Luyện thi cấp tốc môn lịch sử-trương ngọc thơi

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907 L527T NGOC THOl n 16 Khiei - Quang Ngai) QUOC LUYEN THI CAP TOC A THEO CAU TRUC DE THI CUA BO GIAO DUG & D A O T A O 7" T h S . TRl/CfNG N G O C THOll (GV chuyen Sit trit&ng chuyen Le Khiet) LUYEN THI CAP TOC MON ucH sOr • THEO CAU TRUC DE T H I CUA BO GIAO DUG VA DAO TAG N H A X U A T B A N D A I H O C Si/ P H A M Chju trach nhiem xuat ban: G i a m doc: DINH NGOC B A O T d n g bien tap: DINH V A N V A N G Chju trach nhiem ngi dung va ban quyen: N h a s a c h HONG AN Bien tap ngi dung: KIEU T R A N G KT thuat vi ti'nh: Nha sach HONG AN Trinh bay bia: V O T H ! THQA Ma s6': 02.02.1037/1181. PT2012 LUYEN THI CAP TOC IViON LJCHSLf In 2000 cuo'n, khd 17 x 24cm tai Cong ti In Tin Loc - TP.Ho Chi Minh. DSng ki ke hoach xuat ban so: 78-2012/CXB/1037-43/DHSP ngay 13/1/2012. QOXB so: 1283/Qe - OHSP ngay 11/10/2012. In xong va n6p li/u chieu quy i nam 2013. ndi (tail Cling cac em hoc sinh than men! Hien nay, viec t i m ra con dtfcfng ngSn nhat, i t ton thcfi gian nhat ma van dat hieu qua cao trong viec on luyen t h i mon Lich suf nghe chifng n h i / kho khan ddi vdi cac em hoc sinh khoi 12, dac biet 1^ nhOrng em c6 nhu cau t h i dai hoc khoi C. Cung nhif cac mon hoc khac, hoc tap mon Lich suf phai c6 phtfcfng phap dung vdi dac thii cua no. Chung ta difng nham tiidng r k n g , hoc tap Lich suf chi CO gang nhd cho bang diigc cac sti kien, cac nien dai lich sCf la du, la xong va v i vay nhieu em qua vat va trong viec co ghi nhd, nhiing cuoi cung vkn "hoc trifdc, quen sau". Viec hoc tap n h i i the, kho mong doi dat difdc ket qua cao trong k h i lam bai t h i mon Lich stf. De giiip cac em khSc phuc nhCfng kho khan do, hi/dng cho cac em t i m ra con dirdng ngan nhat trong viec tiep t h u kien thufc mon Lich suf Idp 12, chuan bi t h i dai hoc khoi C, chung toi bien soan cudn " L U Y E N T H I C A P T O C M O N L I C H S U " . On tap la de giiip cac em nam lai toan bo nhflng kien thufc rat ccf ban cua chtfong t r i n h Lich suf Idp 12. Luyen t h i la de giiip cac em tiep can vdi cac cau hoi cd t i n h chat vCra m d rpng, vCra nang cao, tiicfng ufng vdi cac cau hoi thifdng gap trong cac k i tuyen sinh dai hoc mon Lich suf. N a m vufng kien thufc CO ban va t r a Idi diiqc cac cau hoi on tap trong sach nay, cac em se vufng t i n btfdc vao cac k i t h i trtfdc mat. Sach gom ba phan: Phdn mot: He thong kien thiic Lich sii the giai til nam 1945 den nam Phdn hai: He thong kien thiic Lich sH Viet Nam til nam 1919 den nam 2000. 2000. (M6i phan he thong kien thufc, c6 neu cau hoi va hiTdng dan tra Idi rat cu the) Phdn ba: Gidi thieu de thi dai hoc tic nam 2005 den nam 2012. H i vong rang, " L L T ^ N T H I C A P T O C M O N L I C H Sl>' se la tai lieu hOU ich ddi vdi thay c6 giao va cac em hoc sinh trong viec day va hoc mon Lich suf Idp 12. Mac dau cd nhieu cd gang trong bien soan, song khd tranh khoi nhufng sai sot, rat mong sq g6p y chan thanh tii quy thay c6 giao va cac em hoc sinh. TAG GIA 3 PhAN M " T HE THONG KIEN THLfC UCH SLf THE GlCfl TLf NAM 1 945 DEN NAM 2000 TRAT TLT THE Gidl SAU CHIEN TRANH T H E Gldl THUf HAI I (1945-1949) 1. Hpi nghi lanta va s\i thoa thuan ciia ba ci^ofng quoc - TU ngay 4 den ngay 1 1 / 2 / 1 9 4 5 , Hoi nghi quoc te' dtfoc trieu tap a lanta (Lien X6) vdi sif tham dii ciia nguyen thu ba ciidng quoc Lien X6, M i , A n h . Hoi nghi da diTa ra nhufng quyet dinh quan trong: + Nhanh chong tieu diet chij nghia phat xit Dufc va chij nghia quan phiet Nhat. + Thanh lap to chiic Lien hcfp quoc. + Phan chia pham v i anh htfdng giuTa ba cifcrng quoc d chau Au va chau A. - He qua: NhOrng quyet dinh ciia Hoi nghi lanta cung nhufng thoa thuan sau do cua ba ctidng quoc da t r o thanh khuon kho ciia t r a t t a the gidri m d i , thiidng diJcfc goi la "Trat tif hai cUc lanta". 2. Si^ thanh lap L i e n hoTp quoc - TLJ ngay 25/4 den ngay 2 6 / 6 / 1 9 4 5 , mot hoi nghi quo'c te Idn da hop tai-Xan Phranxixco (Ml) de thong qua ban H i e n chifcfng va tuyen bo' t h a n h lap Lien hgp quoc. - Muc dich cua Lien hcfp quoc la duy t r i hoa b i n h va an n i n h the gidi, phat trien cac moi quan he huTu nghi giuTa cac dan toe va tien hanh sii hop tac quo'c te giufa cac niiofc t r e n ccf so ton trpng nguyen tac b i n h d&ng va quyen t i i quyet cua cac dan toe. - Nguyen tac hoat dong: + Binh ding chu quyen giufa c^e quo'c gia va quyen t\i quyet cua cac dan toe. + Ton trong toan ven lanh tho va doc lap chinh t r i ciaa t a t ca cac nLfdc. + Chung song hoa b i n h va sii nhat t r i giufa 5 n\idc Idn: M i , A n h , Lien X6, Trung Quoc. - Cac ecf quan: Dai hoi dong. Hoi dong Bao an, Ban Thif k i . Ngoai ra con c6 Hoi dong K i n h te - Xa hoi. H o i dong Quan thae, Toa An quo'c te... LIEN X6 VA C A C NUCfC DONG AU (1945 - 1991). LIEN BANG NGA (1991 - 2000) 1. L i e n X6 a. Cong cuoc khoi phuc kinh te d Lien X6 (1945 - 1950) ^ Hoan canh lich sijf: 5 Lien X6 la ni/drc chiu ton that nang ne nhat trong cuoc Chien t r a n h the gidi thijf hai: Hcfn 27 trieu ngifcfi chet; 1.710 thanh phd, hcfn 70.000 lang mac, gan 32.000 nha may, x i nghiep h i tan pha. * N h S n g t h a n h ti^u dat difgfc: - Hoan thanh thang Icfi ke hoach 5 nam (1946 - 1950) tn/dc thcfi han 9 thang. - Nen san xuat cong nghiep dugc phuc hoi nSm 1947. Den nam 1950 san lifcrng cong nghiep tang 73% so vdi trtforc chien t r a n h . - San xuat nong nghiep nam 1950 dat mure trtfdrc chien t r a n h . - Nam 1949, L i e n X6 che tao t h a n h cong bom nguyen tuf, pha vd the doc quyen vu k h i nguyen tuf cua M i . 