Kỹ thuật mới giải nhanh bài tập hóa học tập 2-hóa học vô cơ - cù thanh toàn part 3

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Huong ddn gidi C a u 1 7 : Trong nude t u nhiSn thiromg c6 13n m6t luong nho cac mu6'i CaCNOj) Tn'ch 3 mSu thijr t£f ba chat ran, Idn luot cho K O H phan utig vdi 3 m i u cha't rSn trSn: Mg(NO,)2, Ca(HCOi):, Mg(HCO,,),. Co th^ dung dung djch n^o sau day di IQ^ jslhan ra M g VI khdng tha'y phan utig d6ng thcfi cac cation trong cac mu6'i trdn ra khoi nude? , A . Dung dich N a O H B. Dung djch K , S 0 4 C. Dung djch N a j C O , D . Dung djch N a N O j . jslhan ra A l v i tha'y chat rSn tan ddn d6ng thdi c6 khi thoat ra: • 2 K O H + 2A1 + 2 H , 0 > 2KAIO2 + 3 H , t Chat ran con lai la A U O j , tan trong K O H nhung khong tha'y siii bot k h i : Hu&ngddngidi Na.CO, K ^ >2KA10, + H,0 2 K O H + AI2O3 Dung dung djch NajCO,: £)ap an dung la B. >2Na*+CO^" tiiin'i' cau 21: Cac dung djch ZnS04 va A I C I , d^u kh6ng mau. Da' phan biat 2 dung djch Ca-*+ CO\ C a C O j i ij^y CO tha' dung dung djch ciia chat nao sau day? Mg-*+CO^- A. N a O H > MgCOji B. HNO3 C. H Q D. N H , . Hu&ngddngidi Dap an diing la C. Dung dung djch NH3: Cau 18: Co the' bo ti'nh ciing tam thoi cua nu6c bang each dun s6i v i If do n^o sau day? AICI3 + 3NH3 + 3 H , 0 - — > A . Nudfc s6i a nhidt d6 cao (a 100°C, ap sua't khi quyd'n). B. K h i dun soi da lam tang d6 tan cua cac chat kd't tua. A l ( O H ) 3 i + 3NH4CI (kh6ng tan trong N H , du) C. K h i dun s6i cac chat khi hoa tan trong nu6c thoat ra. ZnS04 + 2NH3 + 2H2O — > D. Cac mu6'i hidrocacbonat ciia canxi va magie bj phan hiiy boi nhift de tao k^t tiia. Z n ( O H ) , + 4NH3 Hu&ng ddn gidi magie bj phan hiiy bcri nhi6t de tao kd't tua: Z n ( O H ) , 4- + (NH4),S04 ' [Zn(NH3)4](OH), (tan) K h i dun s6i nu6c c6 tinh cutig tam thcfi thi cac mu6'i hidrocacbonat ciia canxi va Ddp an diing la D . Cku 22: Co 4 kirn loai rieng biet la Na, Ca, Cu, A l . Hay nhan biat m 6 i k i m loai Ca(HC03)3—^ CaCOji+C02t + H20 MgCHCO,).—^ ^ -^^^^^^^^^ M g C O j i H-CO^t + ^ Hu&ngddngidi HP Cac cation Ca"*, M g - * ke't tiia he't ndn nu6c mat tinh cihig. bang phuong phap hoa hoc va vie't cac phucfng trinh hoa hoc. I - Dung H2O chia thanh 2 nhom k i m l o a i : + Nhom (1) tan trong nude g6m Na va Ca, san ph^m la cac dung djch N a O H va Ca(OH)2: Dap an diing la D . Cau 19: Chi dung nuorc va dung djch HCl hay trinh bay each nhan bie't 4 chat rSn 2Na + 2H2O ——> 2NaOH (dung trong 4 lo ridng biet): NazCO,, CaCO,, N a , S 0 4 , CaS04.2H20 Hi Hu&ng ddn gidi Ca + 2H2O + Ca(OH)2 + > H,t H2t Nhom 1: Tan trong nu6c la NaoCO, va Na2S04. Phan bidt 2 cha't n^y 1^ bang H & n g CO, nhan biet dung djch Ca(OH),, suy ra cha't ban ddu la Ca. K i m loai lai la Na. dung dich H C l . Tac dung vdri dung djch HCl la Na.COj (sui bot khO ; kh6ng tac B Cho vao nude ta duoc hai nhom c h a t : dung voi dung djch H C l la Na2S04. N a , C 0 3 + 2Ha > 2NaCl + CO, t + H20 Nhom 2: K h 6 n g tan trong nudrc la CaCO, va CaS04.2H20. Diing dung dich da' nhan ra CaCO, (c6 siii bot khi) con lai la CaS04.2H26. CaCOj + 2Ha > CaCl, + CO, t + H^O Cau 20: Chi dung hoa chat nao sau day c6 th^ phan biat 3 chSft ran \k M g , A l v^ Al:^?A . Dung djch H C l B. Dung djch K O H C. Dung djch N a Q D . Dung djch CuClj. Bn CO, + Ca(OH), K > CaC03i+H,0 Nhom (2) kh6ng tan trong nude gom Cu va A l . Tpm loai nao a nhom (2) tac dung vdi dung djch N a O H tao bot k h i , k i m loai do A l . K i m loai con lai la Cu. 2A1 + 2NaOH + 2H2O >2NaA102 + 3H,t ^'•23: Co 3 I9, mdi lo dung mot dung djch sau: BaOn, BaCNOj),, Ba(HC03)2. Chi ^ " n g thud'c thijf nao sau day cd the' nhan biat duoc cac dung djch tren? Quy t i m B. Phenolphtalein C. NajCOj D. AgNOj. 365 1 Hu&ng ddn gidi Dung dung djch AgNOj: Trir6c hd't, dun nong cac dung dich, nhan ra Ba(HC03)3do c6 kd't tua xu^t hi^n- - BaCHCOj), — ^ BaC03>l +CO,T + H^O Cho AgNO, vao 2 dung dich con lai , nhan ra BaCl, do xua't hidn kd't tiia, dun djchconlailaBaCNO,),. ^ - 2AgN03 + Baa, -> 2AgCU + BaCNOa)^ Dap an dung la D. Cau 24: Bang nhirng phan iJng hoa hoc nao c6 a) b) c) d) m6i Cac Cac Cac Cac .fe^t ^, phan bifit diroc cdc chSt trong day sau: kim loai: A l , Mg, Ba, Na. dung djch mu6'i: NaCl, BaCNO,),, AUCSOJ, oxit: CaO, Feo, AUO,. dung djch: NaNO,, CaCNO,),, AKNO,),. Hu&ng ddn gidi jslhan ra Ca(N03)2 dung djch xua't hitn vin due: Ca(N03)2 + NaOH > CaCOH), + NaNO, ' Chat con lai la NaN03 do kh6ng tha'y hifin tuong gi. C&a 25: Trinh bay phuomg phap dieu che timg kim loai ri^ng bidt tir h6n hop nhOng chat NaCl, AI2O3, MgC03.Vi6't cac phuong trinh hoa hoc. Hu&ng ddn gidi " Diing nude tach duoc NaCl. C6 can dung djch duoc NaCl ran. Didn phan NaQ Jjytdng chay, diroc kim loai Na. B 2NaCI —^E2L_> 2Na + CK t ^R>ung dung djch NaOH du, tach duoc chat r l n MgC03 va dung djch NaAlO,. H i . Til MgCOj di^u chS' duoc kim loai Mg theo so 66 chuyd'n hoa : H< MgCO, — M g O • | M g O + 2HCI - H MgCl. 2Na + IH.O > 2NaOH ' coj- > MgCK + H2O >Mg + CUT • | NaAlO, > A l ( O H ) 3 ^ ^ AUO, H NaA102 + CO2 + 2H2O — ^ AKOH)3 i + NaHC03 2A1 + 2NaOH + 2H2O > 2NaA102 + SH.T b) Nhan bia't Al2(S04)3 bang dung dich NH3, sau do nhan bid't Ba(N03)2 bang dung dich mu6'i cacbonat, con lai la dung djch chiia NaCl. Al2(S04)3 + 6NH3 + 6H2O > 2A1(0H)3 i + 3(NH4),S04 Ba(N03)2 +Na2C03 > BaCOii + 2NaN03. c) Dung H2O nhan biet CaO, dung djch NaOH nhan bid't AKOj. cha't con lai la FeO. CaO + H20 ).Ca(OH)2 AI2O3 + 2NaOH > 2NaA102 + H , 0 d) Dung dung djch NaOH Idn luot thCr vd'i cac dung djch trtn: - Nhan ra diroc A1(N03)3 do tao k^'t tua, sau do kd't tiia tan trong dung djch du:' ' • A!(N03)3 + 3NaOH > Al(OH)3 i + 3NaN03 Al(OH)3 + NaOHd„ > NaAlO, + 2H2O (Hp Hr AI2O3 '^P"" > A l w AI2O3 + 3H2O 2Al(OH)3 Ba(0H)2 + Na^CO, > BaCOj i + 2NaOH Nhom 2 kh6ng tan trong nude g6m A l va Mg, nhan bid't kim loai A l trong nhom 2 bang dung dich NaOH. V Tir natri aluminat dieu che kim loai A l theo so d6 chuyfin h6a : + H^T Ba + 2H2O > Ba(OH)2 + H ^ t Nhan biet diroc Ba do dung dich khi hoa tan n6 vao nuofc tao kfit tiia vdri ion 'P"^ > Mg MgO+ C02t MgCO, a) Dung H2O chia diroc 2 nhom kim loai: Nhom I gom Na va Ba, do tan trong HjO: > MgCK ^""^ > 2Al + 3 0 2 t Dang 5: Bdi tap ve PTHH vd cau hoi li thuyet thuyet van dung va phuong phap giai: > Nam vUng tinh chat ciia cac chat. Bid't phuong phap didu che cac chat. Nh6 tinh chat vat l i , ung dung ciia cac chat. ^' Cac thi du minh hoa; ^ftidu 1: Day cac chat ddu tac dung duoc vori dung djch BaCHCOj), la A. HNO3, NaCl va Na2S04 B. HNO3, Ca(OH): va KNO3 C. NaCl, Na2S04 va Ca(OH)2 D. HNO3, Ca(OH): va Na2S04. (Trich de thi tuyen sink DH khoi A nam 2013) Jk Hu&ng ddn gidi • 5 t cac phucfng An: •I 367 A. B. C. D. Loai VI NaQ (kh6ng phan utig) Loai VI KNO, (kh6ng phan u-ng) Loai VI NaCl. Thoa man. PTHH: fhi C. Trong hop chat, tat ca cac kim loai ki^m d^u c6 s6' oxi h6a +1. p . Tat ca cac kim loai nhom IIA diu c6 mang tinh th^ lap phuong tam kh6i. (Trich de tuyen sinh Cao dang Khd'i A) BaCO, + CaCOj + 2H,0 Na,S04 + Ba(HCO,), - » BaS04 + ZNaHCOj Hu&ng ddn gidi Ddp an diing la D. Thi du 2: Cho so d6 phan ting: AK(S04), X -> Y -> A l Trong so do trdn, m6i mui ten la m6t phan ling, cac chat X, Y 15n luot |^ nhihig chat nao sau day? ; A. NaAlO, va Al(OH)3 B. A1(0H)3 va NaAlOz C. A l , 0 3 va Al(OH)3 D. Al(OH)3 va AUO, (Trich de thi tuyen sink DH khd'i B nam 2013) Hu&ng ddn gidi Al2(S04)3 -> AKOH), -> A I 2 O 3 PTHH: A1,(S04)3 + 6NaOH -> 2Al(OH)3i + 3Na,S04 2AI2O3 -> 4A1 + AlA 3O2 W^6m IIA c6: Mg(OH)2 , Be(OH)2 kh6ng tan. • Nhom l A , tinh khir tang ddn ti^ Li dfi'n Cs. Trong hop chat, cac kim loai kiSm diu c6 s6'oxi h6a +1. Cac kim loai nhom IIA c6 ki^u mang luc phuong; Ca va Sr mang lap phuong tam diSn,... i. f • 1 Phat bi^u diing la C. Pap an diing Ik C. Thi du 5: Cho day cac chat: A1,A1(0H)3, Zn(0H)2, NaHCOj, Na2S04. S6' So do phan umg: 2AI(OH)3 Al chat trong day vira phan ling duoc vdi dung djch HCl, viTa phan ling duoc vod dung dich NaOH la + 3H,0 A . 