Learners’ attitudes towards the importance of web searching in studying interpreting the case of english translation & interpreting-majored senior students at can tho university

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CAN THO UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES ENGLISH DEPARTMENT GRADUATION THESIS Major: ENGLISH TRANSLATION AND INTERPRETING LEARNERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE IMPORTANCE OF WEB SEARCHING IN STUDYING INTERPRETING: THE CASE OF ENGLISH TRANSLATION & INTERPRETING-MAJORED SENIOR STUDENTS AT CAN THO UNIVERSITY SUPERVISOR STUDENT TRƯƠNG THỊ NGỌC ĐIỆP, M.Ed NGUYỄN THỊ PHƯƠNG THẢO STUDENT’S CODE: 7107103 CLASS: NN10Z8A1 COURSE: 36 Can Tho, May, 2014 STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY I certify that the intellectual content of this thesis is the product of my own work, and it has not been submitted for any other degrees. All of sources I have used or quoted have been indicated and acknowledged by completed references. Nguyễn Thị Phương Thảo May, 2014 . i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In order to complete this study, I have received support of many people. Therefore, I am thankful to all of them. First of all, I would like to express my sincere thanks to my supervisor, Mrs. Truong Thi Ngoc Diep, who has given me valuable comments as well as devoted her valuable time to correct my thesis. Without her dedicated guidance and support, this thesis could not be completed. Next, I would like to take opportunity to express my deepest gratitude to Ms. Ngo Tu Phuong, who supported me for data analysis with Statistic Package for Social Sciences. I would like to acknowledge the encouragement and strong support from my beloved family, especially my mother. Without their support, I could not have enough perseverance in the face of difficulties during the period of conducting this study. Then, I also wish to express my appreciation to my classmates for their encouragement. Finally, I also wish to thank all participants of thesis for their support. Without their assistance, I could not complete my thesis. ii TABLE OF CONTENTS STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY ...................................................................... i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .................................................................................... ii TABLE OF CONTENTS ..................................................................................... iii LIST OF CHARTS AND TABLES ......................................................................vi TÓM LƯỢC .........................................................................................................vii ABSTRACT........................................................................................................ viii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ..........................................................................1 1.1. Rationale........................................................................................................1 1.2. Research objectives and significance..............................................................3 1.3. Thesis organization ........................................................................................3 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW ..............................................................5 2.1. An overview of the aspects regarding interpretation.......................................5 2.1.1. Definitions...............................................................................................5 2.1.2. Types of interpretation.............................................................................6 2.1.3. Consecutive interpretation .......................................................................7 2.1.4. Simultaneous interpretation .....................................................................7 2.1.5 The cycle of interpretation........................................................................7 2.2. An overview of Web searching ......................................................................8 2.2.1. Definition ................................................................................................8 iii 2.2.2. Types of Web searching ..........................................................................8 2.3. The importance of Web searching skills in interpreting process .....................9 2.4. Recent studies on Web searching .................................................................10 2.4.1. Attitudes towards Web searching...........................................................10 2.4.2. Experience in using Web searching .......................................................12 2.4.3. Web searching skills..............................................................................12 2.4.4. Web usage purposes ..............................................................................15 2.4.5. Web searching engines ..........................................................................15 2.4.6. Frequency of practicing Web searching .................................................16 2.5. Research questions.......................................................................................17 2.6. Research hypothesis.....................................................................................17 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ................................................18 3.1. Research design ...........................................................................................18 3.2. Participants ..................................................................................................18 3.3. Materials......................................................................................................18 3.4. Data collection .............................................................................................20 3.5. Data