6. Lien Xd tiep tuc xdy dUng cd sd vat chat - ki thuat cua CNXH (tH nam 1950 den nika ddu nhitng nam 70) - Lien X6 t r d t h a n h ctfdng quoc cong nghiep dufng thuf hai t r e n the gidri (sau M l ) , chie'm khoang 20% tong san Itfong cong nghiep toan the gidri. - Lien X6 la niidrc dau tien phong thanh cong ve t i n h nhan tao cua Trai Dat. Nam 1961, phong con tau vu t r u PhUcfng Dong diia nha du hanh vu try Gagarin bay vong quanh T r a i Dat. - Ve doi ngoai: L i e n X6 chu trtfcfng duy t r i hoa b i n h , an n i n h the gidri, ung ho phong tr^o giai phong dan toe, giiip da cac ntfdrc xa hoi chu nghla. 2. C a c TivCSc D o n g A u - Trong nhufng nam 1944 - 1945, k h i Hong quan Lien X6 truy kich quan dpi phat x i t qua vung Dong Au, nhan dan Dong Au noi day gianh chinh quyen va t h a n h lap cac Nha niidrc dan chu nhan dan. - Cac nUdc dan chu nhan dan Dong Au da hoan thanh cac nhiem vu quan trong: xay difng bg may nha nifdrc mdi, tien hanh cai each rugng dat, quQ'e huTu hda t a i san cua ttf ban niJcrc ngoai, ban hanh cac quyen tii do dan chu... vao nhufng nam 1945 - 1949. - Trong nhufng nam 1950 - 1975, cac ni/drc Dong Au thifc hien nhieu ke hoach 5 nam nham xay diing co sdr vat cha't - k i thuat ciia chu nghla xa hgi va dat nhieu t h a n h tifu to Idrn. 3. Q u a n he hdp tac givta c a c midc x a hpi c h u n g h i a a. Quan he kinh te, van hod, hhoa hoc - ki thuat - Ngay 8/1/1949, Hgi dong Tuong t r g K i n h te (viet t a t la SEV) dugc thanh lap gom cac ntfcrc: Lien X6, Anbani, Ba Lan, Bungari, Hunggari, Rumani, Tiep Khac; sau nay c6 them cac nifdrc CHDC Dijfc (1950), Cong hoa Nhan dan Mong Cd (1962), Cong hoa Cuba (1972), Cong hoa Xa hgi Chu nghla Viet Nam (1978). - Mue tieu cua SEV la tang ctfdng sif hop tac giufa cac nirdc xa hgi chu nghla, thuc day sif tien bg ve khoa hge - k l thuat, khdng ngifng nang cao mufc sd^ng cua nhan dan cac nxidc thanh vien. b. Quan he chinh tri - qudn syC - N g k y 14/5/1955; cac ntfcrc A n b a n i , B a L a n , B u n g a r i , C H D C Dtfc, H u n g g a r i , L i e n X6, R u m a n i , T i e p Khac da hop t a i Vacsava, cung n h a u k i H i e p ifcrc hOu n g h i , hcfp tac v a tifcfng trcf d a n h dau si/ r a dcfi cua To chuTc H i e p i/crc Vacsava. - M u c t i e u : t h a n h l a p l i e n m i n h p h o n g t h u ve q u a n siT v a c h i n h t r i cua cac midc xa h o i chu n g h i a chau A u . 4. L i e n b a n g N g a ( 1 9 9 1 - 2000) Sau k h i L i e n X 6 t a n r a , L i e n b a n g N g a l a "quo'c g i a ke tuc L i e n X 6 " . - V e dol n o i , N g a p h a i do'i m a t v d i h a i t h a c h thufc lorn l a t i n h t r a n g k h o n g on d i n h do s i i t r a n h chap giuTa cac d a n g p h a i v a nhOfng v u x u n g dot sdc toe. - Ve m a t do'i n g o a i , m o t m a t N g a n g a ve p h i i o n g T a y v d i h i v o n g n h a n di/Oc sU ung ho ve c h i n h t r i v a s i i v i e n trcr ve k i n h t e ; m a t k h a c , k h o i phuc v a p h a t t r i e n mo'i q u a n he v d i cac midc chau A. - TCf dau n a m 2000, c h i n h p h u cua T o n g tho'ng P u t i n c6' gSng p h a t t r i e n k i n h te, cung cd n h a niJdrc p h a p q u y e n , o n d i n h t i n h h i n h x a h o i v ^ n a n g cao v i the quo'c te cua nildc N g a . III. C A C N U C I C A , P H I V A MT L A T I N H ( 1 9 4 5 - 2000) 1. S i ^ t h a n h l a p ni^dfc C p n g h o a N h a n d a n T r u n g H o a v a t h a n h ti^u 10 n a m d a u x a y di^ng c h e d o m d i (1949 - 1959) - N g a y 1/10/1949, nUdrc C o n g hoa N h a n d a n T r u n g H o a c h i n h thufc t h a n h lap, dufng dau l a C h u t i c h M a o T r a c h D o n g . - D a y l a sif k i e n c6 y n g h i a l i c h suf to 16n k h o n g nhOfng do'i vdri T r u n g Quo'c ma con do'i v d i p h o n g t r a o g i a i p h o n g d a n toe t r e n t h e g i d i : + C h a m dilt hcfn 100 n a m no dich cua de quoc, xoa bo t a n dif p h o n g k i e n . Difa nirdc T r u n g Hoa biidc vac k i nguyen doc lap, t i i do v a t i e n l e n chii n g h i a xa hoi. + A n h h i f d n g sau sSc t d i p h o n g t r a o g i a i p h o n g d a n toe t h e g i d i . - De k h a c phuc t i n h t r a n g ngheo n a n lac h a u , d o n g t h d i xay difng v a p h a t t r i e n dat nifdc, T r u n g Quo'c t h i i c h i e n t h a n g Igi cong cuoc k h o i phuc k i n h te (1950 - 1952) v a k e h o a c h 5 n a m dau t i e n (1953 - 1957). Bo m a t d a t ntfdc c6 nhuTng t h a y d o i r o r e t . - Ve do'i n g o a i , t h i h a n h c h i n h sach n g o a i giao t i c h c i i c n h S m cijng c6' h o a b i n h v a t h u c day sir p h a t t r i e n cua p h o n g t r a o each m a n g t h e g i d i . N g a y 18/1/1950, T r u n g Qude t h i e t l a p q u a n he n g o a i giao v d i V i e t N a m . 2. C o n g c u p c c a i e a c h - m d cvLa {tH n a m 1978) - T h a n g 12/1978, T r u n g licfng D a n g C o n g san T r u n g Quo'c de r a diTcfng I d i doi m d i , mcf dau eho cong cuoc cai each k i n h te - x a h o i . D i i d n g lo'i n a y diicJc F II n a n g l e n t h a n h di/cfng l o i c h u n g cua D a i h o i X I I ( t h a n g 9/ 1982), dac b i e t l a D a i h o i X I I I ( t h a n g 10/1987) cua D a n g : l a y p h a t t r i e n k i n h te l a m t r u n g t a m ; t i e n h a n h cai each v a m d cufa, c h u y e n n e n k i n h te ke hoach h o ^ t a p t r u n g sang k i n h te' t h i trtfcrng x a h o i c h u n g h l a , n h k m h i e n d a i hoa v a x a y d i t a g chu n g h i a x a h o i m a n g m a u s&c T r u n g Quo'c, vdri muc t i e u b i e n T r u n g Quo'c t h a n h quo'c gia giau m a n h , dan chu v^ van m i n h . - Sau 20 n a m thtfc h i e n difcrng l o i cai each, da't niidc T r u f t g Quo'c c6 nhuTng b i e n d o i c&n b a n v a d a t nhOfng t h a n h t i i u to Idfn: + G D P t a n g t r u n g b i n h h a n g n S m 