3. B.5. D.4. (Trich dethi tuyen sinh DH khd'i A) Hu&ng ddn gidi Dap an diing la D. Cac chat vira tac dung vdi dung djch H Q , vira tac dung vdfi dung djch NaOH Ik: Thi du 3: Thuc h\tn cac thi nghidm sau: - Cac chat CO tinh lu5ng tinh (A1(0H)3 ;Zn(0H)2 .NaHCOj) (a) Cho A l vao dung dich HCl - M6t s6' kim loai nhu nh6m (Al) (b) Cho Al vao dung djch AgNOj =i> CO 4 cha't. (c) Cho Na vao H.O (d) Cho Ag vao dung dich H2SO4 loang Trong cac thi nghiem tren, so thi nghifim xay ra phan ling 1^ A. 1 B. 2 C. 4 D. 3 (Trich de thi tuyen sinh DH khoi B nam 20j]l Dap an diing la D. Chu v: A l ( O H ) 3 + N a O H - > NaAl(OH)^ ^hidu 6: Cho so d6 chuyen hod sau: (c) 2Na + 2H2O ^ 2NaOH + H , => Co 3 thi nghiam xay ra. ^ Dap an diing la D ^ A l + NaOH + 3 H 2 0 ^ N a A l ( O H ) ^ + | H 2 Z n ( 0 H ) 2 + 2 N a O H - > Na2Zn(0H)^ (a) 2A1 + 6HC1 -> 2AICI3 + 3H3 (b) Al + 3AgN03 -> 3Ag + A1(N03)3 ; NaHCOj + NaOH->Na2C03 + H2O Hu&ng ddn gidi 368 C.2. (dian phan nong chay) Vay X, Y l^n luot la Al(OH)3; AI.Oj. PTHH: ? B. Trong nhom l A , tinh khir ciia cac kim loai giam din tir L i ddn Cs. 2HNO3 + Ba(HC03)2 -> Ba(N03)2 + ICO. + 2H.O Ca(OH)2 + BaCHCOj). ^' diing? ^ , Tat ca cac hidroxit ciia kim loai nhom IIA d^u d l tan trong nu6c. CaO—^CaCl2 >Ca(N03)^ C6ng thiic ciia X, Y, Z \in luot Ik: A. HCl, HNO3, Na^COj I It. HCl, AgNOj, (NH4)2C03 )CaC03 B. CAj, AgN03. MgCOj (Trich D. C^^, de tuyen HNO3, sinhCO^. Cao dang khdJ369 A) •j^du 9: Hgrp chat nao cua canxi dupe dung M due tirgng, bo b6t khi gay xircmg' B. Thach cao s6'ng ( C a S 0 2 . 2 H 2 0 ) . V6i s6rig (CaO). Hu&ng ddn gidi PTHH: CaO + 2 H C l ^ C a C l 2 + H 2 0 (X) CaCl2 + 2AgN03 ^ C a ( N 0 3 ) 2 + 2AgCl 4^ D. Thach cao nung (CaS04.H20). C. Da v6i (CaCO,). ' (Trich de tuyen sinh Dai hoc khd'i A) (V) Hu&ng ddn gidi Ca(N03)2 + ( N H 4 ) 2 C 0 3 -> CaCOj + 2 N H 4 N O 3 Thach cao nung (CaS04.H20) dupe diing d^ due tupng, bo b6t khi gay xuong. (Z) Dap an dung la C. Thidu 7: Tie'n hknh cdc thi nghidm sau: (1) Sue khi HjS vao dung djch FeS04 (2) Sue khi H 2 S vao dung dieh C U S O 4 (3) Sue khi C O 2 (du) vao dung dieh NajSiO,; (4) Sue khi CO^ (du) vao dung dieh Ca(OH)2; (5) Nho tit tiir dung dieh NH3 de'n du vao dung dieh Al2(S04)3; (6) Nho tir tif dung dieh Ba(OH)2 de'n du vao dung dieh Al2(S04)3. Sau khi eac phan ling xay ra hoan toan, s6' thi nghifem thu dirae ke't tua la: A. 3. B.5. C.4. D.6. (Trich detuyen sink Cao dang khoi A) Hu&ng ddn gidi pdpdn dung la D. Thidu 10: Tie'n hanh eac thi nghiem sau: (1) Cho dung dieh NaOH vao dung djch Ca(HC03)2. (2) Cho dung dieh HCl tdi du vao dung dieh NaA102(hoac Na[Al(0H)4]). (3) Sue khf HjS vao dung djch FeCU. (4) Sue khi NH3 tdi du vao dung djch A l Q j . (5) Sue khi CO2 tori du vao dung djch NaA102(hoaeNa[Al(OH)4]). (6) 5uc khi etilen vao dung djch KMn04. Sau khi eac phan ixng ke't thiic, eo bao nhieu thi nghiem thu dupe ke't tua? A. 3. B.4. (Trich de tuyen sinh Dai hoc khoi A) Hu&ng ddn gidi CuS i +H2SO4 1) H2S + CUSO4 + H2O 2) CO2 + Na2Si03 + H2O -> H2Si03 i +Na2C03 PTHH: 1) NaOH + Ca ( H C O 3 2CO2 +Ca(OH)2 ->Ca(HC03)2 6 N H 3 + 6H2O + AI2 ( 5 0 4 ) 3 4) 4Ba(OH)2 +AI2 ( 5 0 4 ) 3 - ^ . B a [ A l ( 0 H ) 4 ] ^ +3BaS04 ^ 2A1(0H)3 0 i + 3 ( N H 4 ) 2 SO4 3) 3) C O 2 + 2 H 2 O + NaA102 t:' A l ( 0 H ) 3 i +NaHC03 4) 3CH2 = C H 2 + 2 K M n 0 4 + 4 H 2 0 - > 3 C H 2 ( O H ) - C H 2 ( O H ) + +2Mn02 4 + 2 K O H K 2 5 O 4 . A I 2 (504)3.24H2O ^.^apan dung la B. ° - Na2S04.Al2 (504)3.24H2O Phen chua la K 2 S O 4 . A I 2 ( 5 0 4 ) 3 •24H20 ^ Chu v: Phen chua la mudl kep ngam nudc, d6i khi con duoc vi6i KAl (5O4 )2-^'^^' 370 4HC1 + NaA102-> NaCl + AICI3 + 2 H 2 O 2) 3NH3 + 3 H 2 O + A I C I 3 - ^ A 1 ( 0 H ) 3 i +3NH4CI (Trich detuyen sink Dai hoc khajjl Hu&ng ddn gidi Dap an dung la B. \j i +NaHC03 + H.O H2S + F e C l 2 -> Kh6ng xay ra (vi FeS tan trong HCl) Dap an dung la C . Thi du 8: Phen chua duoe dung trong nganh e6ng nghidp thu6c da, e6ng ngh'^r gia'y, chat cim mhu trong ngknh nhu6m vai, cMt lam trong nude. C6ng th'.f' hod hoc cua phen chua la C. (NH4)2S04.Al2 (504)3.24H2O D.5. C.6. Cae thi nghifim: H2S + FeS04-> khdng xay ra A. Li2S04.Al2 (504)3.24H2O I ^ / / ; Khi dien phan dung djch NaCl (cue am bang sat, cue duong bang ^Pan chi, CO mang ngan x6'p) thi ^- or circ duong xay ra qua trinh oxi hoa ion Na* va b cue am xay ra qua trinh khiriona. ^- or cue am xay ra qua trinh khir H2O va b cue duomg xay ra qua trinh oxi hoi ion CI. C. or cue am x^y ra qua trinh oxi hoa H^O ion CI. or circ diromg xay ra qui trinh khjjl 4) 5) + D. a cue am xay ra qua trinh khir ion Na va 6 cue duong xay ra qua trinh oxj hoa ion CI. (Trich detuyen sink Dai hoc khoj ^ Hu&ng ddn gidi Cac qua trinh xay ra b cac didn cue khi difen phan dung djch NaCl: Cue am: 2H2O + 2e -> 20H" + Hj (khir nudre) I Cue duong: 2Cr -> Clj + 2e (oxi hoa ion Q") Dap an dung la B. Thldu 12: Phat bi^u nao sau day la sai? ~~~~ A. NajCOj la nguydn lidu quan trong trong e6ng nghiSp san xua't thuy tinh. B. Theo chieu tSng d^n eua diSn tich hat nhan, nhiat d6 nong chay eiia kim loai ki^m giam d^n. C. d nhidt d6 thudng, tat ca cac kim loai ki^m th6 d^u tac dung duoc vdi nude. D. Nh6m b^n trong moi trucmg kh6ng khi va nude la do c6 mang oxit Al^O, b^n v&ng bao v6. (Trich de tuyen sink Dai hoc khoi B) Hu&ng ddn gidi Cac kim loai kiam th6 (Be, Mg, Ca, ...) tac dung vdi nude trong nhung di6u kien khae nhau: + Be: Kh6ng tdc dung + Mg: Chi tac dung khi a dang b6t vdfi hai nu6c. + Ca, Sr, Ba: Tac dung vdi nude a didu kidn thucmg. =:> Phat bi^u C sai Dap an diing la C. Thi du 13: Cho day cac chat: SiO,, Cr(0H)3, CrOj, Zn(0H)2, NaHCO,, AKO, S6' chat trong d3y tdc dung duoc vdri dung dich NaOH (dac, nong) la A. 6. B.4. C. 5. D. 3. (Trich detuyen sinh Dai hoc khojjl Hu&ng ddn gidi Cdc chat tac dung duoc vdri NaOH (dac, nong): 2) 3) 1) Cr(OH)3 SCrOj i O j ++22NaOH N^a O^^'^^ H -->> NNa2Cr04 - a> 2NSair0C3 r++(HOHjO 2H0 ) / Zn(OH)2+2NaOH^Na2[Zn(OH)^ NaHCOj + NaOH-»Na2C03 + H2O 6) A l 2 0 , + 2NaOH + 3 H 2 0 - > 2 N a [ A l ( O H ) / pap an dung la A. -j^du 14: Cho cac chat: AI, AUO,, Al2(S04)3, Zn(OH)2, NaHS, K2SO3, (NH4)2C03. S6 chat Aiu phan ung