBT Organizing the acquisition and multidimensional information processing on the output of CBT Organizing the plans to adapt to the effects of context Controlling the delivery of diplomas and certificates of CBT Controlling the acquisition and multidimensional information processing on the output of CBT Controlling the activities to adapt to the effects of context Conclusion of Chapter 1 CBT has been formed and developed long ago and are now being applied to the development conditions of Vietnam. The biggest advantage of this method of training is conducted training process based on the capacity of the school and “outcomes” are always the closest proximity to the practical requirements of production and business needs... however, to better promote these advantages requires accompanying conditions (TP, team teachers, teaching equipment,...) must be synchronized and met the requirements of the training process; simultaneously select the optimal model of TM. CIPO model is suitable for TF to use in managing CBT by approach in applying this model is a process-based approach, approachoriented output and market access - towards quality. The construction of matrix functions CIPO has managed to facilitate navigation and access the features and the core issue in management of CBT that should focus on practical research and propose for appropriate solutions TM. 11 CHAPTER 2: THE REALITY OF TRAINING MANAGEMENT ON CBT FOR CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING OCCUPATIONS IN CONSTRUCTION COLLEGES 2.1. Characteristics of skilled labor in the construction industry Labor’s engineering construction industry specific nature, diverse professions, level uneven. Industry structure in many fields of construction occupations heavy, dangerous, often climbs or conditions of labor in complex terrain, extreme weather ... (accounting for 40% of the total portfolio heavy jobs, toxic, hazardous material production sectors of both countries). In recent years, along with the development of the country, many construction projects have been implemented with new building technologies; tools of labor, modern equipment; many industrial facilities, construction materials had mechanization and automation to improve working conditions, prevention of labor accidents and occupational diseases... 2.2. The network of vocational training facilities of the Ministry of construction Currently, the network of public training facilities in construction industry concludes: 1 Institute; 4 universities; 4 colleges; 7 vocational colleges, 9 professional high schools, 7 vocational schools. There are 5 colleges of construction training technique to building with vocational college – level. 2.3. Survey on the reality of training management on CBT for CEO * The purpose and content of the survey: Acquire information as a basis for a realistic assessment of the status of training and training management CBT in the field of construction in colleges through discussions with the leadership, staff of management and teachers; also sent questionnaires to four contents: input management; process management; output management; ability to adapt to the impact of context to training management. Actual survey in enterprises in the construction sector and send the questionnaire on the status of workers using construction techniques, the subjective assessment in the enterprises about the quality of training, relationship with training facilities, ... * Time and respondents: From June to December 2012, the author surveyed 7 colleges and 2 colleges who were upgraded to university in 2011; and sent questionnaires to 150 teachers, 50 staff of management, and 175 students of five schools in Ministry of Construction. For the enterprises in the construction sector, the author surveyed 6 enterprises; sent questionnaires to 30 staff of technique, 120 technical workers. 2.4. The reality of CBT in construction colleges * Fields of training in the colleges of construction: The TF in MoC are training 45 jobs in 4 vocational groups 12 * Teaching and learning of CBT: The Colleges of construction are planning training and applying the methods of annual statutes for the main system. The result is the “output” of the training process is not much difference, which has not met the requirements of the business. Through the survey, the colleges of construction realized the defect when they has developed teaching and learning CBT but still struggling with the so-called “modeling” of CBT that matches with the TF. Processes, facilities, tools of TM does not change. As a result, the process of implementing asynchronous CBT, TM has still imposed administrative style as traditional training then led to internal conflicts within the organization, so the implement effective training did not achieve as expected. * Evaluation and validation of CBT: Evaluation and validation of CBT are not implemented as methods of CBT. The Colleges are still evaluating traditionally instead of taking CBT as a basis for deployment. Therefore, the evaluation results can not express the basic criteria of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Instead of all is the overall points classification and the final report of the school year as the traditional way of training. Quality training on perspectives subjective assessment is only average meeting the requirements of the engine manufacturers use manual labor and semi-mechanized. With modern production facilities, advanced technology lines, a high rate of automation, the students‘ ability after graduation is still a big challenge. Students after graduation usually weak in the "soft skills" such as communication skills, planning skills work, monitoring skills, self-assessment skills, teamwork skills, ... Results of the surveys for engineering and technical job working construction with 56.93% workers are employed after 6 monthgraduation, working entirely properly accounted for 50.36% and industry 70.80% are employed in accordance with the level of training. 