8%; n S m 2000, G D P d a t 1.080 t i U S D , dcfi song n h a n d a n difgc cai t h i e n r o r e t . + D a t n h i e u t h a n h tiAi ve k h o a hoc - k l t h u a t , v a n hoa v ^ giao due. Tii t h a n g 11/1999 d e n t h a n g 3/2003, T r u n g Quo'c da p h o n g 4 con t a u " T h a n C h a u " v a n g a y 15/10/2003, t a u " T h a n C h a u 5" cung n h a du h a n h D u o n g L o i V I da bay vao k h o n g g i a n v u t r y . - Ve d o i n g o a i , T r u n g Quo'c c6 n h i e u t h a y d o i . + D a b i n h thtfcfng h o a q u a n he vdi L i e n X 6 , V i e t N a m , M o n g Co, k h o i phuc q u a n he n g o a i giao vdri I n d o n e x i a . . + Md r o n g q u a n he hufu n g h i , hap tac vdri cac ntidrc t r e n the' gidri; c6 n h i e u d o n g gop t r o n g viec g i a i quye't cac t r a n h chap quo'c te. 3 . Sijf t h a n h l a p c a c q u o c g i a d p c l a p d D o n g N a m a. Vai net chung ve qua trinh dau tranh gianh A doc lap - TrUdrc Chie'n t r a n h t h e gidri thuf h a i , h a u he't cac nUdrc t r o n g k h u viic (trtr T h a i L a n ) deu l a thuoc d i a cua de quoc A u - M i . N g a y k h i N h a t B a n d4u h a n g D o n g m i n h , n h a n d a n cac niJdrc D o n g N a m A n h a n h c h o n g n o i day g i a n h c h i n h q u y e n , t i e u b i e u l a I n d o n e x i a , V i e t N a m v ^ L^o. + N g a y 17/8/1945, n h a n d a n I n d o n e x i a t u y e n bo doc l a p va t h a n h lap niTdrc C o n g hoa I n d o n e x i a . + T h a n g 8/1945, n h a n d a n V i e t N a m tie'n h a n h T o n g khdri n g h i a ; ngay 2/9/1945, nifdrc V i e t N a m D a n chii C o n g hoa r a ddri. + T h a n g 8/1945, n h a n d a n cac bo toe L a o n o i day, d e n n g a y 12/10, midc lAo t u y e n bo doc l a p . - Sau do, Xhxic d a n A u - M l quay t r d l a i t a i chie'm D o n g N a m A. N h a n dan cac midc D o n g N a m A l a i tie'n h a n h k h a n g c h i e n e h o n g x a m lifgc. + Vdri t h a n g \ai cua chie'n d i c h D i e n B i e n P h u V i e t N a m (1954) buoc P h a p p h a i k i ke't H i e p d i n h Gionevcf cong n h a n cac quyen d a n toe cor b a n cua V i e t N a m , Lao, C a m p u c h i a . + T h a n g 5/1949, H a L a n p h a i cong n h a n C o n g h o a L i e n b a n g Indonexia v a ngay 15/8/1950, nifdrc C o n g hoa I n d o n e x i a t h o n g n h a t dtfgc t h a n h l a p . 8 + Cac nxidc A u - M i I a n lucrt cong n h a n doc l a p cua cac niTdrc P h i l i p p i n (1946), M i e n D i e n " ( 1 9 4 8 ) , M a L a i (1957), X i n g a p o (1959), V i e t N a m , Lao, C a m p u c h i a (1975), B r u n a y (1984), D o n g T i m o (2002). b. Lao (1945 - 1975) * Cugc khdng chien chong Phdp (1945 ~ 1954) - N g a y 12/10/1945, c h i n h p h u L a o r a m a t quoc d a n v a t u y e n bo doc l a p . - T i f n S m 1945 d e n n a m 1975, n h a n d a n L^o t i e n h a n h cuoc k h a n g c h i e n chong P h a p (1945 - 1954), r o i k h a n g c h i e n c h o n g M l (1954 - 1975). - T h a n g 2/1973, H i e p d i n h V i e n g C h a n dUcfc k i k e t ve l a p l a i h o a b i n h v a thuc h i e n h o a h o p d a n toe cr Lao. - N g a y 2/12/1975, niidrc C o n g hoa D a n chij N h a n d a n L a o e h i n h thufe t h a n h lap. TCr do, nu'dc L a o btidre s a n g thcfi k i mdfi - xay difng d a t nifdrc v a p h a t t r i e n k i n h tS' - x a h o i . c. - Campuchia T i f cuoi n a m 1945 d e n n a m 1954, n h a n d a n C a m p u c h i a t i e n h a n h cuoc k h a n g c h i e n c h o n g thiTc d a n P h a p . N g a y 9/11/1953, P h a p k i h i e p Lfdre trao t r a doc l a p cho C a m p u c h i a . - TCr n a m 1954 d e n dau n a m 1970, c h i n h p h u X i h a n u e thifc h i e n d i i d n g l o i hoa b i n h t r u n g l a p . - N g a y 17/4/1975, t h u do P h n o m P e n h diioc g i a i p h o n g , cuoc k h a n g c h i e n chong M l cua n h a n d a n C a m p u c h i a k e t t h u c t h a n g l o i . - N g a y 7/1/1979, t h u do P h n o m P e n h dtfoc g i a i p h o n g k h o i che' do Khome do diet c h i i n g , C a m p u c h i a biiorc vao thcfi k i h o i s i n h , x a y d i i n g l a i d a t nxidc. - Tif n a m 1979 d e n n a m 1 9 9 1 , d C a m p u c h i a da d i e n r a cuoc n o i c h i e n keo dai hem 10 n a m giufa liic lifcfng cua D a n g N h a n d a n C a c h m a n g vdri cac phe p h a i doi l a p , chu yeu l a life l i f a n g K h o m e do. Sau cuoc t o n g t u y e n cuf t h a n g 9/1993, Quoc h o i mdri da t h o n g qua H i e n p h a p , t u y e n bo' t h a n h l a p Vuang quoc do N . X i h a n u e l a m Quoc vifOng. TC/ do, C a m p u c h i a h\i6c s a n g m o t Campuchia thcri k i m d i . 4. Q u a t r i n h x a y difng v a p h a t t r i e n c u a c a c nufdc D o n g N a m A Nhom 5 niidc sang lap ASEAN - Sau k h i g i a n h difgc doc lap, n h o m 5 nircrc sang lap A S E A N deu t i e n h a n h eong nghiep hoa, xay diftig n e n k i n h te t i i chu. Tap t r u n g day m a n h p h a t t r i e n cac n g a n h cong nghiep san xuat h a n g t i e u d u n g n o i dia t h a y t h e h a n g n h a p k h a u . - T h a n h t i i u : dap uTng difgc n h u eau cua n h a n d a n , p h a t t r i e n m o t so n g a n h che bie'n, che tao g i a i quye't n a n t h a t n g h i e p . - T i f nhufng n a m 60 - 70 t r d d i , cac ruidc n a y ehuyen s a n g c h i e n lirgc lay x u a t k h a u l a m chu dao, thifc h i e n c h i n h sach " m o cufa" n e n k i n h t e , t h u h u t v o n 9 dau tii va k i thuat cua nifdc ngoai, tap trung hang hoa de xuat khau, phat trien ngoai thi/ong. - Thanh tiAi: t i trpng cong nghiep trong nen k i n h te quoc dan da lorn han nong nghiep, mau dich ddi ngoai tang triidng nhanh. 