duoc vdri dung djch HCl, dung djch NaOH la A. 5. B. 6. C.4. D. 7. (Trich De thi tuyen sinh DH - CD khoi A) Hu&ng ddn gidi pTPl/ ciia cac cha't vdri dung djch NaOH, dung dich HQ (nd'u eo): 2A1 + 2NaOH + 6H2O > 2Na[Al(OH)4] + 3H2t 2A1 + 6HC1 >2AlCl3 + 3H2 AKO3 + 2NaOH + 3H,0 > 2Na[Al(OH)4] AK03 + 6HC1 > 2AICI3 + 3H3O A1,(S04)3 khong tac dung vdri HCl (chi tac dung vdri NaOH). Zn(OH), + 2NaOH > Na,[Zn(OH)4] Zn(OH)3 + 2 H a > ZnCU + 2H2O NaHS + NaOH > Na.S + W.O NaHS + HCl > NaCl + H,S > •. kh6ng tac dung vdri NaOH (chi tac dung vdri HCl). (NH4),CO, + 2NaOH > 2NH3T + Na^COj + 2H3O (NH4).C03 + 2HC1 > 2NH4CI + CO, + H , 0 Vay cac chat vira tac dung vdi dung djch HQ, vira tdc dung vdri dung djch NaOH: Al, A! A-Zn(OH):, NaHS, (NH4)2C03 (5 chat). ^Dap an dung la A. du 15: Trong cac dung djch HNO3, NaQ, Na,S04, Ca(0H)2, KHSO4, Mg(N03)2, day g6m cac chat deu tac dung duoc vdi dung dich Ba(HC03)2 la K2SO3 A. HNO3, NaQ, ^ V H2SO4. B. HNO3, Ca(0H)2, KHSO4, Na2S04. C. NaCl, Na,S04, Ca(OH)2. t>. HNO3, Ca(OH)2, KHSO4, Hu&ng Mg(N03)2. ddn gidi cac phuomg an: itv) (Trich De thi tuyen sinh DH - CD khoi B) A . L o a i vi NaQ. B. T h o a man: 2HNO3 + BaCHCOj), > BaCNOj), + Ca(OH)2 + Ba(HC03)2 + IH^O 2CO,T > BaS04i + K2SO4 + ICO.'l + 2H,o Na2S04 + Ba(HC03)2 > BaS04i + 2NaHC03 + 3Ba(OH)2 + 2Cr(N03)3 > F e C O H ) , ! + BaCl2 > 2Cr(OH)3 + 3Ba(N03)2 + Ba(OH)2 + K2CO3 >BaC03i + 2KOH + 3Ba(OH)2 + 2A1(N03)3 - > 2Al(OH)3 + 3Ba(N03)2 B. N a Q . C. N a O H , N a O H . D . N a Q , N a H C O j , NH4CI, BaCU. > Ba[Al(OH)4]2 (tan) ?: (Tnch Delhi tuyen sinh Dai hoc khoi B) Hudng ddn gidi Goi s6' mol m 6 i cha't Ik x. + •! X (2x-x) +Baa2 + X + 3NH3,,,) + 3H2O + __Dap an diing la D . > N H 3 t + NaCl + H . O X (I) Co nam dung dich dung rieng bidt trong nam 6'ng nghiem: du vao nam dung dich trdn. Sau k h i phan ling k6t thiic, s6' 6'ng n g h i f m c6 k^' tiia la ' ' ^ B.2. ' ^- ^ ' C.4. (Trich De thi tuyen sink Dai hoc Phan utig hoa hoc xay ra khi cho Ba(OH)2 tdi du vko cac dung dich trfin: Ba(OH)2 + (NH4)2S04 Aia3 — > Ai(OH)3 4 + 3NH4a > BaSO^i + 2 N H 3 t + 2H2O kho]^ Cho dung djch NaCI vao dung djch K O H . ,,: J ), Cho dung djch Na2C03 vao dung djch Ca(0H)2. (III) Dien phan dung djch N a Q vdi dien cue tro, c6 mang ngan. (IV) Cho Cu(OH)2 vao dung djch NaN03. (V) Sue k h i NH3 vao dung djch N a N O j . ( V I ) Cho dung djch Na2S04 vao dung djch Ba(0H)2 I Cac thi nghidm di^u che' duoc N a O H la: A . I I , I I I va V I . .^^ B. I I , V va V I . C. I , I V va V . D . I , I I va H I . (Trich Di thi tuyin sink Dai hoc khoi B) Hu&ng ddn gidi + ; (II) I I D.3. Hudng ddn gidi + % AICI3 + 3H2O (tan) Thidu 19: Thuc hi6n cac thi nghifem sau: X .(NH4)2S04, FeCU, Cr(N03)3,'K2CO3, A1(N03)3. Cho dung dich Ba(0H)2 A . 5. > Ca(HC03)2 (tan) > A l ( O H ) 3 + NaCl + H j O 3HCl(d„) + A1(0H)3 2x + NH4CI > CaCOj + H2O HCl + Na[Al(0H)4] > BaCOji + 2 N a a X > Na[Cr(OH)4] (tan) CO2 ,d„, + CaC03 + H2O > NajCOj + H2O Dap an dung la B. 17: CO2 + Ca(OH)2 + Vay dung dich thu duoc chi chiia N a Q . du > Cr(OH)3 + SNaNO, NaOH(d„) + C r ( O H ) 3 > 2NaOH 2x NaOH Thi 3 N a O H + Cr(N03)3 ra: Na2C03 ^ D. Cho dung djch NH3 d6'n d u vao dung djch A l Q j . Hu&ng dan gidi X < B. Th6i CO, den d u vao dung dich Ca(OH)2. (Trich De thi tuyen sink DH - CD khoi B) X •, C. Cho dung dich H Q den d u vao dung dich NaA102 (hoac N a [ A l ( O H ) 4 ] ) . A . NaCl, N a O H , BaC^. NaHC03 + N a O H , A. Cho dung dich N a O H de'n d u vao dung dich Cr(N03)3. duoc chiia X , fhidu 18: Thi nghidm nao sau day c6 kd't tiia sau phan ling? m d ^ chat d^u bang nhau. Cho h6n hop X vao H2O (du), dun nong, dung djch thu NajO + H2O , Pap an dung la D . Thi du 16: H6n hop X chu-a Na20, NH4CI, NaHC03 va BaCl2 c6 s6' P T P L T xay . Co 3 ong nghiem c6 ke't tiia. Dap an diing la B . Cac / > Ba[Cr(OH)4]2 (tan) 2 A l ( O H ) 3 + Ba(OH)2 C. Loai v i N a Q . D. Loai VI Mg(N03)2. ' Ba(OH)2 + F e C l j 2Cr(OH)3 + Ba(OH)2 B a C O j J . + C a C 0 3 i + 2H2O 2 K H S O 4 + Ba(HC03)2 + NaCl + K O H > khdng xay ra. + 2Naa + 2H,0 > 2NaOH + Cl^T + H , t + Cu(OH)2 + NaNOj r Hudrng ddn gidi > 2NaOH + CaCO, i + Na.COj + Ca(OH)2 Co 3 chat do la: i M'I SO3 + H2O + BaCl 2 >• kh6ng xay ra. + NH3 + Na2C03 >• kh6ng xay ra. + Na2S04 + Ba(OH)2 > BaS04 i + 2NaOH ' « Hu&ng ddn gidi ). BaS04 i + 2KC1 Cac chat do la: MgCI, + Ba(OH), Dap an dung la C. FeCK + Ba(OH), Dap an dung la C. Thi du 21: Cho so 66 phan ihig: (X) ^ ^ . Hu&ng ddn gidi (NH4),S04 + Ba(OH)2 NaOH khan CO th^ lam kh6 cac khi NH3, O2, N2, CH4, H , . NaHC03 - > (Y) - > NaNOj. > BaS04 i + 2NH3 + 2H2O > Mg(OH)2 i + BaCU > Fe(OH), i + BaCl, C4u 24: Phat bie'u nao sau day diing? XvaYcoth^la A. NaOH va NaQO. B. NaOH va Na2C03. C. NaQOj va NajCOj. D. Na2C03 va NaClO. (Trich De thi tuyen sinh Cao dang khoi 1) Hu&ng ddn gidi X va Y CO th^ la NaOH va Na2C03: NaCl > NaOH ^NaHCOj >Na2C03 NaCl + 2H,0 ' P ^ ' > 2NaOH + CI, + H^ NaOH + CO2 Hu&ng ddn gidi Nhan xet: Kim loai Be (nhom IIA) kh6ng tac dung vdi H , 0 0 bat ki di^u kien nao. Kim loai Mg (nhom IIA) c6 ki^u mang luc phuong. > NaHC03 Cac kim loai kiem th6, do c6 kieu mang tinh the' kh6ng gi<5ng nhau nen cac tinh chat vat li (nhu nhiet d6 nong chay, ...) bien d6i khdng c6 quy luat (kh6ng phai 8'am ddn). '° > Na2C03 + CO, + H.O hoac NaHC03 + NaOH Na^COj + CaCNOj), Dap an diing la B. ^ A. Cac kim loai: natri, bari, beri deu tac dung vdi nu6c a nhidt d6 thucmg I B . Kim loai magie c6 kieu mang tinh the lap phuwng tam dien f C. Theo chieu tang d^n ciia dien ti'ch hat nhan, cac kim loai kiem th6 (tir beri den bari) c6 nhiet d6 nong chay giam d^n. D. Kim loai xesi duoc diing de che tao te bao quang dien. (Trich de thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc khoi A) ^NaNOj m.n 2NaHC03 K,S04 + BaCl, D. N , , a , , O2, CO., H , . (Trich De thi tuyen sink Cao dang khoi A, NaCl ^ > BaS04 i + 2KC1 j-ltidu 23: Cho day cac chat: NH4CI, (NH4)2S04, NaQ, MgCl,, FeCU, A I C I 3 . So chat trong day tac dung vdi lirong du dung djch Ba(OH), tao thanh ket tua la A. 4. B. 1. C.3. D.5. (Trich Delhi tuyen sinh Cao dang khoi A) Dap an dung la A. ^ Thi du 20: Co th^ dung NaOH (or th^ rSn) d^ lam kh6 cac chat khi A. N2, NO2, CO2, CH4, Hj. B. NH3, SO2, CO, CU. ' Na2S03 + BaCl2 pap an dung la D. i=> Cac thi nghiem di^u che' duoc NaOH la I I , I I I , V I . C.NH3,02,N2,CH4,H2. > BaS04 i + 2HC1 > Na,C03 + H , 0 > CaC03 + 2NaN03 ^ Thidu 22: Cho day cac chat: KOH, Ca(N03)2, SO3, NaHS04, Na2S03, K,S04. ^ chat trong day tao thanh ket tua khi phan ixng vdd dung dich BaCl, la A. 4. B.6. C.2. D.3. (Trich De thi tuyen sinh Cao dang khoij^ Kim loai Cs (nhom l A ) c6 nang lirong ion hod nho nha't (trong s6' tat ca cac kim ^ i tir nhien) nen duoc dung de' che tao te'bao quang dien. . ^ ^ a n diing la D. du 25: Cho cac chat: NaHCOj, CO, AKOH),, Fe(OH)3, HF, CU, NH4CI. S6' at tac dung duoc vai dung djch NaOH loang 6 nhiet d6 thiromg la •6 B.4 C.5 D.3 (Trich de thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc khoi A) Hu&ng din gidi Hu&ng ddn gidi Pay g6m cac chaft: Cac chat tac dung vdi dung djch N a O H loang : NaHC03 + N a O H f t >Na2C03 +H2C Al(OH)3 + NaOH ^NaF+HjO CI 2 + 2 N a O H ->NaCl + N a a O + H 2 0 BaZn02^-^^^i^^Na-^M^ZnS04+H20 H2 t +NaOH< KOH<- ).NaCl+NH3 + H20 NH4CI + N a O H Co 5 ch^t. du 26: Cho dung dich BaCHCOj), Mn luot vao cac dung djch: ddBa(OH)2 -KOH {SO,)^ , + H2 t I N a - ^ i - ^ N a 2 S 0 4 + H2 t +H9S0, ^^^K,SO. NH4CI +H.O ""2^4 , NH4CI Dap an diing la D . CaQ,, CaCNO,):, N a O H , Na^CO,, K H S O 4 , Na2S04, Ca(0H)2, H2SO4, H C l . S6' truong hc^p tao ra ke't tua la A . 