analysis................................................................................................20 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS, DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION .......................21 4.1. Research results ...........................................................................................21 4.1.1. Students’ attitudes towards Web searching ............................................21 4.1.2. The different levels of sophistication in Web searching performance.....22 iv 4.1.3. Frequency of practicing Web searching skills ........................................23 4.2. Discussion....................................................................................................24 4.3. Conclusion...................................................................................................25 CHAPTER 5: LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ........................27 5.1. Limitations...................................................................................................27 5.2. Recommendations........................................................................................27 5.3. Directions for further research......................................................................28 REFERENCES .....................................................................................................29 APPENDICES ......................................................................................................32 APPENDIX A – QUESTIONNAIRE .................................................................32 APPENDIX B – QUESTIONNAIRE..................................................................35 APPENDIX C – SPSS DATA ............................................................................38 v LIST OF CHARTS AND TABLES Chart 1: Overall mean comparison of Web searching skills .......................................22 Chart 2: Frequency of practicing Web searching skills ..............................................23 Table 1: The cycle of interpretation .............................................................................7 Table 2: Types of Web searching skills ........................................................................8 Table 3: Demographic characteristics of participants ...............................................18 Table 4: Students’ attitudes towards Web searching ..................................................21 Table 5: Overall mean of students’ attitudes towards Web searching ........................22 vi TÓM LƯỢC Nghiên cứu này nhằm xác định thái độ của sinh viên chuyên ngành Biên-Phiên dịch tiếng Anh thuộc đại học Cần Thơ hướng về tầm quan trọng của việc tìm kiếm thông tin thông qua Web trong quá trình học phiên dịch. Ngoài ra, nghiên cứu cũng được mở rộng để xác định khả năng của sinh viên trong khi áp dụng các kỹ năng tìm kiếm thông tin thông qua Web cũng như là sinh viên có thường áp dụng các kỹ năng này thường xuyên hay không. Dữ liệu được thu thập từ bảng câu hỏi và được phân tích bằng phần mềm thống kê xã hội học SPSS. Đối tượng tham gia trong nghiên cứu này là 75 sinh viên năm cuối chuyên ngành Biên-Phiên dịch tiếng Anh trực thuộc khoa Khoa học xã hội và nhân văn, trường đại học Cần Thơ. Nhìn chung, kết quả nghiên cứu cho thấy đa số sinh viên đều có thái độ tích cực đối với việc tìm kiếm thông tin thông qua Web. Kết quả cũng cho thấy rằng sinh viên thích sử dụng kỹ năng tìm kiếm thông tin đơn giản hơn là các kỹ năng tìm kiếm thông tin nâng cao và thường áp dụng các kỹ năng này vào mỗi tuần trong quá trình học phiên dịch. vii ABSTRACT This study aims to identify the attitudes of English Translation and Interpretingmajored students towards the importance of Web searching in studying interpreting at Can Tho University. Furthermore, this study also identifies how well students use Web searching skills as well as how often they practice these skills. Data was collected from a closed-ended questionnaire consisting of eight Likert-scale items, and was analyzed by Statistic Package for Social Sciences Software (SPSS). The participants of the study were seventy-five senior students majoring in English Translation and Interpreting, School of Social Sciences and Humanities, Can Tho University. In general, the findings of this study indicated that the majority of students had positive attitudes towards web searching. The findings also showed that students preferred using simple searching skills to using advanced searching skills, and they often apply these skills weekly in studying interpreting. viii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION This chapter presents (1) the rationale of the current study, (2) research objectives, and significance, and (3) thesis organization. 1.1. Rationale Nowadays, in order to make communication easier among countries, English has been regarded as the most popular means of exchanging information; therefore, more and more people want to and can master this language. In fact, in international meetings and congresses, English is more often used than other languages. However, to become a good interpreter is a big challenge of many people because a professional interpreter must spend much time on unceasingly developing both knowledge and experience. Besides, apart from fluency in language, professional skills need to be improved for successful interpreting. One of those skills is Web searching. By surfing the Internet, people can know everything about news, information, culture, and other things. Raido (2011) assumes that “Web-based resources have become an indispensable tool for both professional translators and student translators” (p.58). In fact, searching information on the Web is necessary for interpreting assignments. In recent years, Web searching, considered a popular issue, has been studied by many researchers. Martzoukou (2008) conducts a study to identify students’ attitudes towards web searching engines. The study explores the information-seeking behavior of