5. SiJf r a dofi v a p h a t t r i e n c u a to c h u ! c A S E A N - A S E A N ra ddi vao nijfa sau nhufng nam 60 cua the k i XX, trong boi canh: nhau + Cac ntfdc trong k h u vifc sau k h i gianh doc lap can c6 sif hop tac vdfi phat t r i e n . Cling + H a n che anh htfong ciia cac the life ben ngoai do'i vdri khu vifc. + Su that bai ciia M l trong cuoc chien t r a n h xam lifgc Viet Nam khong the t r a n h khoi. + Cac to chufc lien ke't khu viic xuat hien ngay cang nhieu, tieu bieu la Lien m i n h chau Au. - Ngay 8/8/1967, Hiep hoi cac nifdrc Dong Nam A (ASEAN) difcfc thanh lap t a i Bang Coc (Thai Lan) v6i s\i tham gia cua 5 niidc: Indonexia, Malaixia, Xingapo, T h a i Lan va P h i l i p p i n . - Muc tieu ciia ASEAN la tien hanh hop tac giCfa cac nif6c thanh vien nhkm phat trien k i n h te va van hoa tren t i n h than duy t r i hoa binh va on dinh khu vi/c. - Nhang t h a n h tifu cua ASEAN: + Thang 2/1976, k i Hiep i/orc than thien va hop tac cf Dong Nam A (Hiep i/drc Bali) nham xac dinh nhufng nguyen tac ccf ban trong quan he giOfa cac nifcfc. + Giai quyet van de Campuchia bang cac giai phap chinh t r i , nhcf do quan he giiifa cac ni/<5c ASEAN va ba nifdrc Dong Di/ong difoc cai thien. + M d rong t h a n h vien cua ASEAN, nhat la tif nufa sau thap k i 90: Viet Nam (1995), Lao va Mianma (1997), Campuchia (1999). + A S E A N day manh boat dong hop tac k i n h te, van hoa nhkm xay ditag mot Cong dong A S E A N ve k i n h te, anh n i n h va van hoa vao nam 2015. 6. C u Q C d a u t r a n h g i a n h d o c l a p of A n D o - Sau Chien t r a n h the gidri thuf hai, cuoc dau t r a n h chong thiTc dan Anh, doi doc lap difdi sii lanh dao cua Dang Quoc dai bung len manh me. Trifdrc siifc ep cua phong trao dau t r a n h da lam cho thiTc dan A n h phai nhifong bo, hijfa se trao quyen t t i t r i cho A n Do. Tren co scr thoa thuan nay, ngay 15/8/1947, A n Do da tach thanh hai quoc gia: A n Do va Pakixtan. - Khong thoa man vdi quy che tif t r i , ngay 26/1/1950, A n Do tuyen bo' doc lap va thanh lap Nha nirdc Cong hoa. 7. C o n g C U Q C x a y dijfng d a t nvCdc d A n D p - A n Do dat difoc nhieu thanh tiTu to lorn ve nong nghiep va cong nghiep trong cong cuoc xay ditog dat nxldc. 10 - Nhd tien hanh cuoc "each mang xanh" trong nong nghiep, tii giOfa nhOfng nam 70 cua the k i XX, A n Do da tiT tuc dtfoc lifcfng thiTc va den nam 1995, la ni/(Jc xuat .khau gao dufng thijf ba t r e n the gi(5i. - Nen cong nghiep da san xuat difoc nhieu may moc nhiX may bay, tau thuy, xe hoi, dau may xe lufa.. va suf dung nang li/ang hat nhan vao san xuat dien. - Ve khoa hoc - k l thuat. A n Do dang co gang vufon len h^ng cac cufcfng quoc cong nghe phan mem, cong nghe hat nhan, cong nghe vu t r u . . . Cuoc "cAch mang chat xam" bat dau iii nhuCng nam 90 da diia A n Do t h a n h mot trong nhiJng n\idc san xuat phan mem Idfn nhat the gidri. - Ve do'i ngoai, A n Do theo duoi chlnh sach hoa b i n h , t r u n g lap tich ciic, luon luon ung ho cuoc dau t r a n h gianh doc lap cua cac dan toe. 8. D a u t r a n h g i a n h dpc lap cf c h a u P h i - Sau Chien tranh the gidi thuf hai, nhat la tii nhijfng nam 50, cuoc dau tranh gianh doc lap d i l n ra soi noi a chau Phi, khcri dau la A i Cap va L i b i thuoc Bac Phi. - Nam 1960 dtrgrc gpi la "Nam chau Phi" vdi 17 n\j6c diioc trao t r a doc lap. - Nam 1975, cac ntfotc Modambich va Angola da lat do dLfcfc ach thong t r i cua thi/c dan Bo Dao Nha. - Tii nam 1980, nhan dan Nam Rodedia va Tay Nam P h i da gianh thang loi trong cuoc dau t r a n h cho'ng che do phan biet chiing toe. - Dae biet nam 1993, t a i Nam Phi da chinh thufe xoa bo che do phan biet chung toe va thang 4/1994 da tien hanh euoc bau cuf dan chu da chijng toe dau tien: Nenxon Mandela - lanh tu ngiidi da den ndi tieng t r d t h a n h Tong thong ciia Cong hoa Nam Phi. Day la mot thang Igi c6 y nghia lich sijf, danh dau sii sup do hoan toan cua chu nghIa thiTc dan. 9. D a u t r a n h g i a n h doc lap of M i L a t i n h - Sau Chien t r a n h the gidri thuf hai. M l t i m each bien M l L a t i n h thanh "san sau" cua m i n h va xay diftig cac che do doe t a i than M l . - Cuoc dau t r a n h cho'ng che do doe t a i than M l bung no va phat t r i e n . Tieu bieu 1^ thang Igi cua each mang Cuba diidri s\i lanh dao cua Phiden Catxtoro. Ngay 1/1/1959, che do Batixta sup do, nxidc Cong hoa Cuba ra dcfi do Phiden Catxtoro dufng dau. - Vao eae th§p nien 60 - 70, phong trao dau t r a n h cho'ng M i va che do doc t ^ than M l a khu v\ic cang phat t r i e n va t h u nhieu thang Icfi. - Cao trao dau t r a n h vu trang bung no manh me d M i L a t i n h nen khu v\ic nay difOc goi la "lue dia bung chay". Phong trao dau t r a n h vu t r a n g chohg che do doc t a i d cAc ntfdte Venexuela, Goatemala, Colombia, Peru, Niearagoa, Chile, E n Xanvado... da dign ra lien tuc. 11 IV. M l , T A Y A U , N H A T B A N (1945 - 2 0 0 0 ) O MI 1. K i n h te, khoa hoc k i thu|it va chinh sach doi ngoai cua Mi (1945 a. Kinh 1973) te - Sau Chien t r a n h the gidri thuf hai, nen k i n h te M i phat t r i e n manh me: + San liigng cong nghiep chiem hern 1/2 san Itfcfng cong nghiep the' gidri. + 3/4 TriJ iLfcfng vang the gidri tSp trung d M i . + M l t r d thanh nifdrc t i i ban chii nghia giau manh nhat. - Nguyen nhan: + Lanh tho M i rong 16n, t a i nguyen thien nhien phong phu, nguon nhan liTc doi dao, t r i n h do k i thuat eao, nang dong, sang tao. + Khong bi chien t r a n h the gidri thuf hai tan pha, niidre M i yen on phat t r i e n k i n h te, lam giau nhb ban vu k h i va phUcfng tien chien t r a n h . + M i ap dung thanh tUU khoa hoe - k i thuat de nang cao nang suat lao dong. b. Khoa hoc - ki thuat - La nifdc k h d i dau cuoc each mang khoa hoc - k i