5. '^"'^^""^^ H2O + NH3 + BaCl2 < "^^""^2 Dap an diing la C . Thi A\-^^^2^Al, H2 t + B a [ A l ( O H ) ( ).Na[Al(OH)4 HF+NaOH , C4u 2: Phat bie'u nao sau day diing? A. Nh6m bj thu d6ng c6 the' hoa tan trong dung djch H2SO4 loang. B.6. C4. D.7. B. Nh6m tan duoc trong dung djch NaOH la do nh6m phan ihig true tia'p v6i NaOH. C. Crom la k i m loai cihig nha't trong so cac kirn loai. (Trich de thi tuyen sink Dai hockhoi B) D. Cho nh6m vao dung djch chira N a N O , va N a O H , dun nong nhe tha'y c6 khi kh6ng mau hoa nau trong khdng khi thodt ra. Hu&ng ddn gidi P T H H phan ling tao ke't tua: Hu&ng ddn gidi ^ B a C O , i + N a H C 0 3 + H2O 1) Ba(HC03)2+NaOH 2) B a ( H C 0 3 ) 2 + N a 2 C 0 3 -—>BaC03>l+2NaHC03 3) Ba(HC03)2+2KHS04- 4) B a ( H C 0 3 ) 2 + N a 2 S 0 4 -—>BaS04 i +2NaHC03 5) Ba(HC03)2+Ca(0H)2- 6) B a ( H C 0 3 ) 2 + H2S04 - Nh6m bi thu d6ng (c6 mang oxit b^n bao vt) kh6ng con phan ihie duoc vdi axit HC1,H2S04. - Khi phan dug v6i dung dich k i ^ m : >BaS04 i +2CO2 + 2H2O + K2SO4 2A1 + 6H2O - > 2 A 1 ( 0 H ) 3 Al(OH)3 • Crom la k i m loai ciJng nha't trong cac k i m loai. —- > B a S 0 4 i + 2 C 0 2 + 2 H 2 0 .. ^ ^.. 8AI + 5NaOH + SNaNOj + I 8 H 2 O — ^ 8 N a A l ( O H ) J + 3NH3 t . khong mau Dap an dung la B. Phat bid'u dung la C E>ap an dung la C. 3, C a c bai tap tir l u y e n : C a u 1 : Day g6m cac chat d6u tan trong dung dich H2SO4 loang, d u Ba(OH)2 du, sau phan ling hoan toan deu kh6ng c6 kd't tiia tao ra la A . A l ( O H ) 3 , Z n , K , FeCl2, ZnO B. NaCl, ( N H 4 ) 2 CO3, Cr203, Z n , M g C l j C. AI2O3, BaO, K , Cr203, (NH4)2 S D. A l , Z n O , Na, K O H , NH4CI +NaOH->Na[Al(OH)/ => Nhom kh6ng tac dung true tia'p vcA N a O H . >BaC03 i +CaC03 i +2H2O => Co 6 trucmg hop c6 kfe't tua. •T • •• dung ^ ' ^^ ^^u 3: Co cac phat bie'u sau: (1) A g Q , AgBr, A g l d^u tan trong dung djch NH3 do tao cation phufc [AgCNHj),]* (2) Nhung la nh6m vao dung djch H2SO4 dac, ngu6i thi la nhdm tan d^n. (3) Thach cao s6'ng c6 c6ng tMc hoa hoc 1^ CaS04.2H20 (4) Cac k i m loai kiim th6 ddu c6 ca'u true mang tinh the' lap phuong tarn dien. S6'phat bid'u diing la ^•4 B. 2 C. 3 D. 1 - Hud/ng ddn gidi Phat bi^u (1) sai vi Agl kh6ng tan trong dung dich NH,. Phat bieu (2) sai vi A l bi thu d6ng trong H 2 S O 4 dac, ngu6i. Thach cao s6'ng C O thanh phSn CaS04. ZH.O. - Phat h'liu (4) sai vi cac kim loai k\tm th6 (IIA) c6 kieu mang tinh thi khac nhau, Chuj: ^ , Dap an dung la D. C a u 4: Phat h\iu d i i n g la: A. Dien phan NaCl nong chay sinh ra NaOH B. SiO, d l dang hoa tan trong Na.CO, nong chay ' C. Dung dich NaHCO, 0,1M c6 pH < 7 D. Kim loai Na chay trong m6i truomg khi oxi kh6 va du, tao ra NajO. Hu&ng ddn gidi San pham oxi hoa H^S c6 thd la S; S; S . Q^u 6: Khi nghiln clanhke, ngucri ta tr6n tham 5 - 10% chat X d^ di^u chinh toe d6 d6ng eiitig cija xi mang. Chat X la B. v6i b6t. C. v6i t6i. D. xi silicat. Hu&ng ddn gidi Trong xi mang chiia 5-10% thach cao (CaS04) da' dieu chinh toe do d6ng cirng ciia xi mang. Dap an diing la A. , cau 7: Cho cac khoang chat: Da't set, mica, boxit, criolit, xiderit, corindon, phen chua. So khoang chat c6 thanh phdn chinh chua hop chat ciia nhom la A. 6. B.5. C.4. D. 3. 1) Da't set: Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O Si02 + Na2C03 — ^ NajSiO, + COj 2) Mica: K20.Al203.6Si02 NaHCO, + H20< 3) Criolit: Na3AlF6 (3NaF.AlF3) .0 »NaOH + H 2 C O 3 (=> pH > 7) :;i!. 4) Corin don: AI2O3 0 2Na + O2 — - — > Na202 (natri peoxit) 5) Phen chua: K 2 S O 4 . A I 2 ( S O 4 ) , .24H2O => Phat bie'u B dung. Dap an diing la B. C a u 5: Thirc hien cac thi nghidm sau: (I) Nho dung djch Na.CO, tori du vao dung dich Al(NO,),i. (II) Nho dung dich NH3 tir tir tori du vao dung djch C U S O 4 . (III) Cho KOH vao dung dich Ca(HCO,)2. 6) Boxit: CAu 8: Cac kim loai ki^m, kim loai kiem th6 k h o n g gap a dang don cha't trong tir nhian vi A. day la chat hut ^m dac biat. S6' thi nghiem khi ket thiic cac phan umg c6 ket t u a xuS't hien la B. 4 C. 2 D. 3 PTHH xay ra: i +6NaN03 ;U , B. day la nhirng loai duoc di^u che bang phuomg phap dien phan C. thanh ph^n cua chiing trong tir nhian rat nho. D. day la nhirng kim loai hoat ddng hoa hoc rat manh. Hu&ng ddn gidi Kim loai ki^m (nhom lA: L i , Na, K, Rb, Cs) Kim loai kiem th6 (nhom IIA: Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) Hu&ng ddn gidi SNajCO, +2A1(N03)3 + 3 H 2 0 ^ 2 A 1 ( 0 H ) 3 Al203.nH20 Dap an dung la A. (IV) Sue khi H.S vao dung dich KMn04 trong m6i trUcmg H 2 S O 4 loang. +3CO2 6NH3 + C U S O 4 + 2 H 2 0 - > [ C u ( N H 3 ) J(0H)2 + {nW^\4 (2) KOH + Ca(HC03)2 ->CaC03 i +KHCO3 + H j O (3) 5H^S + 2KMn04 + 3H2SO4 -> 55 i + K 2 S O 4 + 2MnS04 + SHjO Dap an diing la D. ' ' Hu&ng ddn gidi Cac khoang cha't chiia horp chat ciia nh6m la: Xet cac phucfng an: ,2NaCl > 2Na + CI2 (khong sinh ra NaOH) A. 1 > AK^SO^ + 8 M n S 0 4 + 1 2 H 2 O A. thach cao. => Co 1 phat bie'u dung. (1) 5H2S + 8 K M n 0 4 + 7H2SO4 j ? Oiling la cac kim loai hoat dong hoa hoc rat manh (dimg diu m6i chu ki), Chung da dang tac dung vdri cac chat trong m6i tnromg (HjO, CO^.L 1) nan trong tir nhian khong gap chiing a dang don chat. E>ap an diing la D. ' 9: Chat nao sau day phan ling dugc vdri Al? A. Dung dich Na,S04 C. Dung dich HNO, dSc, ngu6i HI B. KhiCOj ' D. Dung djch MgCl, ;i Hu&ng ddn gidi 1%.2A1203+3C 4A1 + 3CO2 PTPlJ: 2NaN03 '° >2NaN02+02 , N - (X,) {X3) Vay X „ X,, X 3 ISn luot la O2, NaOH, NaNOj ^ Dap an dung la B. Chu V. Kh6ng t h ^ dung CO,; H , 0 ; . . d^ dap tat dam chay k i m loai manh (M„ , ,„ , : . • , p^p an dung la B. 12: Trong cac phat bi^u sau: A l (Cr, Fe,...) bj thu d6ng hoa trong H N O 3 dac, ngu6i. Cau ' 10: Cho cac dung djch: Na^COj, NaOH, A l Q j , H C l , NaHS04. Nd'u tr6n cac dung dich vdfi nhau tijfng d6i m6t thi c6 nhidu nha't bao nhidu phan ting c6 san ph^m la chat khi? A. 4 C. 2 B. 1 »' D. 3 Hu&ng ddn gidi Cac phan ung hoa hoc sinh ra chat k h i : Na2C03+2HCl ).2Na2S04 + CO2 t + H 2 O >2A\{OH\ +3CO2 t +6NaCl 3Na2C03 + 2AICI3 + 3H2O (2) K i m loai Cs duoc dung d^ chfi' tao td' bao quang didn. (3) K i m loai M g c6 kid'm manh tinh thd' lap phirong tam didn. (4) Cac k i m loai Na, Ba, Be d i u tac dung vdi nuoc b nhidt d6 thuomg. (5) K i m loai M g tac dung vdi hoi nude 6 nhidt d6 thu6ng. ^ " 2 " )X2 >X3 Cac phat bid'u diing: (2) K i m loai Cs duoc dung dd' chd' tao td' bao quang didn (do Cs c6 nSng lucmg (5) K i m loai M g tac dung v6i hoi nir6c b nhidt d6 cao: M g + H 2 0 ( h ) — ^ M g O + H2 ^X,. Dap an diing la D. Cau 13: Viet phucmg trinh hoa hoc dd' giai thich cac hidn tuong xay ra k h i T h i X „ X 2 , X, iSnlirotla: B. O2, N a O H , N a N 0 3 A. N a 2 0 2 , N a O H , 0 2 D. 0 2 , N a O H , N a 2 C 0 3 C. 0 2 , K 0 H , K N O 3 Hu&ng ddn gidi X dang: M^O, (hop chat peoxit). Theo bai ra: S D. (2), (5) Hu&ng ddn gidi kh6'i lugfng. Trong so d6 phan ung: 16.2.10 !