postgraduate students who have spent two to three years to encounter the use of Web searching engines. The aim of this study is to examine users’ satisfaction with information searching results when using Web searching engines. In general, the participants have positive attitudes with searching information on the Web. Similarly, Sife (2013) also conducts a survey to assess Web search behavior of postgraduate students who have had at least five-year experiences of applying Web 1 searching at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. The results of this survey report that the majority of participants have positive attitudes towards Web searching. Nearly all of them perform basic searching skill to serve for their research. Yusuf and Balogun (2011) also conduct a similar study to identify participants’ attitudes towards information and communication technology (ICT) in a Nigerian University, yet the participants in this study are teacher-students. The findings of the study also indicate that the participants have positive attitudes toward ICTs. Malik and Mahmood (2009) explore this issue from a similar perspective yet with different participant. This study surveys undergraduates. The findings of this study reveal that students apply Web searching to many aspects, especially for academic tasks. Nearly all participants prefer using Google to using other Web engines, and they usually perform basic search as well as satisfy with retrieved information. Specifically, Raido (2011) also researches in translator training. His research focuses on developing online information literacy in translator training. First of all, he emphasizes the importance of information skills, especially Web searching skills. Secondly, this research concentrates on the development of information skills used for problem solving in field of expertise. Finally, Raido shows that the demand for seeking, using and generating the information involving in translation depends on the type of users, and performance of translation. The findings of this study show that Web searching is necessary for training translators. The participants can produce the translations with high quality when they apply Web searching to expand their knowledge about both linguistic and extra-linguistic. Dogoriti (2010) also conducts a study to identify perceptions and attitudes towards Web-based ELT (English Language Teaching) among English teachers in Greece. In order to identify attitudes of teachers, a questionnaire including 40 questions is used for a survey. The goal of this study is to explore the attitudes of English teachers in primary education towards web-based ELT. The results of this study report that most English teachers consider that Web searching can supply resources and activities in 2 their teaching English. Another study conducted by Mahmood (2010) also reports similar findings with the above-mentioned studies. Most library and information professionals have positive attitudes towards facilities and services on the Internet because they find that these tools are useful for them in their work. In Can Tho University (CTU), all first-year students are instructed to apply Web searching to their academic work. However, there have not been any research projects exploring the students’ attitudes towards Web searching during the period of studying in CTU. Many studies have conducted (Hong et al., 2003; Martzoukou, 2008; Dogoriti, 2010; Mahmood, 2010; Yusufuf and Blogun, 2011; Sife, 2013), but there has not any research on English Translation and Interpreting students’ attitudes towards the Web searching in CTU. Therefore, the current study is conducted to identify learners’ attitudes towards the importance Web searching in their studying translation and interpreting in CTU. 1.2. Research objectives and significance The first aim of study is to identify the attitudes of senior students majoring in English Translation and Interpreting from School of Social Sciences and Humanities, CTU towards the importance of Web searching in their study. The second is to identify if there are different levels of sophistication in their performing Web searching skills. Finally, it is to identify how often students practice Web searching skills. The results of this study may provide useful reference. This study is expected to help raise students’ awareness of the importance of Web searching in studying interpreting. Teacher might regard this study as a proposal to reinforce and integrate web searching skills with their teaching. The findings of this study may be used as a reference for someone who is concerned about this issue. 1.3. Thesis organization 3 The thesis is divided into five chapters: (1) Introduction, (2) Literature review, (3) Research methodology, (4) Results, discussion, and conclusion, (5) Limitations, and recommendations. In Chapter One, firstly, the background information and reasons for conducting the thesis are presented. Then, research objectives and significance are introduced. Thesis organization is the last part of this chapter. Chapter Two- Literature review provides definitions of terms used in the thesis, and an overview of the recent studies. Research questions are also provided in this chapter, and the last part of this chapter is research hypothesis. Chapter Three focuses on research methodology, which describes the research designs, participants, and research procedure. In addition, this chapter also describes the instruments and data collection in detail. Chapter Four reports the findings of the questionnaire responses analyzed by SPSS. In the chapter, a summary of the main results of the thesis is provided. Additionally, further discussion of the results in comparison with the results of previous studies is also given. The last part of the chapter is conclusion. Chapter Five, the limitations of the study are included. Then recommendations and directions for further research are provided. 