thuat hien dai va da dat difoc nhieu t h a n h tifu to Idrn. - La mot trong nhiJng nLfdre di dau trong cac l i n h viie che tao cong cu san xuat mdi (may t i n h dien tuf, may t u dong); vat lieu mdfi (polime, vat lieu tong hap); nSng li/ang m6i (nang luang nguyen tuf, nhiet haeh); chinh phuc vu try (dufa ngiidi len M a t trSng nSm 1969), va di dau cuoc "each mang xanh" trong nong nghiep... c. Doi ngoai - Sau Chien t r a n h the gidri thuf hai, M i t r i e n khai chien \iiac toan cau vcri tham vong lam ba ehii the gidri. Ba mye tieu eua Chien lucfc toan cau: + Cho'ng he thong xa hoi chu nghia. + Day l u i phong trao giai phong dan toe, phong trao cong nhan, phong tr^o hoa b i n h dan ehu tren the gidri. + Khong che cac niidrc t\i ban dong m i n h phy thuoc vao M i . - De thye hien cac mye tieu chien liige tren. M i da: + Khai xydrng cuoc chien t r a n h lanh. + Tien hanh nhieu cuoc bao loan, dao chinh va cac cuoc chien t r a n h xam Itfgc, tieu bieu la cuoc chien t r a n h xam lygc Viet Nam keo dai horn 20 nSm (1954 - 1975). - Sau Chien t r a n h lanh, chinh quyen Tong thong Clinton da de ra Chien luge Cam ket va M a rong vdri ba mue tieu: + Bao dam an n i n h ciia M i vcri lye li/gng quan sy manh, sSn sang chien dau. 12 + Tang CLfcrng khoi phuc va phat t r i e n t l n h nang dong va sufc manh cua nen k i n h te M i . -• + Suf dung khaii hieu "Thiic day dan chu" de can thiep vao cong viec noi bo cua nifdrc khac. - Muc tieu bao t r u m cua M i \k muoh thiet lap t r a t tif the gidri "dcfn ciic", trong do M i trcr thanh sieu C L f d n g duy nhat, dong vai tro lanh dao the' gidfi. 2. K i n h te v a c h i n h s a c h doi ngoai ciia M i (1973 - 1991) a. Kinh te - Tii nam 1973 den nam 1982, k i n h te M l lam vao suy thoai va khiing hoang. - Tii nam 1983 trcf d i , k i n h te M l phuc hoi va phat t r i e n trcr l a i . M i van la nifdc dvjfng dau the gidi ve sufc manh k i n h te - t a i chinh. b. Doi ngoai - Sau k h i t h a t bai cf Viet Nam, M l phai k i Hiep d i n h Pari (1973) va rut quan ve niforc, cac chinh quyen M i tiep tuc trien k h a i "chien liicfc toan cau". - Vdfi hoc thuyet Rigan, M i tang ciicfng chay dua vu trang. - Tii giOfa nhCfng nam 80, M i cung L i e n X6 tuyen bo cham duft Chien t r a n h lanh, mcf ra thW k i mdri t r e n trifcfng quoc te. 3. K i n h te v a c h i n h s a c h doi ngoai c u a M i (1991 - 2000) a. Kinh te - Trong suo't thap k i 90, k i n h te M i c6 nhiJng deft suy thoai nhtfng vSn dufng dau the gidri. - Ni/drc M i tao ra 25% gia t r i tong san pham ciia toan the gidi va c6 vai tro chi phdi hau het cac to chufc k i n h te - t a i chinh quoc te. 6. Doi ngoai: Chinh quyen B. Clintcfn theo duoi ba muc tieu ccf ban cua chien lifcfc "Cam ket va md rpng". Do la: + Bao dam an n i n h ciia M i vdri liic liiong quan sif manh, sSn sang chien dau. + Tang ciidng khoi phuc va phat t r i e n t i n h nang dong va sufc manh ciia nen k i n h te M i + Sijf dung khau hieu "Thuc day dan chii" de can thiep vao cong viec noi bo cua niTdrc khac. - Sau k h i Chien t r a n h lanh ket thuc (1989), t r a t tif hai ciTc l a n t a tan ra (1991), M i t i m each viian len chi phoi, lanh dao the gidri. Tuy nhien the gidri khong bao gicf chap nhan, vu khung bo ngay 11/9/2001 da chufng to dieu do. O TAY AU 1. K i n h te v a c h i n h s a c h doi ngoai c u a T a y A u (1945 - 1973) a. Kinh te - Chien t r a n h the gidri thuf hai da de l a i cho cac niJdfc Tay Au nhieu hau qua nang ne. 13 + N h i e u t h a n h p h o , n h a m a y , b e n cang, k h u cong n g h i e p , d i / d n g giao t h o n g b i t a n p h a . H a n g t r i e u ngLfcri chet, m a t t i c h hoac b i t a n p h e . + CJ P h ^ p , n a m 1945 san x u a t cong n g h i e p c h i b a n g 3 8 % v a n o n g n g h i e p c h i b a n g 50% so vdri n a m 1938; I t a U a t o n t h a t k h o a n g 1/3 cua cai quoc gia. - T u y n h i e n , v d i sir c6' g a n g ciaa tCfng niidc v a v i e n tra k h o "Ke h o a c h M a c s a n " , d e n k h o a n g n a m 1950, cua M I t r o n g k h u o n k i n h te cac ntrdrc tu b a n Tay A u da CO b a n phuc h o i , d a t mufc tri/dc c h i e n t r a n h . - TCr t h a p n i e n 50 d e n dau nhufng n a m 70, n e n k i n h te cua cac nifdfc t U b a n chu y e u d T a y A u deu c6 s\i p h a t t r i e n n h a n h . - TCr dau t h a p n i e n 70 tror d i , T a y A u da t r d t h a n h m o t t r o n g b a t r u n g t a r n k i n h te - t a i c h i n h lorn cua t h e g i d i (cung vdfi M i va N h a t B a n ) . Cac ni/drc tii b a n chu yeu a T a y A u n h t f A n h , P h a p , C H L B Dufc, I t a l i a , T h u y D i e n , P h a n L a n . . . deu c6 n e n k h o a hoc - k i t h u a t p h a t t r i e n cao, h i e n d a i . - Sd d i cac n\idc T a y A u p h a t t r i e n k i n h te n h a n h n h i i v a y l a do m o t so yeu t o sau: + Cac ni/drc n a y da p h a t t r i e n v a ap d u n g t h a n h cong cac t h a n h tiAi cua each m a n g k h o a hoc - k l t h u a t h i e n d a i . + N h a niidc d o n g v a i t r o Idfn t r o n g viec q u a n l i , dieu t i e t , t h u c day n e n k i n h te. + Cac niidrc t i f b a n d T a y A u da t a n d u n g t o t cac ccf h o i ben ngoai n h i / nguon v i e n trcf cua M i , t r a n h t h u difcfc gia nguyen lieu re t\i cac ntfofc thupc t h e gidti thtf ba, hop tac c6 h i e u qua t r o n g k h u o n k h o cua Cong dong chau A u (EC)... + S i i n5 liic p h a n dau cua c h i n h n g i f d i d a n lao d o n g 6 cac nLfdfc n a y . b. Doi ngoai T r o n g k h u o n k h o ciia c h i e n t r a n h l a n h v a t r a t t i f the' gidri h a i cifc l a n t a , t i f nam 1950 den n a m 1973, n h i e u nLfdrc t i f b a n T a y A u m o t m a t vSn t i e p tuc c h i n h sach l i e n m i n h c h a t che v d i M i , m a t k h d c da no life mor r o n g hcfn nura q u a n he d o i n g o a i . 