/. ion hoa rat nho). C^u 1 1 : X la m6t peoxit k i m loai k i ^ m c6 mau da cam, trong d6 o x i chi6'm 4 1 % ve >X B.(l),(2),(3),(4),(5) C. (2), (3), (4) Dap an diing la D X, . Cac phat bieu d u n g la A (2), (4) > 2NaCl + CO2 t + H 2 O Na2C03 + 2NaHS04 (1) Theo chi^u tang din didn tich hat nhan, cac k i m loai k i ^ m th6 (tir Be ddn Ba) c6 nhi6t d6 nong chay giam din. a) Cho dung dich N H 3 d u vao dung djch AICI3 ^; b) Cho tir t u dung djch N a O H ddn du vao dung djch A I Q , c) Cho tir tir dung dich Al2(S04)3 vao dung djch N a O H va ngiroc lai. d) Sue t& tir dd'n d u khi CO, vao dung djch N a A l O , e) Cho tif tir ddn d u dung djch HCl vao dung dich NaAlO,. Hu&ng ddn gidi = 41 ^ 2 M + 32 = 78 = > M = 2 3 ( N a ) PTHH: 2 M + 16.2 => X la N a i O , (natri peoxit) a) 3NH3 + 3H2O + A l Q j ^) SNaOH+AlQj )• A l (OH)^ i + 3 N H 4 a , PTHH: 2Na + 0 2 — ^ N a 2 0 2 (X.) N a O H (du) (X) N a z O j + 2 H 2 0 - > 2 N a O H + H2O2 (X) N a O H + HNO3 (X2) -JO ^) (X2) N a N O j + H2O .(X3) > Al(OH)3 i+3NaCl +Al(OH)3 > NaA102 +2H2O AI2 ( S O 4 \ 8NaOH -> 2NaA102 + 3Na2S04 + 4H2O 6 N a O H + AI2 (SO4 \ 2 A l (OH)^ i +3Na2S04 §L N a O H + A1(0H)3 > NaA102 + 2H2O . j) i 2f' d) CO2 + 2H2O + NaA102 Al(OH)3 i + N a H C O , fChacnhau: j^e't tiia xuS^t hidn, khdng tan trong CO, dir : e) HCl + NaAlO^ + > Al(OH)3 i +NaCl NaAlOj + C O 2 + 2H,0 > Al(OH)3i + NaHCOj I^e't tiia xua't hien r6i tan trong dung dich H Q du : > AICI3 + 3H2O 3HC1 + Al(OH)3 Cau 14: Vid't phircmg trinh hoa hoc cua cac phan img thirc hi€n day chuyd'n doi sm,. Al-ilUAia,-^Al(OH),-H^>M102-^A1(CH^^ Hu&ng ddn gidi PTHH xay ra trong so d6: i (1) 2A1 + 3CI2 > 2AICI3 (2) AICI3 + 3NaOH (3) A l ( O H ) , + NaOH (4) NaAlOj + CO2 + 2H2O — ^ (5) 2 A l ( O H ) 3 — ^ A I 2 O 3 + 3H2O (6) 2AI2O3 > A 1 ( 0 H ) 3 i + 3NaCl > NaA102 + 2H2O Al(OH)3 i + NaHC03 > 4AI + 3O2 t (dien phan nong chay) Cau 15: Cho dung djch Ca(OH), vao dung dich Ca(HCO,)2 se: A. Co ket tua trdng B. Co hot khi thoat ra C. Co kd't tiia trSng va hot khi D. Kh6ng c6 hidn tuong gi Hu&ng ddn gidi Ca(OH)2 + Ca(HC03)2 > 2CaC03 i + H2O Trang Dap an dung la A. Cau 16: X6'p cac kim loai kiem th6 theo chidu tang cua diSn tich hat nhSn, thi A. ban kinh nguyen tir giam d^n. B. nang lucmg ion hoa giam dSn. C. tinh khir giam ddn. D. kha nang tac dung vcfi nude giam ddn. Hu&ng ddn gidi Trong Cling 1 nhom A, theo chi^u tang ciia Z (tir trfin xu6'ng dudi) thi "a"^ lugrng ion hoa giam din. Dap an diing la B. Cau 17: Co gi gidng va khac nhau khi cho khi C O 2 va dung dich H Q loang tac ^^^^ vdri dung djch NaAlOi ? Vid't phuong trinh h6a hoc ciia cic phan iJng xay ra. Hu&ng ddn gidi Gi6'ng nhau: dau xua't hidn ket tiia. NaAlO, + HCl + H , 0 > AKOH), i + NaQ > AICI3 + 3H2O Al(OH)3 + 3HC1 Ciiu 18: Tuy thu6c vao n6ng d6 ciia dung djch HNO3, A l c6 th^ khir HNO3 thanh MO2, N 2 O , NO, N , , NH4NO3. Vid't phuong trinh hoa hoc cua cac phan ihig. Hu&ng ddn gidi Cic phuong trinh hoa hoc : Al + 6HNO3 A1(N03)3 + 3 N 0 2 t + 3H2O A l + 4HNO3 -> AI(N03)3 + N O t +2H2O 8A1 + 3OHNO3 — > 8A1(N03)3 + 3 N 2 0 t + I5H2O lOAl + 36HNO3 > 10Al(NO3)3 + 3 N j t + 18HjO 8A1 + 3OHNO3 - -> 8A1(N03)3 + 3NH4NO3 + 9H2O cSu 19: Co gi gi6'ng nhau va khac nhau khi nho tir tiJr cho ddn dir a) Dung djch NHj vao dung dich AIQ3? b) Dung djch Ba(OH)2 vao dung dich AlQj? Hu&ng ddn gidi a) Kd't tiia tao ra kh6ng tan trong dung djch NH3 dir: AICI3 + 3NH3 + 3H2O > A1(0H)3 4- + 3 N H 4 a b) Kd't tiia tao ra tan trong dung djch Ba(0H)2 dir: 2AICI3 + 3Ba(OH)2 > 2Al(OH)3i + 3Baa2 2AI(OH), + Ba(OH)2 — > Ba(A102)2 + 4H2O CJu 20: Nh6m hidroxit thu duoc tir each lam nao sau day? A. Cho du dung djch HCl vao dung dich natri aluminat. B. Th6i du khi COi vao dung djch natri aluminat. C. Cho du dung djch NaOH vao dung djch A l Q j . D. Cho AI2O3 tac dung vdi nirdc. Hu&ng ddn gidi Cho du dung djch H Q vao dung djch natri aluminat kh6ng thu duoc k6t tiia, vi •fft tua Al(OH)j vira tao th^nh tan trong HCl du: HCl + NaAlOj + H2O >-Naa + AI(OH)3 4' 3 H C U + Al(OH)3 ->A1C13 + 3H20 lTi6i du khi CO, vao dung djch natri aluminat tao duoc ke't tiia Al(OH)3, ket tiia •^^y khdng tan trong CO, du - COj + NaAlOj + 2H,0 > NaHCO, + AKOH),^ Cho dir dung dich NaOH vao dung djch AlQj liic dSu cung c6 k€t nhung kS't tiia lai tan trong NaOH du: 3NaOH + AlCl3 - •> Al(OH)3 i + SNaQ NaOH + Al(OH)3 > NaAlO, + 2H2O AI2O3 kh6ng tac dung v6i nude. Dap dn dung la B. Trong Y c6: nN,oH = tiia xua't hi^n => n *' '' ' '' nN, = x = 0,14 (mol); ng^^Q^j^ =0,12 (mol) =0,14+ 0,12. 2 = 0,38 (mol); n 2+ =0,12 (mol) C02+0H-->HC0J r 0,3 ^ 0,3 f 0,3 Hcoj+oH- C02-+H2O ^ (0.38-0,3)^0,08 C. B A I T A P T 6 N G H O P COf" + Ba^^ -> BaCOj i C^u 1: Cho 1,37 gam Ba vao 1 lit dung dich CUSO4 0,0IM. Sau khi cac phan ihig 0,08 xay ra hoan toan, khd'i luong kfi't ttia thu duoc la A. 2,33 gam B. 0,98 gam C. 3,31 gam D. 1,71 gam (Trich de thi tuyen sink DH khd'i A nam 201?,, Hu&ng ddn gidi Kd't tiia thu duoc g6m: BaS04 0,01 mol (bao toan nguydn t6' bari hoac g6c sunfat) Cu(OH)2 0,01 mol (bao toan nguydn t6' d6ng) Vay khd'i luong ke't tiia bang 0,01. 233 + 0,01. 98 = 3,31 gam Dap an diing la C. Cau 2: H6n hop X g6m Na, Ba, Na20 va BaO. H6a tan ho^n toan 21,9 gam X vao nu6c, thu duoc 1,12 lit khi Hj (dktc) va dung dich Y, trong do c6 20,52 gam Ba(0H)2. Ha'p thu hoan toan 6,72 lit khi CO, (dktc) vao Y, thu duoc m gam ket tiia. Gia tri ciia m 1^ A. 15,76 B. 39,40 C. 21,92 D. 23,64 (Trich de thi tuyen sink DH khoi A nam 201J) ' Hu&ng ddn gidi De gidi nhanh hdi nay can AT? dung phucfng phdp quy dSi nguyen tvC, van dun^ cac dinh lugt hdo toan nguyen to, hdo toan electron de'lap cdc phifong trinh da . _ ^••^''-^•'•"S^f..;, -> 0,08 vay m = 0,08 . 197 = 15,76 (gam) Dap an diing la A. Cau 3: Didn phan nong chay AUOj vdi cac didn cue bang than chi, thu dur«c m kilogam Al or catot va 89,6 m' (dktc) h6n hop X d anot. Ti khd'i ciia X so vdi H bang 16,7. Cho 1,12 lit X (dktc) phan ihig vdi dung dich Ca(OH)2 du, thu duoc 1,5 gam ke't tiia. Bid't cac phan umg xay ra hoan toan. Gia tri ciia m 1^ A. 144,0 B. 104,4 C. 82,8 D. 115,2 (Trich dS thi tuyen sink DH khoi B nam 2013) Hu&ng ddn gidi Khi gidi hdi nay can chu y trong hSn hop khi sinh ra do khi oxi ddt chay dien cue than chi la CO, CO2 va Oj. 89 6 Theo bai ra: nx,,, = — — = 4 (Kmol) 22,4 "cacoa = 0,015(mol); 0^(3) = ^ = 0,05(mol) Goi X, y, z Idn luot 1^ sd' mol CO, CO, va O2 trong 1,12 lit X. Theo bM ra ta cd: x + y + z = 0,05 (1) sd'vd viet phUcfng trinh phan img dang ion rut gon. S6mol cdc chat: n^^^ = 0,05(mol);nco2 = 0,3(mol); n M o H ) 2 = ^ = 0.l2(mol) =>28x + 44y + 32z= 1,67 PTHH: Quy d6i h6n hop X thanh: Na (x mol); Ba (y mol) va O^" (z mol). Taco: 23x + 137y + 16z = 21,9 y = Hg^^oH^^ = 0,12 (mol) (Bao toan bari) Vi electron duoc bao toan ndn: x. 1 + y.2 = z. 2 + 0,05. 