4 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter reviews some theories related to interpreting as well as the findings concerned with Web searching of the previous studies. It includes the following sections: (1) an overview of the aspects regarding interpretation, (2) an overview of Web searching, (3) the importance of web searching skills in interpreting process, (4) recent studies on web searching, (5) research questions, and (6) hypothesis of the thesis. 2.1. An overview of the aspects regarding interpretation 2.1.1. Definitions. In recent years, in order to meet demands for communicating among various countries, interpreting is more and more developed, so many studies have been conducted. As a result, many researchers have proposed definitions of interpreting from different viewpoints. “Interpretation can be defined in a nutshell as conveying understanding. Its usefulness stems from the fact that a speaker’s meaning is best expressed in his or her native tongue but is best understood in the languages of the listeners” (Nolan, 2005:2). Pochhacker (2004) shows, “interpreting is a form of translation in which a first and final rendition in another language is produced on the basic of one-presentation of a source language utterance” (p.25). As Dang (1997 cited in Truong, 2013:3) indicates that interpreting is rendering information and ideas from one language into another language by means of speaking. Interpreters are concerned with the spoken words. They convey orally whether to an individual or a group meaning of the spoken words, from one language to another. In general, the above definitions show that interpreting is to convey information or ideas from the source language into the target language orally. In this study, the third definition is chosen because it is in line with the issue researched in this thesis. 5 2.1.2. Types of interpretation According to JR Language-Translation Services, INC. (2012), interpretation is classified into six categories. (1) Simultaneous interpretation is a form the interpreter sits in soundproof booth and wears headphones to translate the message of the speaker as fast as possible at the same time when the speaker is uttering his/her words. (2) Consecutive interpretation is a form the interpreter starts interpreting as soon as the speaker finishes his/her speech. While the speaker is presenting, the interpreter listens to the speaker, and take notes. Besides, in order to have a good performance, he/she must have good memory. (3) Whispered interpretation is a type of simultaneous interpretation. The interpreter sits or stands near the listener, and whispers the message of the speaker. (4) Liaison interpretation is a type of consecutive interpretation. However, in this interpreting form, instead of conveying the message of one speaker, the interpreter conveys the message of many speakers in the conversations. (5) Relay interpretation – an interpreter listens to the source language of the speaker, and renders the message into a common language to all other interpreters. (6) Sight interpretation is a form which the interpreter transform a written text into an oral. This type of interpretation is more frequently used in hospitals and courts. Although interpretation is divided into different categories, consecutive interpretation and simultaneous interpretation are regarded as the most common categories (Nolan, 2005; Nguyen, 2007). According to Nolan (2005), interpretation is classified into two main types. They are consecutive interpretation and simultaneous interpretation. 6 2.1.3. Consecutive interpretation A consecutive interpreter is required to have both good memory and good note-taking technique. While the speaker is presenting in the source language, the interpreter listens to the speaker, takes notes, and then reproduces the speech in the target language. 2.1.4. Simultaneous interpretation A simultaneous interpreter usually sits in a soundproof booth, wears headphone to listen to the speaker, and reproduce the speech in the target language by speaking into the microphone when the speaker is delivering his/her speech in the source language. 2.1.5 The cycle of interpretation According to Dang (1997), a list of important stages is applied during the process of interpreting (as cited in Truong, 2013: 20) Table 1: The cycle of interpreting Key points Objectives Learners will be able To discuss what they have to go through Before taking the task of interpreting concerning the formalities necessary before accepting the interpreting assignment Preparing for the assignment To apply searching skills in finding appropriate materials and in preparing the glossary for the job During the interpreting assignment To make a decision related to the seating/standing position; to apply guideline on the use audio equipment, to monitor one’s non-verbal behaviors (as a public figure) To After the assignment 7 apply practical guideline on confidentiality; to plan for upcoming events (e.g. to update the glossary) 2.2. An overview of Web searching 2.2.1. Definition Web searching or Web-based information search is a form of searching information on the Internet. In addition, it is also referred as information behavior, information seeking, information-seeking behavior, information retrieval, and interactive information retrieval (Raido, 2011). 2.2.2. Types of web searching Notess (2007) divides Web searching into four basic categories: directory, Boolean searching, phrase searching and truncation Table 2: Types of web searching skills Types of Web Definitions searching skills A directory is a classified list of websites. It lists websites by the category names, site titles, and brief 1 Directory site description. Most of web directory entries are done by humans. Directories usually include only one main page per website. 2 3 Phrase searching Boolean searching (Boolean operators) Phrase searching means putting quotation marks around the precise phrase for which users are looking. Boolean searching allows users to combine words and phrases by using the words AND, OR and NOT to limit, widen and define users’ search. 