2. K i n h te v a c h i n h s a c h doi ngoai cika T a y A u (1973 a. Kinh 1991) te - D o tac dong cua cuoc k h u n g h o a n g n a n g l i f o n g t h e gicd, cung nhxi M i v a N h a t B a n , t i f n a m 1973 n h i e u nifcrc t i f b a n chu n g h i a cr T a y A u b i l a m vao k h i i n g hoang v a suy t h o a i hoac p h a t t r i e n k h o n g on d i n h keo d k i den dau t h a p n i e n 90. - T u y v a n l a m o t t r o n g ba t r u n g t a m k i n h te - t a i c h i n h lorn cua t h e gidri, n h i f t i g k i n h te t i f b a n chu n g h i a d T a y A u gap k h o n g i t k h o k h a n . Sif p h a t t r i e n thi/crng d i e n r a x e n k e vdfi k h u n g h o a n g , suy t h o a i vk l a m p h a t , t h a t n g h i e p . - T a y A u l u o n gap p h a i sif c a n h t r a n h quyet l i e t t i f p h i a M i , N h a t B a n cac vk nifdfc cong n g h i e p mdfi ( N I C s ) . Qua t r i n h " n h a t t h e h o a " T a y A u t r o n g k h u o n k h o C o n g d o n g c h a u Au (EC) v l n con n h i e u k h o k h a n v a trdf n g a i . 14 6. Doi - ngoai T h a n g 11/1972; viec k i k e t h i e p d i n h ve nhufng ccf sd cua q u a n he giiJa Cong hoa L i e n b a n g Dufc v a C o n g hoa D a n chu Dufc l a m cho t i n h h i n h T a y A u CO diu di. - T i e p do ve viec cac nifdc T a y A u t h a m g i a D i n h \idc H e n x i n k i ve a n n i n h v a h o p tac chau A u (1975). - T h a n g 11/1989, bufc tiforng B e c l i n b i p h a bo, sau do k h o n g l a u , nifdc DuTc da t d i t h o n g n h a t (3/10/1990). 3. K i n h te v a c h i n h s a c h doi ngoai c u a T a y A u (1991 - 2000) a. Kinh te - Bade vao d a u t h a p k i 9 0 , n e n k i n h te n h i e u nqdre T a y A u d a t r a i qua m o t dot suy t h o a i ngkn. - Tii k h o a n g 1994 trcf d i k i n h te T a y A u da bat d a u phuc h o i v a p h a t t r i e n trd lai. - T a y A u tror t h a n h m o t t r o n g b a t r u n g t a m k i n h te - t a i c h i n h t h e gidri. 6. Doi ngoai - Co sir d i e u c h i n h q u a n t r o n g t r o n g b o i c a n h c h i e n t r a n h l a n h d a k e t t h i i c , t r a t t q t h e gidri h a i cqc l a n t a t a n r a . Cu t h e : + A n h v a n duy t r i l i e n m i n h c h a t che v6i M i . + P h a p v a Dijfc trdr t h a n h nhuTng d o i t r o n g vdri M i t r o n g n h i e u v a n de quoc te quan t r o n g . + Cac nqdrc T a y A u deu chu y mdr r o n g q u a n he k h o n g c h i vcri cac nUdfc tiX ban p h a t t r i e n k h a c m a con ca v6i cac nqdrc d a n g p h a t t r i e n of A , P h i , M i L a t i n h c u n g n h q vdfi cac nqdrc D o n g A u v a L i e n X 6 cu. - Tii sau n g a y 1 1 / 9 / 2 0 0 1 , nhiJng v u k h u n g bo' ciia cac life Ixiang H o i giao cxic doan l u o n de doa n e n a n n i n h cua n h i e u nLfdrc T a y A u . 4. L i e n m i n h c h a u A u ( E U ) - N g a y 18/4 - 1 9 5 1 , 6 niidc T a y A u (gom P h a p , C H L B Dufc, I t a l i a , B i , H ^ L a n , L i i c x a m b u a ) da t h a n h l a p " C o n g d o n g T h a n - T h e p chau A u " . - N g a y 25/3/1957, 6 nifdrc n a y l a i k i H i e p qdrc R o m a , t h a n h l a p " C o n g d o n g N a n g l i / q n g n g u y e n tuf chau A u " v a " C o n g d o n g K i n h te chau A u " ( E E C ) . - D e n n g a y 1/7/1967, ba to chufc t r e n da difqc h o p n h a t l a i t h a n h "Cong dong chau A u " ( E C ) , v a t h a n g 1 2 / 1 9 9 1 , cac nJofc t h a n h v i e n E C da k i b a n H i e p qdtc M a x t r i c h ( H a L a n ) , c6 h i e u lUc tii 1/1/1993, d o i t e n t h a n h L i e n m i n h chau Au (EU). - T r o n g t h a n g 6/1979, da di§n r a cupc b a u cijf N g h i v i e n chau A u dau t i e n . T h a n g 3/1995, 7 mrdrc E U h u y bo viec k i e m soat d o i v d i viec d i l a i cija cong d a n cdc nudrc n a y qua b i e n gidri cua n h a u . N g a y 1/1/1999, d o n g t i e n c h u n g chau A u ( E U R O ) da difoc c h i n h thufc dua vao suf d u n g d 11 nqdrc E U . 15 - NhiJ vay, den cuo'i thap k i 90, E U da tror thanh to chufc lien ket chinh t r i k i n h te vao hang lorn nhat hanh t i n h , chie'm khoang hcfn 1/4 nang life san xuat cua toan the gidri. O NHAT BAN 1. K i n h te v a c h i n h s a c h d o i n g o a i c i i a N h a t B a n (1945 - 1973) a. Kinh te - Trong thcfi k i h i chiem dong (1945 - 1952), SCAP da thifc hien ba cuoc cai each Idn: + Thu tieu che do k i n h te tap trung, trifdc het la giai tan cac "Daibatxu" (eac tap doan, cong t i doc quyen con mang nhieu t i n h chat dong toe). + Cai each ruong dat, quy dinh dia chtj chi difcfc so hufu khong qua 3 hecta ruong, so' con lai C h i n h phii dem ban cho nong dan. + Dan chu hoa lao dong, thong qua va thifc hien cac dao luat ve lao dong. - Tif nam 1952 den nam 1960, k i n h te Nhat Ban c6 bifdc phat trien nhanh. Tif nam 1960 den nam 1973, k i n h te Nhat bifcfc vao giai doan phat trien "than k i " . - Tif dau nhOfng nam 70 tror d i , Nhat Ban trcr thanh mot trong ba trung tam k i n h te - t a i chinh Idm eiia the gidi (cung vdri M i va Tay Au). - Nhat Ban rat coi trong phat t r i e n giao due va khoa hoc - k l thuat, luon t i m each day nhanh sii phat t r i e n bang each mua bang phat m i n h sang ehe". - Nguyen nhan phat t r i e n k i n h te cua Nhat Ban: + (3 N h a t Ban, con ngiicji difge coi la von quy nha't, nhan to' quye't dinh hang dau. + Vai tro lanh dao, quan l i c6 hieu qua cua Nha nifdrc. + Che do l a m viec suo't dcfi, che do hifcfng lifong theo tham nien va chu nghia nghiep doan x i nghiep difge coi la ba "kho bau thieng lieng" lam cho ede cong t i CO sufc manh va t i n h canh t