2 => x + 2y - 2z = 0,1 Giai ra ta duoc: x = 0,14; y = 0,12; z = 0,14 (2) CO, + Ca(OH)2 ^ CaC03>t + H2O y ^ ". I, y =>y = 0,015 Tir (1, 2, 3) zz> x = 0,0275; y = 0,015; z = 0,0075 Suy ra trong 1,12 lit X cd sd mol nguyfin tijf oxi \h: 0,0275 + 0,015.2 + 0.0075.2 = 0,0725 (mol) (3) N H 3 t +H2O 1,12 ^ Phucfng trinh diSn phan: ^ 2 A I 2 O 3 - > 4A1 + 3O2 11600/3 < - 5800/2 (mol) 11600.27 Vay m = 3.1000 Dap an diing la B , X = 104,4(kg) ^ ' B.Na C. L i i 0,05-> 0,05 (mol) Con: 0 0,01 Ca(OH)2 n6ng d6 a mol/l vao dung djch E de'n khi thu dupe lupng Mt tua \dn nha't thi vita h6t V l i t dung djch Ca(OH)2. Bie'u thiJe lien hd giiJa cac gia t r i V , a, 2013) X, y la Hu&ngddngidi nha't nfen c6 s6' m o l nho nha't => th^ tich A . V . ^ . a tao ra nho nha't. K i m loai Ca (nhom I I A ) c6 nguyen tir kh6'i xa'p x i vdd k i m loai K nhung do c6 B . V = a(2x + y ) C. V = 2a(x + y ) . hoa t r i I I ndn se tao ra th^ tich H , 16m hon. D. V v a y k i m loai K tao ra th^ tich H j be nha't. _ x + 2y a (Trich de tuyen sinh Cao dang khoi A) Dap an dung la A . Hu&ng ddn gidi C a u 5: Dung dich X chiia 0,12 m o l Na"; x mol S O 4 " ; 0,12 mol C[ va 0,05 mol S6 mol OH-: n ^ ^ _ = 2nca(OH)2 = ^ - V . a (mol) N H 4 . Cho 300 m l dung dich Ba(OH), 0 , 1 M vao X dfe'n khi cac phan ling xay ra Lupng ket tiia thu dupe Idti nha't khi toan b6 lupng HCOj- phan umg he't v6i OH": loan toan, Ipc bo kd't tiia, thu dupe dung djch Y . C6 can Y , thu dupe m gam chat HCOJ + O H " - > CO^- + H2O i ^ , khan. Gia trj c i i a m l a A . 7,190 t, cau 6: Dung djch E g6m x m o l Ca^\ mol Ba^*, z m o l H C O j ' . Cho tir tir dung dich Trong s6' cac k i m loai nhom l A da cho thi K la k i m loai c6 nguy6n t i i kh6'i 16n -' phan ling: •- Dap an diing la C. D . Ca (Trich de thi tuyen sink DH khoi B nam ' 0,06 v a y m = 0,12.23 + 0,12.35,5 + 0,005.137 + 0,01.17 = 7,875 (gam) dSy thu dupe thi tich k h i H , (cung dieu kidn nhiet d6 va ap su^t) la nho nha't? ' 0,05 Chat ran tan trong Y c6 Na* (0,12 mol); Q " (0,12 mol); Ba^^ (0,005 mol) va O H (0,01 mol) Cau 4: K h i hoa tan hoan toan m gam m6i k i m loai vao nuoc dir, tit k i m loai nao sau A.K Ban d^u: B. 7,705 C. 7,875 z -> z D . 7,020 (Trich de thi tuyen sinh DH khoi B ndm =>z = 2.V.a 2013) Hu&ng dan gidi (1) Theo djnh luat bao toan dien tich ta eo: z = 2x + 2y (2) Phuang phdp dqc thii de gidi hdi nay Id silr dung dinh ludt hdo toan dien tich vc) viei phumg trinh dang ion thu gon de gidi. Khoi lifcmg chat ran thu duac hang tSng khdl litang cac ion. S6'molBa(OH)2: nB^(oH)2 =0,3.0,1 = 0 , 0 3 ( m o l ) Theo dinh luat bao toan didn tich, ta c6: 0,12.1 + 0 , 0 5 . 1 = 0 , 1 2 . 1 + x . 2 = > x = 0,025 PTHH: Ba^^+S04'^BaS04i Band^u: 0,03 0,025 Phan ling: 0,025 < - 0 , 0 2 5 (mol) C6n: 0,005 0 chid T i r ( l , 2 ) r ^ 2 x + 2y = 2 . V a = ^ x + y = V.a = > V = ^ a Dap an dung la A . C^u 7: Cho h6n hpp K2CO3 va NaHCOj (ti le mol 1: 1) v^o binh dung dich Ba(HC03)2 thu dupe ket tiia X va dung djch Y . Them tit tit dung dich H C l 0,5M vao binh den k h i khdng con khi thoat ra thi he't 560 m l . Bie't toan b6 Y phan vtng vita du vdi 200 m l dung djch N a O H I M . Kh6'i lupng ket tua X la A . 3,94 gam. B. 11,28 gam. C. 7,88 gam. D . 9,85 gam. (Trich dethi tuyen sinh DH khdfi A) Hu&ng ddn gidi Can chit v: Khi cho HCl vao hinh thi HCl phdn ling cd vdi ket tiia 388 dungdichY(NaHC0„KHC0j,Ba(HC0j)2). iy, . x , X(BaC03) S6 mol cac chat: n„ci = 0,5.0,56=0,28(mol); iiNaOH = 0,2.1 = 0,2(mol) Dat s6 mol K 2 C 0 3 , N a H C 0 3 vh Ba(HC03)2 ISn luot Ik x, x => S6 mol cac ion C03~,HC0J Ik x * (x + 2 y ) m o l . K (Na) + H2O ^ KOH(NaOH) + ^ H 2 y (mol) ' 'n^„-=l,8(mol) PTHH xay ra khi dung dich H Q + X + Y: Z + CrCl,: COJ- + 2H+ - > CO2 + H 2 O X - > 2x HCO; + » * • ^ CO2 + H 2 O 3 0 H - + C1CI3 (x + 2y) (x + 2y) =>2x + (x + 2y) = 0,28 =:>3x + 2y = 0,28 (l) 1,5 < - 0,5 HCO3 + OHH O H " - > CO^- + H2O Banddu: 0,04 0,08 PI/: 0,04-^ 0,04 -> =0,04.197 = 7,88(g) C^u 8: Hoa tan hoan toan m gam h6n hop X g6m Na K v^o dung djch HCl du thu duoc dung dich Y. C6 can dung dich Y thu dugc (m + 31,95) gam h6n horp cha't ran khan. Hok tan h o ^ toan 2m gam h6n hop X vao nu6c thu duofc dung djch Z. Cho tir tiir ddn hd't dung djch Z vko 0,5 lit dung dich CrCl, I M dfi'n phan ling hokn toan thu duoc kd't tiia c6 kh6'i luong 1^ A. 54,0 gam B. 20,6 gam C. 51,5 gam D. 30,9 gam "Ba(OH)2 =0,5.0,2 = 0,1 (mol) Suy ra s6' mol cac ion trong dung djch: noH- = 0,05.1 + 0,1.2 = 0,25 (mol); n^2+ = 0,1 (mol) ion rut gon cac phan ihig xay ra: Hu&ng ddn gidi Theob^ira: n ^ ^ l ^ =0,5.1 =0,5(mol) P X (m gam) + HQ (du): ., / i ^ =>m _ =31,95(g) "^1 95 = > V = " h h ( N a . K ) ~ = 0,9(mol) > Do do khi 2m (gam) X thi c6 0,9. 2 = 1,8 mol (K, Na) CO, + OH" BandSu: 0,2 0,25 (mol) PhaniJng: 0,2 0,2 • HCOJ + OH" I 0,05 2Na + 2 H C l - > 2 N a a + H2 t 2K + 2 H a ^ 2KC1 + H2 t 4 48 ^' = 0,2 (mol); n,.,oH = 0,5.0,1 = 0,05 (mol); 22,4 -—1— S6' mol cac cha't: n (Trich de tuyen sink Cao dang khoi A) =>m + 31,95 = m + m ' (Trich De thi tuyen sinh DH - CD khoi A) Hu&ng ddn gidi Dang hat tap CO2 tdc dung vcfi hSn hcfp dung dich kiem can sif dung phifffng trinh ion thu ggn de gidi. 0,04 ^ Dap an dung Ih C. , 't r mk, =(0,5-0,3).103 = 20,6(gam) g6m NaOH 0,1M va Ba(OH)2 0,2M, sinh ra m gam ke't tiia. Gia trj ciia m la A. 19,70. B. 9,85. * C. 17,73. D. 11,82. K2CO3 + Ba(HC03)2 ^ BaC03 i +2KHCO3 * (mol) Cau 9: Ha'p thu hoan toan 4,48 lit khi CO, (6 dktc) vko 500 ml dung dich h6n hop Tiif(l,2) x = 0 , 0 4 ; y - 0 , 0 8 =^xi + Cr(OH)3-»[Cr(OH)/" Dap an diing la B. =:>x + 2y = 0,2(2) =>^s.co,i ->• 0,5 (mol) (1,8-1,5)^0,3 Bpfty (x + 2 y ) ( x + 2y) i i +3Cr Cr(OH)3 ' * PTHH xay ra khi NaOH + dung dich Y: ,j l,8(mol) 1,8 CO»23 fiandSu: 0,05 ^hanung: 0,05 > HCOJ <- 0,05 + Ba 2+ 0,2 (mol) > • CO I" + H2O 0,05 BaCOji 0,1 (mol) 0,05 — 0,05 (mol) vay m = mg^cosi = '^'^ = ^-^^ (sam) Dap an diing \k B. Cku 10: K h i dien phan N a Q n6ng chay (didn cue t m ) , tai eatot xay ra A. sir k h u ion Na"^. B. su oxi hod ion G'. C. su oxi hoa ion Na*. D. su khiJ ion Q". (Trich De thi tuyen sink DH - CD khoi Hu&ng ddn gidi Catot (cue am): Na* + le - > Na (su khir ion Na*) Ddp an diing \h A. Ciku 11: Nho tir tir cho ddn du dung djch N a O H vao dung dich A l Q j . Hidn tuong xay ra la j A. C O kd't tija keo trSng eo k h i bay Iftn. t CO, + 0,075 (mol) =0,1 (mol); n c , c » 3 i = "x= ^ AlA >2Al+|o,t C + O, vay, hidn tuong xay ra la eo k6t tua keo trSng, sau do kd't tua tan. 2C + O, Dap an dung la B. CSu 12: Nung 13,4 gam hdn hop hai mu6'i cacbonat cija hai k i m loai hoa tri 2, thu duoc 6,8 gam chat rdn va khi X. Luong khi X sinh ra cho ha'p thu vko 75 ml dung dich N a O H I M , kh6'i luong mu6'i khan thu duoe sau phan ihig \k A. 4,2 gam. B. 5,8 gam. C. 6,3 gam. D. 6,5 gam. > 2CO CO, (X mol); CO (y mol) va O, (z mol). Theo bai ra, ta c6: x + y + z = 3000 44x + 28y + 32z x+ y+ z Theo bai ra: nN,oH = 0,075. 1 = 0,075 (mol). Khi 0,1 mol X + Ca(OH), du ^ 0 0 0 mol X = 6,6 (gam) §> ,, , , ^ 1' (1) ,^ ^ = 16. 