8 Truncation is the ability to search just a portion of a word, typically using a symbol. The symbol is also 4 Truncation often called a wild card. For example, searching with colleg* may find many related words, such as college, colleges, collegiums and collegial. Apart from the four above-mentioned categories, Bach (2013) suggests another way of classifying Web searching, namely basic search, query modifiers and combined search. (1) Basic search is a skill that users have to choose appropriate keywords involving in the contents they want to seek. (2) Query modifiers means searching information based on intitle and filetype. o Filetype search means combining a keyword with types of file for which the users are looking. Types of file are able to be “.pdf, .doc, .xls, .ppt”. o Intile is used to search the websites with titles containing keywords. (3) Combined search is defined that combining many types of syntax to limit the results the users are searching. 2.3. The importance of Web searching skills in interpreting process When taking interpreting assignment for an event, the interpreters must have a good preparation. In other words, they have to study the topic, get and select the important information for up-coming conference (Nguyen, 2007). Thus, finding information sources plays an important role because the information helps interpreters have better preparation for upcoming conference and better performance during the conference. As Dang (1997 as cited in Truong, 2013) assumes that before taking the task of interpreting, interpreters need to prepare conference documents, background information, terminology resources or glossaries, and the pre-conference briefing. All 9 of these are usually posted on the Internet, or sent via e-mail. Moreover, he suggests that after the conference, the interpreter should update their own glossary on their computer, and add their handwriting entries with useful information which they have made during the conference. 2.4. Recent studies on Web searching Although many studies are conducted at the different period of time, with various participants, or via either questionnaires, interviews or experimental sites, most of them share some common aspects, such as users’ experience with web, purpose of use, Web searching skills, frequency of using Web search, favorite Web searching engine and users’ attitudes towards Web searching. 2.4.1. Attitudes towards Web searching Six studies were found on users’ opinions on the importance of Web searching in their study. Although these studies explored the issue with various participants like students, post-graduate students, or teachers, most of studies concluded that the participants had positive attitudes towards Web searching. Especially, the findings collected from a survey by Sife on 126 postgraduate students at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania in 2013 showed that 80.6% of participants strongly agreed that Web services were very necessary for their academic work. Similarly, 91.1% of participants considered that they preferred Web resources to printed ones. About 79.7% of them disagreed that they could avoid the use of the Web and still perform better. From the findings of this survey, Sife concluded that most of participants had positive attitudes towards Web searching in their academic work. A survey of Yusufuf and Balogun (2011) surveyed 382 student-teachers from the Faculty of education, University of Ilorin, Nigeria to evaluate student-teachers’ competence and attitude towards information and communication technology (ICT). Yusufuf and Balogun concluded that student-teachers, in general, had positive attitudes towards ICT. In order to determine respondents’ attitudes towards ICT, they 10 provided with fourteen statements to indicate the level of agreement. These fourteen statements were divided into five groups. The first group consisting of the positive statements (items 1-10) showed about 50% of the respondents believed that they were provided better learning experience from ICT. The second group was the negative statements (items 11-14). Generally, 72.35% of respondents strongly agreed that they had many things to do with ICT. The item 12, item 13 and item 14 were the remaining groups. Item 12 revealed about 59.04% of the respondents disagreed that they had phobia for ICT equipment. The result on item 13 reported 63.62% of them disagreed that ICT could not address the needs of school, while item 14 indicated more than 56.28% of them agreed that the state of facilities discouraged them from using ICT. Another research conducted by Dogoriti (2010) also showed positive attitudes towards Web-based ELT (English Language Teaching) of English teachers in University of Loannina, Greece. More than 95% of the participants tried to apply resources on the Internet for their studies. About 91.3% of the teachers agreed that they liked to use computers for teaching purpose, were ready to devote their time to online, and felt confident of using the Internet. As Martzoukou (2008) reported that 34.9% of participants were fairly satisfied with the outcomes of searching information on the Web, and 24.2% of them satisfied a lot with the search. In other words, participants’ attitudes of this study were positive towards Web searching engines. Mahmood (2010) surveyed 227 participants of LIS (Library and Information Science) professionals in Pakistan and revealed that most of participants had positive attitudes towards Internet. The total of 20 items for identifying the participants’ attitudes towards the Internet got a high Mean score (M= 4.02) because the participants found that the Internet-based facilities and services were useful for not only their professional but also their personal lives. Hong et al (2003) surveyed eighty-eight second-year undergraduate students who were selected randomly from five faculties ((Faculty of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Faculty of Resource Sciences 11
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