r a n h cao. + Nhat Ban biet ap dung eac thanh tifu khoa hoc - k l thuat hien dai de nang eao nang sua't, chat lifgrng, ha gia thanh san pham. + Chi phi cho quoc phong eua Nhat ban tha'p. + Nhat Ban da tan dung tot cac ye'u to' ben ngoai de phat t r i e n nhif tranh thu cac nguon vien t r g ciia M l sau chien t r a n h , difa vao M i ve mat quan sif de giam chi phi quoc phong, Igi dung cac cuoc chie'n t r a n h a Trieu Tien (1950 1953) va Viet Nam (1954 - 1975) de lam giau. - Tuy nhien, nen k i n h te Nhat Ban vSn phai doi mat vdri nhufng thach thufc: + L a n h tho Nhat Ban khong rong, dan so dong, t a i nguyen khoang san rat ngheo nan, thieu nguyen, nhien lieu. + Co cau viing k i n h te cua Nhat Ban thieu can doi, tap trung chu ye'u vao ba trung tam la Tokiq, Oxaca va Nagoia. i-'^UHT iJ:«U . . . . . . . . ' + Nhat Ban luon gap sir canh t r a n h quyet liet cua M l , Tay Au, cac niidrc cong nghiep m6i (NIGs). 6. Doi ngog,i - Nhat Ban chii triiang lien m i n h chat che vori M i , Nhat sdm k i ket Hiep \i6c hoa binh Xan Phranxico (8/9/1951), cham duft che do chiem dong cua Dong minh vao nSm 1952. - Cung ngay, Hiep xidc A n n i n h Nhat - M l di/Oc k i ke't, dat nen tang cho cho he giufa hai nUdc. Theo do, Nhat Ban chap nhan siT bao ho hat nhan cua M l , de cho M l dong quan va xay difng can quan sU t r e n lanh tho Nhat Ban. - Nhat Ban lien m i n h chat che vdri M i . Hiep i/drc an n i n h M l - Nhat k i nam 1951 C O gia t r i 10 nam, sau do c6 gia t r i v i n h vien. - Nam 1956, Nhat Ban da b i n h thtfdng hoa quan he ngoai giao vdri Lien X6 va cung trong nam nay Nhat Ban thanh thanh vien cua Lien hgp quoc. CIJT 2. K i n h te v a c h i n h s a c h doi ngoai ciia N h a t B a n (1973 a. Kinh 1991) te - Sau giai doan phat t r i e n than k i , do tac dong ciia cuoc khung hoang nang lugng the gidri, tif nam 1973 trcf d i , sir phat t r i e n k i n h te ciia Nhat Ban thtfcfng xen ke vdri nhOrng giai doan suy thodi. - Tif nijfa sau nhSng nam 80, Nhat Ban da viTcfn len t h a n h sieu ciicfng t a i chinh so mot the gidi vdri lugng dii trOf vang va ngoai te gap 3 Ian cua M i . Nhat Ban cung la chu no Idm nhat the gidri. b. Doi ngoai - Vdri sufc manh k i n h te - t a i chinh ngay cang lorn, tii nijfa sau nhOfng nam 70, Nhat Ban co gang di/a ra chinh sach do'i ngoai mdri nhxi "hoc thuyet PhucLTda" (1977) va "Hoc thuyet Kaiphu" (1991). - Nhat Ban thiet lap quan he ngoai giao vdri Viet Nam ngay 21/9/1973. 3. K i n h te v a c h i n h s a c h doi ngoai c u a N h a t B a n (1991 - 2000) a. Kinh te - Trong thap nien 90, du c6 suy thoai k i n h te nhiTng Nhat Ban van la mot trong ba trung tam k i n h te - t a i chinh ciia the gidri. - Ve khoa hoc - k i thuat, Nhat Ban tie'p tuc phat t r i e n t r i n h do cao. T i n h den nam 1992 Nhat Ban da phong 49 ve t i n h va hgp tac c6 hieu qua vcJi M l , Nga trong cac chiTong t r i n h vu t r u quoc te. h. Doi ngoai - Tiep tuc duy t r i lien m i n h chat che vdi M l . - Coi trong quan he vdri Tay Au va md rong boat dong do'i ngoai vdri cac doi tac khac tren pham v i toan cau. - Tir dau nhijfng nam 90, Nhat Ban no life vifcfn len t h a n h mot ciTcfng quoc chinh t r i de xufng dang vdi vVIi the kinht£cua_aurih. tne sieu sieu ctfcfng C U C f n g k i n h t.p min 17 V. QUAN HE QUOC TE (1945 - 2000) 1. M a u t h u S n D o n g - T a y v a s^i khcfi d a u c h i e n t r a n h l a n h - Sau C h i e n t r a n h t h e gidri thiif h a i , h a i cifcfng quoc L i e n X 6 v a M i n h a n h c h o n g c h u y e n s a n g t h e doi dau, dan dan di tdi t i n h t r a n g c h i e n t r a n h l a n h . - T n i d c h e t , do l a sii doi lap n h a u ve muc t i e u v a chien li/crc giCfa h a i CLTcfng quoc. + L i e n X 6 c h u trUcfng duy t r i h o a b i n h a n n i n h t h e gidri, bao ve nhufng t h a n h qua cua c h i i n g h i a x a h o i v a d a y m a n h p h o n g t r a o each m a n g t h e gidi. + Ngtfcfc l a i . M i r a sufc c h o n g p h a L i e n X 6 v a cac nLfdc x a h o i chu n g h i a , di.y l u i p h o n g t r a o each m a n g n h S m t h i f c h i e n mifu do b a c h u t h e gidi. - N h i m g c u n g sau c h i e n t r a n h . M i da vLfcrn l e n t h a n h m o t niTdc tit b a n giau m a n h n h a t , virgt x a cac ntfdc t t f b a n k h a c , n d m doc q u y e n v u k h i n g u y e n ttf. M i tiT cho m i n h c6 q u y e n l a n h dao t h e gidri. - Stf k i e n dtfOe x e m l a k h d i dau cho c h i n h sach c h o n g L i e n X 6 gay n e n t i n h t r a n g C h i e n t r a n h l a n h cua M i l a b a n t h o n g diep cua T o n g t h o n g T r u m a n gijfi Quoc h o i M i n g a y 12/3/1947. - V a o dau t h a n g 6/1947, M i de r a " k e h o a c h M a c s a n " . N g a y 4/4/1949, M i t h ^ n h l a p kho'i q u a n stf - t o chufc H i e p ifdrc BSc D a i T a y Dtfcfng ( N A T O ) . - Tri/drc nhOfng b o a t d o n g de doa do, n h a t l a viec t h a m g i a ciaa C H L B Dufc vac N A T O , t h a n g 5/1955 L i e n X 6 v a cac nxidc D o n g A u ( A n b a n i , B a L a n , H u n g g a r i , B u n g a r i , C H D C Dufc, T i e p K h a c , R u m a n i ) da t h a n h l a p t o chdfc H i e p ifdc V a c s a v a , m o t l i e n m i n h c h i n h t r i - q u a n stf m a n g t i n h c h a t p h o n g t h u cua c^c ntfdc x a h o i chti n g h i a chau A u . - Stf r a dcfi ciia N A T O v a t o chufc H i e p tfdrc V a c s a v a l a nhufng stf k i e n cuo'i c t m g d a n h dau stf xac l a p cua cue dien h a i ctfc, h a i p h e . C h i e n t r a n h l a n h da bao t r t i m ca t h e gidri. 