2 44x + 28y + 32z = 96000 +00,1 > CaCOj i + H , 0 => Trong h6n hop k h i c6 the eo cac khi sau: Hu&ng ddn gidi > oxit k i m loai(,j„, > CO, CO, + Ca(OH), (du) (Trich De thi tuyen sinh DH - CD khoi B) 6,8 (*) > NaLAKOH)*] tan - = 0,02 (mol). Cac phuong trinh h6a hoc xay ra: > A l ( O H ) 3 i + SNaQ A1(0H)3 + NaOH,d„, =13,4 z = 600 (2) > 0,02 mol CaCOj (0,02 mol CO,) z mol CO, (3) Tir ( 1 , 2, 3) ta giai ra duoc: X = 600; y = 1800; z = 600. =>nco2 = ^ ^' nco2 ^ = 0,15(mol) -^"NaOH CO, du. " 67 2 10"^ Theo bai ra: nx = — — =3.10^ (mol); 22,4 kd't tiia keo trang mco2 / (Trich De thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc khoi B) Hu&ng ddn gidi (Trich De thi tuyen sink DH • CD khoi A) Hu&ng ddn gidi => ^^f''' Dap an dung la C. D. ehi C O kfi't tOa keo trSng. Mu6'i cacbonat(rt„, —"""^ > 0,075 (mol) CiU 13: Dien phan nong chay A U O j vdi anot than chi (hidu sua't dien phan 100%) thu duoc m kg A l d catot va 67,2 m ' (6 dkte) h6n hofp k h i X c6 ti kh6'i so vdi hidro bang 16. La'y 2,24 lit (6 dkte) h6n hop khi X sue vao dung djch nu6c v6i trong (du) thu duoc 2 gam ke't tiia. Gia trj cua m 1^ A. 108,0. B. 67,5. C. 54,0. D. 75,6. C. kh6ng C O kS't tiia, eo khi bay len. 3NaOH + A i C l , > NaHCOs =:Mn.„,i = m N a H C 0 3 = 0,075.84 = 6.3 (gam). B. C O kd't tua keo trSng, sau do kd't tiia tan. P T P i ; xay ra: NaOH Suy ra, long s6' mol khi O, sinh ra theo phuong trinh (*) "guydn t6' oxi): ^no2 = X + ^ + z = 600 + — + 600 = 2100 (mol) ^ .,Z (ap dung hko tohn ,v 91 no 9 97 V i H = 100% => niA, = 7. = 7,74 + 0,5. 36,5 + 0,5. 0,28. 9 8 - 0 , 3 9 . 2 = 38,93 (gam). = 75600 (g) = 75,6 (kg). 17: Cho m gam N a O H vao 2 lit dung dich NaHCOj ndng d6 a mol/1, thu duoc 2 lit dung djch X. La'y 1 lit dung dich X tac dung vdd dung dich BaClj (du) thu (Jirgrc 11,82 gam ke't tiia. Mat khac, cho 1 lit dung dich X vao dung djch CaQz (dir) r6i dun nong, sau k h i ke't thiic eac phan ung thu duoc 7,0 gam k€t tua. Gia tri ciia a, m tuong ung la C a u 14: Trong cong nghidp, natri hidroxit difqic san xua't bang phuong phap A . difin phan dung dich NaNOj, kh6ng c6 mang ngan difin cue. B. didn phan NaCl nong chay. C. dien phan dung dich NaCl, khdng C O mang ngan didn cue. D . didn phan dung dich NaCl, c6 mang ngan ditn cue. (Trich De thi tuyen sinh Cao dang khoi A) J * Hu&ngddngidi ,i v mang ngan didn cue: 2Naa + 2H,0 - ^ 2 ^ A. 0,04 va 4,8 B. A l tac dung vdi CuO nung nong. C. A l tac dung vdd Fe203 nung nong. dac nong. Phan img nhiat nh6m la phan ling giSa b6t nh6m vdri oxit k i m loai. Dap an dung la D . 0,06(mol) < ^ 0,06(mol) < (0,07 - i +CO2 + 2NaCl + H2O 0,06) "NaHCOs = 0.06 + 0,02 - 0 , 0 8 ( m o l ) => 2a = 0,08.2=>a = 0,08 ( m o l / l i t ) . fay a = 0,08 m o l / lit; m = 4,8 gam. . „, ''ung dich H a ( d u ) . C6 can dung djch thu duoc, r6i tie'n hanh dien phan nong = 0,39 (mol). chay he't cha't ran thu duoc (vdri dien cue tro) thi or catot sinh ra 11 gam k i m loai a anot c6 2,24 lit k h i thoat ra (dktc). Gia t r i ciia m la = HHC. + 2 nH2S04 = 0,5.1 + 2.0,5.0,28 = 0,39 (mol) ^- 12,6 , B.15 = 2n + => axit phan ung vijfa dii vdd k i m loai. 2 -> CaCOj i + 2 N a a 18: Hoa tan he't m gam h6n hop hai oxit ciia k i m loai k i l m va k i l m th6 vao 8 736 => n ^ 0,06 (l) J>ip an diing la D . Hu&ng dan gidi 22,4 , Theo (1): nNaOH =nNa2C03 = 0 . 0 6 ( m o l ) = > m = 2.0,06.40 = 4,8(gam) can dung djch X thu duoc luong mud'i khan la Theo bai ra: n^^ = "2 > BaCOj i +2NaCl 0,02 C a u 16: Hoa tan hd't 7,74 gam h6n hop b6t M g , A l bang 500 m l dung dich h6n hcf (Trich De thi tuyen sinh Cao dang khoi A) Na2C03 + BaClj 2NaHC03 + CaClj —^CaCO-^ dac, nong kh6ng thu6c loai phan ting nhidt nhom D . 38,93 gam. > N a j C O j + H2O 0,06 Hu&ng dan gidi H C l I M va H,S04 0,28M thu duoc dung dich X va 8,736 lit khi H , (d dktc). C6 NaOH + NaHCOj Na2C03+CaCl2 (Trich De thi tuyen sinh Cao dang khoi A) C. 103,85 gam. P I' PTPir: B. 25,95 gam. = 2a(mol) loai A . A l tac dung vdd Fe304 nung nong. A . 77,86 gam. UNaHcOa 118 7 "Bacoji = 7 ^ - 0 , 0 6 ( m o l ) ; n^^coji = — = 0,07(mol). phan dug nhiet nh6m? H2SO4 D . 0,08 va 4,8 Hu&ng dan gidi Theo bai ra: 2NaOH + Cl^ + cau 15: Phan ting hoa hoc xay ra trong trucmg hop nao dudi day khong thu6c Do do, A l tac dung vdti C. 0,07 va 3,2 (Trich de thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc khoi A) Dap an dung la D . H2SO4 B. 0,14 va 2,4 ; Trong c6ng nghiep, N a O H san xu^t bang each didn phan dung djch NaQ, c6 D . A l tac dung vdfi "->i p^p an diing la D . Dap an diing la D . • : C. 15,8 D . 18,1 Hu&ngddngidi , H So 66 phan ung: K i m loai + A x i t Theo djnh luat bao toan kh6'i luong: > Mu6'i + Hj , Theo bai ra: n r . , = — ^ 22,4 (mol) >" * ^; +-Y iS:J')iiT Dat oxi kim loai ki^m va ki^m th6 Idn lucrt la MjO (xmol) va EO (y mol) Sor d6 phan umg: M^O X -> 2x -> >ECl2 EO SO 66: X ).2M + C l 2 >2MC1 2x X >F + C\2 pXPlT: M' ; C2H2 + | o 2 -> 2CO2 + H2O 0,1 ^ 1 • H2+-02->H20 \ Dap an diing la A. Cau 19: Cho h6n hop chat ran g6m CaC., A I 4 C 3 va Ca vao nude thu duoc h6n hop X g6m 3 khi, trong d6 c6 hai khf cung s6' mol. La'y 8,96 lit h 6 n hop X (dktc) chia lam hai ph^n bang nhau. - Phdn 1 cho vao dung dich AgNOj trong NH3(du), sau phan ting ho^n toan, thay tach ra 24 gam k^'t tOa. - Ph^n 2 cho qua Ni, dun nong thu duoc h6n hop Y. Th^ tfch O^vira dii (dktc) can dung d^ d6't chay hoan toan Y 1^ A. 5,6 lit B. 8,4 lit C. 8,96 lit D. 16,8 lit Hu&ng dan gidi 8 96 S6' mol khi X trong m6i phSn: n ^ , , = — =^0,2(mol) A/^ (22,4.2) ,^ 0,05^0,1 , =^ m = 11 +16.0,1 = 12,6(gam) ] 1 * : 0,25 CH4+202-*C02+2H20 m=(2Mx +Ey)+16(x + y) 0,05-> 0,025 =:.no2=0,25+0,l+0,025=0,375(mol) =>Vo2 =0,375.22,4-8,4 (lit) Dap an diing la B. Cau 20: Hoa tan hoan toan m gam Na va 1 lit dung dich HCl aM, thu duoc dung dich G va a mol khf thoat ra. Day g6m cac chat d^u tac dung duoc v6i dung dich A. Ni, Na^SOj, Ca(HC03)2 C. Al, NH4NO3, NajSOj c B. Zn, AUOj, NaHSOj D. Sn, Na2C03, NH4H2PO4 Hu&ngddngidi Theo bai ra: n^ci =a (mol) 24 nAg2C2 Goi X , y, z Mn luot la s6' mol m6i khf trong m6i phSn: PTPU: Na+HCl a C a C 2 + 2 H 2 0 - > C 2 H 2 t + Ca(0H)2 X (mol) Na + H20 Al4C3 + 12H20->3CH4 t +4A1(0H)3 i ^NaCl+i-H, 2 ^ a/2 (mol) >NaOH + - H , 2 ^ a/2^a/2(mol) y (mol) dung djch G c6 chiia NaOH, NaCl. Ca + 2H20->Ca(OH)2 + H 2 t chat tac dung duoc voi dung dich G: Zn, AI2O3, NaHS03. z (mol) Taco: x + y + z = 0,2 PTPU: Y bang / U y ^ y y Taco: x + y = 0,1 (mol) 2xM + E y = 11 (gam) Ma:m = ( 2 M + 1 6 ) . x + ( E + 1 6 ) . y Theobkira: >Y dung dinh luat bao toan nguydn t6' => luomg O. cSn d^ d6t chiy jiTcmg O2 c^n d i d6't chay X. . y ^ eo bai ra, c6 hai khf c6 s6 mol bang nhau => 2 khi do la C H 4 va H2 (y = z) fir (3) =^ y = z = 0,05. C2H2 > Ag2C2 i + + AgjO X Tac6:x = 0,l Tir(l,2) => y + z = 0,l '^l/: (1) -> H2O Zn + 2NaOH + 2 H 2 O Al203+2NaOH + 3H20 X (2) (3) > Na2 [Zn(OH)4 ] + H 2 NaHSOj + NaOH >2Na[Al(OH)4] > ^a^SO^ + WJQ , , ' ^^P an diing la B. 397 C ^ u 21: Cation M ' * c6 ca'u hinh electron ngoai ciing 1^ 2p'. Khi cho dung (j. M Q