2.5. The reality of the training management CBT for CEO in construction colleges * Input management: + Managing admissions officers has made certain changes in order to continue to attract students from a variety of sources, many different systems. However, admission is not valued on a regular basis, continuously throughout the year so there is no long-term plan, the case remains officially notify Enrollment 1 year, and classified input capacity of the school has not been made. + Managing objectives, TP was directed towards to equilibrium density theory practice; ensured systematic and scientific; just pay attention to the strength, continuity between the TP. However, during the process adjustment of TP, the basis for the implementation is derived from the existing conditions of the school, so TP still has distance to produce realistic, timely update the progress of science in construction technology; TP is still pretty heavy on theory, not sticking to the standard of CBT. 13 + Managing quality assurance conditions to meet the requirements of vocational CBT was also interested in concerned schools, that is: every year there are specific activities to improve the quality of teachers and staff of management, gradually improve physical facilities, teaching equipment. However, the level of skills and teaching ability of teachers with the teaching room facilities has met the requirements of integrated teaching CBT is difficult for the colleges. * Process management: Managing the teaching and learning process in construction has renewed but not quite suitable with certain requirements of CBT. Planning, directing and implementing training plans have yearly training style and entirely made by the school according to “time axis” rather than based on the basis of study plan by students independently according to the courses or CBT modules. Managing the teachers’ activities remains a hierarchical form, lacks of adequate procedures, guidance and supervision, assessment and final review. Managing the students and learning activities always correct with regulations, but the biggest drawback of the TF is the management of learning activities outside of class and outside the school; especially self-study activities of students. Managing the teaching evaluation results and implementation of the very general, although there have been oriented for teachers to deploy for the purposes of knowledge, skills, attitudes, but all schools have let teachers and departments free, no specific regulations about how, standard, criteria evaluation. * Output/Outcome management: + As required by the standard output, students know all goals, content, degree requirements and graduation that should be achieved in terms of knowledge, skills, attitudes and other soft skills. However, the assessment of vocational outcomes were performed by the teachers of the school; for short-term training, depending on the agreement now, may invite experts from the enterprises participate in evaluation. + The schools are not allowed to certify for completed each module CBT for students, they only have right to certify a diploma once after the final graduation exam. So, the way to conduct diplomas and certificates are not properly training requirements of CBT - CBT accumulating certificates to obtain the corresponding diploma level. + The schools do not manage the outcome information and multi-dimensional information involved (students, businesses, academic experts, and other associated...) in order to affirm the value of the outcome of the training process, that is the CBT; so there was no chance to take advantage of the tremendous benefits from this work, for example, it cannot be advised, recommended jobs for graduating students in organization and system; It also cannot be developed a system of labor market information; coordination process between the school and 14 enterprise is lack of the systems, according to local interests of each side, It cannot be defined and coordinate long-term sustainable... * The ability to adapt to the impact of factors in the context of management CBT: The ability to adapt to the impact of factors in the context such as: policy, the advancement of science and technology, international integration, competition partners, investment in vocational training ... starts with awareness of the managing board; that means TF can make the most of the opportunity and accept the negative impact due to challenges from external factors impact almost depends on the capacity of the managing board. So, here is the process of “one-way” and although this has the advantage of directing unity, but the downside is appearing “lag” in the adaptation or appear “flaw” because it could not cover shouted out each specific content or the subject's capacity management when evaluating the impact of these factors is not good. 2.6. The weaknesses and causes * The weaknesses: Teaching and learning CBT; evaluation of teaching and learning outcomes of CBT has not been implemented correctly so quality and effective training in the colleges of construction were not high, they did not meet the requirement of practical production and enterprises’ needs. Managing input was still passive: enrollment plan is unsystematic; managing TP is one-way subjective, they meet the existing conditions of the school only. They have not engaged with enterprises so TP has not met with the needs of practical produce; managing and organizational conditions to ensure the quality have not been effective so integrated teaching capacity of teachers and staff room facilities integrated teaching have not met the conditions for training. Managing the teaching process is still under rigid plan year with “time axis”, it has not organized to learn approach CBT; managing the evaluation of teaching results has not had a standard process and the lack of assessment criteria. Output/Outcome management is loose: managing assessment outputs/outcomes and diploma and certificate are done traditionally, it has not taken the standard CBT as a basis of evaluation, and it has not had involvement of the business on standardization and evaluation of CBT from students. Managing of outcome information is “stalled” or local, temporary so TF have no chance to take the benefits. Maintaining and developing the relationships between schools and enterprises have not been implemented in a systematic manner and have not expanded on the content and form of collaboration. The face of the impact of context on the training facilities has not been ready, the direct perception of leadership... causes the “lag” in the adaptation and “flaw” in content managing. * Causes: The leaders’ thought has not quite renewed, directed drastic shortage, the inspection is bureaucratic, loose managing, and it has not adjusted timely and logical problems arising in TM. The process of managing is inconsistency, also 15 fragmentary. Tools and methods of innovation managing are not up process of social development. Conclusion of Chapter 2 The realities of managing CBT in the colleges of construction posed some specific problems to be solved in each managing group. The main cause is the training management system is operating inefficient. To overcome these, training facilities need unified management model and note the followings: - Student recruitment, as a people who is looking for the way without “overall roadmap”, requires planning and organization of career counseling and doing student recruitment based on CBT. - Development programmer of vocational training on CBT needed to direct from leaders about the activities and the final results are TP must be met to professional standards. - The conditions to meet the quality assurance requirements of CBT need to be improved for implementing with clear rules and procedures. - Teaching and learning process should have organized scientifically to transform the way to teach as CBT. - Evaluating outputs results need to be closely monitored to “ship product” can meet “customer’s” requirements. - Considered the school as a “corporate training” in the market economy is responsible for implementing the “managing outcome information” as a process of “product warranty” to maximize the benefits. 