2. X u the h o a h o a n D o n g - T a y v a c h i e n t r a n h l a n h c h a m dvLt - D a u nhijfng n a m 70 xu htfdmg h o a h o a n D o n g - T a y da x u a t h i e n vdri nhufng cuoc gap gdr thtfcfng Itfcfng X 6 - M i . + N g a y 9/11/1972, h a i nifdrc Dufc: C o n g h o a D a n c h u v a C o n g hoa L i e n b a n g da k i k e t t a i B o n H i e p d i n h ve nhijfng ccr sd cua q u a n he giufa D o n g Dufc va T a y Dufc. + C u n g t r o n g n a m 1972, h a i sieu ctfcrng L i e n X 6 , M i da t h o a t h u a n ve viec h a n che vu k h i c h i e n Itfcfc v a k i H i e p tfdrc ve viec h a n che he t h o n g p h o n g c h o n g t e n lufa ( A B M ) , sau do l a H i e p d i n h h a n che v u k h i t i e n cong c h i e n Itfdc (goi t a t l a S A L T - 1 ) . + D a u t h a n g 8/1975, 33 ntfdrc chau A u c i i n g vdi M i , C a n a d a da k i k e t D i n h tfdrc H e n x i n k i , k h i n g d i n h nhufng n g u y e n tac t r o n g q u a n he giufa cac quoc 18 gia nhif b i n h d i n g , chu quyen, siT ben vuTng cua difdng bi^n gidi, giai quyet hoa binh cac t r a n h chap.- - Tii dau nhOtng nam 70, h a i sieu ctfcfng X6 - M i da tie'n hanh nhiftig cuoc gap cap cao, nhat la txi nSm 1985 k h i Go6cbachdp len cam quyen d L i e n X6. - Thang 12/1989, trong cuoc gap khong chinh thOfc t a i dao Manta (Dia Trung Hai). Tdng B i thtf Dang Cong san Lien X6 Goocbachop Tdng thong M l Buscf da chinh thijfc cung tuyen bo' cham duft Chien t r a n h lanh. - Chien t r a n h lanh cham duft da md ra nhieu hirdng nhOfng dieu kien giai quyet hoa b i n h cac vu t r a n h chap, xung dot dang dien r a a nhieu k h u viTc tren the gidri. 3. T h e gidri s a u c h i e n t r a n h l a n h - Sau nhieu nam t r i tre va khung hoang keo dai, tcri nhOCng nam 1989 - 1991 che do xa hoi chu nghia da b i tan ra d cac nifcfc Dong Au va Lien bang X6 viet. - Ngay 28/6/1991, H o i dong Ttfcfng trcf K i n h te (SEV) tuyen b d giai the va sau do ngay 1/7/1991, t d chufc Hiep lidc Vdcsava cham duTt boat dong. Vdri "ciTc" Lien Xd tan ra, the "hai ciic" cua hai sieu cifcfng khong c6n niJa, M i la "cxic" duy nhat con l a i . - Tii sau nam 1991, t i n h h i n h the' gidri da dien ra nhOTng thay ddi to \6n va phufc tap. Mot la, t r a t tiT the gidri hai ciTc da sup do nhung t r a t tiT thg' gidri mdri l a i dang trong qua t r i n h h i n h thanh. Hai la, sau Chien t r a n h lanh, hau nhtf cac qud'c gia deu dieu chinh chien lifoc phat t r i e n , tap trung vao phat t r i e n k i n h te. Ba la, sif tan ra ciia Lien X6 da tao cho M i mot \ai the tarn thcfi. Gidi cam quyen M l ra sufc thiet lap t r a t tiT the gi(Ji mot ciTc de M i lam ba chu the gidri. Bon Id, sau Chien t r a n h l a n h , hoa b i n h the gidri di/gc cung cd, nhuiig or nhieu khu vifc t i n h h i n h l a i khong dn d i n h w6i nhOfng cuoc ndi chien, xung dot quan sii d i m mau keo dai. - Btfdrc sang the k i X X L vdri sif tien t r i e n ciia xu the hoa b i n h , hcfp tac vk phat trien, cac dan toe h i vong ve mot ti/cfng lai tdt dep cua loai ngiXcfi. CACH MANG KHOA H O C - C O N G NGHE VA XU THE TOAN CAU HOA I 1. C u Q C e a c h m a n g k h o a h o c - c o n g n g h ^ a. Nguon goc - Do nhOfng doi hoi cua cuoc sdhg, cua san xuat nhSm dap dfng nhu cau vSt chat va t i n h than ngay cang cao ciia con ngUcfi. - Do t i n h h i n h bung nd dan so the gidri v^ siT vcfi can nghiem trong cac nguon tki nguyen t h i e n nhien. 19 - NhCfng doi hoi bufc thiet do dat ra cho cuoc each mang khoa hoc - k l thuat phai giai quyet, trifdrc het la che tao va t i m kiem nhuTng cong cu san xuat mdri c6 k l thuat va nang suat cao, tao ra nhOfng vat lieu m6i. b. Dac diem - Khoa hoc t r d thanh liTc Itrgng san xuat triTc tiep, khac vori cuoc each mang cong nghiep the k i X V I I I . - Trong cuoc each mang khoa hoc - k l thuat hien dai, moi phat minh k i thuat deu b ^ t nguon t\i nghien cufu khoa hoc. Khoa hoc gSn lien vdfi k i thuat, khoa hoe di tri/drc ma di/cfng cho san xuat. - H a n che: + Gay nen t i n h t r a n g 6 nhigm moi tnicrng. + Gay ra nhuTng t a i nan lao dong va giao thong, cac loai dich benh mdri... + Viec che tao nhCfng loai vu k h i hien dai c6 the tieu diet nhieu Ian s\i song tren hanh t i n h . 2. X u the t o a n c a u hoa v a a n h hx;^cfng c i i a no - Mot he qua quan trong cua each mang khoa hoc - cong nghe la tCr dau nhttng nam 80 cua the k i XX, nhat la sau chien t r a n h lanh, t r e n the gidi da d i l n ra xu the toan cau hoa. - Xet ve ban chat, toan cau hoa la qua t r i n h tang len manh me nhiirng moi lien he, nhuTng anh hiidng tac dong Ian nhau, phu thuoc iSn nhau cua tat ca cac khu vac, cac quoc gia, cac dan toe t r e n the gidi. - NhOfng bieu hien chu yeu cua xu the toan cau hoa ngay nay la: + Sii phat t r i e n nhanh chong ciia quan he thiTdng mai quoc te. + Sir phat t r i e n va tac dong to Idn ciia cac cong t i xuyen quoc gia. + Sir sap nhap va hap nhat cac cong t i thanh nhCng tap doan Idn. + Sii ra ddi cua cac to chdc lien ket k i n h te, thifcfng mai, t a i chinh quoc te va khu viTc. - Toan cau hoa la thdi cd lich suf. Do viTa la cd hoi rat to Idn cho sy phat t r i e n manh me cua cac nifdc, dong thdi cung tao ra thach thufc la neu bo Id thdi cd t h i se bi tut hau rat xa. - Viet N a m cung nSm trong xu the chung do. Dai hoi Dang Ian t h d IX da khang dinh: "NSm bat cd hoi, viTdt qua thach thdc, phat t r i e n manh me trong thdi k i mdi, do la van de c6 y nghia song con doi vdi Dang va nhan dan ta". .... I NHAN DjNH C H U N G V E UCH S L T T H E G l d l TlS S A U C H I E N T R A N H T H E G i d l THUf HAI D E N NAM 2000 1. NhiXng noi d u n g c h i i y e u - Sau Chien t r a n h the gidi thuf hai, mot t r a t tif the gidi da difdc xac lap. Do \k t r a t tiT the gidi hai ciic l a n t a vdi dac triftig noi bat la the gidi nhif phan doi. 20
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