16 CHAPTER 3: SOLLUTIONS OF OF TRAINING MANAGEMENT ON CBT FOR CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING OCCUPATIONS From a theoretical basis and practical basis for the vocational TM according to the approach CBT, combined with the strategic planning of human resources development in Vietnam and the construction industry for the period 2011-2020, in principle ensure uniformity, the practicality and feasibility the author proposed 6 solutions as: * Solution 1: Managing consultancy and vocational enrollment according the CEO on CBT + Aim of this solution: Overcome the deficiencies of the existing management consulting career and vocational enrollment as CBT. Ensure the quantity and quality suitable entrance to the capacity of individual learners and capable of training facilities. Create a wide choice of suitable time learning ability and aspirations of learners and job characteristics. Affirm the brand and reputation of the school and vocational training. Create consistency, conformity with the overall management of CBT. + The way to do: Implementation should be inherited and developed the enrollment plan as an “overall roadmap” by these following steps: 1) Establish consultancy councils of vocational enrollment in construction technique with involving of officials, experts and reputative businesses in the field of construction. 2) Make use of information systems and other communication channels to establish a list of sources accessible entrance from schools, businesses,... 3) Develop an overall plan for enrollment activities throughout the year as the basis for the detailed planning for each work- group, each moment... to ensure enrollment activity engineering construction will be deployed continuously every anytime ... 4) Invest in equipments and qualified staff of management to deploy the management of enrollment in which must be with online enrollment system. * Solution 2: Manage and develop the training program of CEO as CBT to meet professional standards + Aim of this solution: Overcome weaknesses in management and development of vocational TP, that is the steering has not unified, and has not the directed breakthrough to open the way for businesses participating in the development of vocational TP of the school. Be sure the standard of output and vocational TP as CBT that meets with the practical production requirements and the needs of employers. Affirm the commitment of quality training for customers; and the specific basis for the self-assessment, quality control of TF. 17 + The way to do: Managing and developing the vocational TP of CBT to meet professional standards need to follow the cycle as shown in Figure 3.1. Establish a Steering Committee, a standing unit Plan and develop the training program Direct, guide and organize the training program Check and evaluate the training program Issue output standard of training program Organinize teaching as training program Adjust, supplement annually Figure 3.1: The cycle of management and development vocational TP as CBT Establish consultancy and development council TP of CEO as CBT that meets professional standards with the participation of experts from reputive businesses, scientists in the field of construction. This Council will direct the development TP to meet the most basic requirements of the following criterias: 1) Stick to the practical requirements of production technology; 2) Update the rapid progress of science and technology building; 3) In accordance with the training capacity of TF; 4) Affirm the value of output products as CBT. The management and development of the TP should be implementend with synchronous following steps in Table 3.2. Table 3.2: The Process of Management and edition the content of TP of CEO as CBT to meet professional standards Order 1 2 Activities Identify gaps that need to be adjusted and supplemented to standard of output and TP Duty Permanent parts and teachers Description of work Review standard of output and TP; Collect expert opinions and teachers; Investigate, survey the reputative enterprises in the field of construction Get expert opinion Permanent parts and Have Seminars in the Department and Procedures Decide approving the revised plan, complement output standards and TP of principal and accompanied by detailed plans Organize seminars and Products Report overview of the content that needs to be adjusted and supplemented Minutes and reports at the 18 teachers and experts 3 4 5 6 Collect ideas from the workshop and consult the relevant documents Through the suggestions need to be edited Permanent parts and teachers Finish the Draft adjustment, supplement the output standards and TP For approval and issuance Permanent parts and teachers Pedagogical and Scientific Council Principal overview with the participation of leading experts in the field of construction in the Training Facilities and Enterprises Adjust comments and documents related to the TP Invite experts conference Detailed plans approved Have a meeting with Pedagogical and Scientific Council o look through the contents that need to be adjusted and supplemented by Draft Edit the contents of the opinion in the council meeting minutes and science teachers Detailed plans approved Draft of adjustment, complement outcome standards and TP Minutes of the Pedagogical and Scientific Council Detailed plans approved The draft has been completed Browser, sign, issue and implement Approval Decision issued The output standards and TP * Solution 3: Manage the quality assurance conditions to meet the requirements of CBT for CEO + The aim of the solution: Overcome weaknesses in the organization and management of conditions that ensure quality training to meet the requirements of CBT for CEO. Ensure enough number of teachers and capacity to integrate teaching; system of facilities, teaching equipment sufficient to meet the level of quality and service of modern vocational training CEO on CBT. + The way to do: - About development management teachers to meet the requirements professional teaching construction techniques as CBT: Need implementation cycle as shown in Figure 3.2. One point to note is the survey of teachers’ capability must be performed comprehensive and standards-based comprehensive teachers who have some rules and regulations specific specialty. This cycle can be carried out under the semester or school year.
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