j \ko cac 6ng nghifem dung lucmg du cac dung djch: NazCOj, NaOH " Na2S04. S6 6'ng nghifem sau phan dug c6 k€i tua hidroxit 1^ A. 3 B. 2 C. 4 D. 1 ' • Hu&ng ddn gidi Ion M ' * C O ca'u hinh electron ngoai cung \h. 2p* => ca'u hinh electron diy (jj^ M ^ * la [ N e ] . ( l s 2 2 s 2 2 p ^ ) . Vi •3+ M - 3e ( 23.0,1.100% ay%'"Na=—\^— i p an diing la B. ^ ^ U 23: Cho 27,4 gam Ba vao 200 gam dung djch CUSO4 16%, sau cac phan iJng jioan loan thu duoc dung djch X. Dung djch X c6 kh6'i luong thay d6i so v6i |ji6'i Iifong dung djch CUSO4 ban d^u la ^ . giam 39,2 gam B. giam 38,8 gam , • C . giam 38,4 gam D. tang 27,0 gam ' Hu&ng ddn gidi NelSs^Sp' Z M =13(A1);M''^ l a A l ' * i Ba + 2 H 2 O + CUSO4 -> BaS04 i + C U ( 0 H ) 2 i +H2 t +3CO2 + 6 N a C l 0,2 A I C I 3 + 4 N a O H ( d u ) - > N a [ A l ( O H ) ^ ] + 3NaCl A I C I 3 + Na2S04 -> khdng xay ra Dap an dung la B. c a u 22: Hoa tan hat 19,9 gam h6n hop gdm Na, K, Ba vao nu6c thu duoc 4 lit dunj djch X C O pH = 13. Trung hoa dung djch X bang axit H2SO4 viira dii sau p h a n linj thu duoc 23,3 gam kS't tua. Phdn tram khd'i luong cua Na trong h6n hop trdn la A. 62,55% B. 11,56% C. 16% D. 17.8% Hu&ng ddn gidi pH = 13 => pOH = I => [ 0 H - ] = O.IM => X X J -> 2AICI3 + 3Na2C03 + 3 H 2 O -> 2AI ( O H ) ^ 4- + 6 N a C l + 3CO2 t KOH y 2 A I C I 3 + 3 B a ( O H ) 2 ^ 2A1(0H)31+3BaCl2 + I/2H2 2 A l ( O H ) 3 + B a ( 0 H ) 2 ->Ba(A102)2 + 4 H 2 O C^U 25: Tr6n 300 gam dung djch Ba(OH)2 1,254% v6i 500 ml dung djch chiia axit H3PO40,O4Mva H 2 S O 4 0 , 0 2 M . Tinh khd'i luong cac mu6l thu duoc sau phan ling. Hu&ng ddn gidi (1) 23x + 39y + 137z = 19,9 (2) v . ; -'-V =^z = 0,l ' "H2SO4 T i r ( l , 2 , 3 ) = > x = 0 , l ; y = 0,l; z = 0,l ^ B B" 300 1 954 ^ ^'^^^ " " 3 ' ^ 4 = 0.5.0,04 = 0.02 (mol); =0,5.0,02 = 0,01 (mol) ^Sutien: z (3) ^(°")2 ^ • H2SO4 + Ba(OH)2 -> BaS04 i + 2 H 2 O -> ^ A I C I 3 + 3NH3 + 3 H 2 O - ) • A 1 ( 0 H ) 3 4. + 3 N H 4 C I z =>x + y + 2z = 0,4 • '••^ z ^ Hu&ng ddn gidi Ba + 2 H 2 O -> Ba(OH)2 + H2 z 0,2(mol) Viet cic phuong trinh phan utig c6 thd' xay ra. 23,3 NaOH + I / 2 H 2 0,2 -> 0,2 Q u 24: Cho AlCl., l^n luot tac dung vdri cac dung djch: NH3,Na2C03,Ba(OH)2. :"1^"^'^ Na + H 2 O ^ 0,2 Dip an diing la A. = 4.0,1 = 0,4 (mol) K + H2O ^ Ta c6: mft, + mddCuS04 = m^dx + m i + m | =>mddx =27,4 + 200-(0,2.233 + 0,2.98 + 0,2.2) = !60,8(g) " KhO'i luong dung djch X giam so vdi kh6'i luong dung djch CUSO4 ban din bang: 200-160,8 = 39,2(g) A I C I 3 + 3NH3 + 3 H 2 O A l ( O H ) j 4 + 3 N H 4 C I -> 200 16 =0,2 (mol); ncuso4 = i ^ ^ ^ - j ^ = 0.2 (mol) Theobaira: PTPU": 2 A I C I 3 + 3Na2C03 + H 2 O ^ 2A1 (OH)^ K6't tiia thu duoc la BaS04 = 11,56% Ba(OH)2+H2S04->BaS04+2H20 0,022 0,01 0.012 0,01 0,01 0,01 mol mol mol ' - - Saudo Ba(OH)2+2H3P04-).Ba(H2P04)2+2H20 C6n Sau do 0,012 0,02 mol 0,01 0,02 0,01 mol 5 0,002 Ba(OH)2 + Ba(H2P04)2 -> 2BaHP04 + 2H2O f _ 0,002 0,01 0,002 0,002 0,004 C6n 0,008 => Kh6'i lucmg cua BaS04 :0,01.233 = 2,33 gam mol mol 1 ; ''u ' c o K h 6 i lucmg cua Ba(H2P04)2 :331.0,008 = 2,648 gam Kh6'i luong cua BaHP04 :0,004.233 = 0,932 gam Cau 26: Hoa tan hoan toan 12,42 gam A l blng m6t lirong vira du dung dich HNO3 loang, thu dixgc dung djch X va 1,344 lit (d dktc) h6n hop khf Y g&m hai khi la N3O va N . . Ti kh6'i cua h6n hop khi Y so vdri khi H , la 18. Tinh so mol H N O 3 da dung. Hu&ng ddn gidi M2khf = 18.2 a + b = 0,06 u z:>a = b = 0,03 Al Al^+ Vay Cu-" chua kd't tua hdt, Fe tan hdt ^ np, = = — = 0,25(mol) 64 . , ; me = 0,25 . 56 = 14 (gam) < 14,45 (gam) -> loai. +) Tru&ng hop 2: a < 2b: KOH hdt, Zn du, B chi c6 Zn, Fe. 2K + 2 H 2 0 - * 2 K O H + H2 2KOH + Zn ^ K2Zn02 + H , a/2 a mg =65 b - ^ + 56c = 14,45 2j + 3e (+3NO3) 0,46 mol 1,38 2NO3+8e N2O 0,06 0,03 0,24 2NO3 + lOe ^ Nj 0,06 0,03 0,3 (1) 1,38 (2) (3) a/2 a/2 N : nen s6' mol electron dir nay HNO3 se nhan de' tao NH4 S6' mol electron do HNO3 nhan tao NH4 = 1,38 - ( 0 , 2 4 + 0,3) = 0.84 mol + 8c-^.NH; 0,84 0,105 (1) Fe, Zn phan ung vdri Cu"" c6 du Cu"" ndn Fe, Zn hd't: Zn + Cu-* -> Zn-" + Cu Fe + Cu-" ->. Fe-" + Cu S6 mol Cu tao ra = — = 0,25 (mol) 64 b - - + c = 0,25 (2) Giai hd phuong trinh (1) va (2) ta c6 b = c = 0,2 Do s6' mol electron A l nhucmg > t6ng s6' mol electron HNOj nhSn dd' tao N;0 ^ mc, = 0,3. 64 = 19,2 (gam) > 16 (gam) -> loai. S6-mol H . = - + - = ^ = 0,3(mol)->a = 0,3 2 2 22,4 44a + 28b = 2,16 0,105 Nau Cu-^ k6t tua hdt thi du Fe = 36 Goi a, b \in luot la s6' mol cua NjO va NO3 Q^M 27: Cho h6n hop Y g6m ba kim loai K, Zn, Fe vao nirdc du thu diroc 6,72 lit jchi (dktc) va con lai chat ran B khdng tan c6 kh<5i lirgng 14,45 gam. Cho B vao 100 ml dung djch CUSO4 3M, thu dirge chat ran C c6 khd'i lugmg 16,00 gam. Xac djnh kh6'i lugng m6i kim loai trong Y? Hu&ng ddn gidi Ggi a, b, c la s6' mol cua K, Zn, Fe c6 trong h6n hgp Y. Co hai trucmg hgp: h ^) TrU&ng hop 1: a > 2b: du KOH -> B chi c6 Fe. * ) Phuong trinh phan irng: Fe + Cu"* Fe^* + Cu S6 mol Cu-' = 0,1 . 3 = 0,3 mol. m^ =39.0,3 = 11,7(gam) H6n hgi) Y: | m^„ = 65.0,2 = 13,0(gam) mpe =56.0,2 = ll,2(gam) (4) ' "HN03cin ~ "NOJ(mu6i) ^ "NOj(oxi hoa) = 1,38 + 0,105 + 0,06 + 0,06 + 0,105 = 1,71 mol Vaydadung 1,71 mol HNO3. 400 Ant CHUYiN o f 6 : KT THU^T BAI G I A I N H A N H CAC D i ^ N G TJSlP yg C R O M - skr - O6NG I Cr(OH)2 + H2SO4 (I) \ 4Cr(OH)2 + O2 + 2H2O 1. 1. - CROM Cd'u tao cua crom . -u , , Cr (Z = 24): [Ar] 3d'4s' (ca'u hinh bin bao hoa ga'p phan 16p d). ' Trong hop cha't, crom c6 s6' oxi hoa hi^n d6i tCf + 1 d^n + 6. Ph6 bid'n hon ca cdc s6' oxi hoa +2, + 3 va + 6. 2. Tinh chat vat li Crom la kirn loai nang (d = 7,2 g/cm'), c6 mau trdng bac, kho n6ng chay, kho > bay hoi, cumg nh^'t trong s6' cac kim loai. 3. Tinh chat hoa hoc pi^uche': "h^Tngkhi ' Cr(OH)2i +2Naa CrCl2 ''han la cha't b6t mau trang, tan trong nu6c cho dung djch mau xanh lam. Co tinh khijf manh: 2CrCl2 + Cl2 > 2Cra3 4Cra2 + O2 + 4HC1 . Di^u ch6: fa K > 4Cra3 + 2H2O Cr + 2HC1 — ^ CrQj + H2 2CrCl3 + H2 — ^ CrCl2 + 2 H a Cra3 + [H] 2Cr + 3 0 , — ^ 2Cra3 Zn(Hg)/HCI i: ^ ^^^^ ^ ir 4Cr(OH)3 4Cr(OH)2 + O2 — ^ 2Cr203 + 4H2O A. L I THUY^T Cr + 2HC1 > CrS04 + H^O - La chat b6t mau luc thSm (dang v6 djnh hinh, khi d dang tinh th6' c6 mau den anh kim), kh6ng tan trong nu6c. - CriOj la m6t oxit ludng tinh: fj Cr203 + 2K0H — ^ 2KCr02 ' + H2O kali cromit Hop cha't ph6 bid'n ciia crom la quang cromit FeO. Cr203 (thuomg c6 13n AI2O3 va"si02). Cr.O, + 6KHSO4 — ^ Cr2(S04)3 + 3K2SO4 + 3H2O Chu v: Cr203 kh6ng tan trong nu6c, dung dich axit va dung djch ki^m loang. •m' Til quang tach ra ducte Cr203, sau d6 di^u chfi'crom bing phuong phap nhiet nh6m: CrjOj + 2A1 — ^ 2Cr + AI2O3 n . MOT S 6 HOP CHAT CUA C R O M 1. Hop chat crom (H) - Di^u che': K2Cr207 + S > Cr203 + K2SO4 (NH4)2Cr207 — ^ Cr.Oj + N2 + 4H2O ^- Cr(0H)3, crom(III) hidroxit a. CrO, crom (II) oxit - CrO la cha't b6t, mau den, khdng tan va khdng tac dung vdi H2O. La ket tua nhSy, mau luc nhat, kh6ng tan trong nude \h c6 thanh phin bid'n ddi (Cr203. XH2O). - C6 tinh chat lu5ng tinh: Lh. oxit baza va c6 tinh khijf: CrO + 2 H a > C r a , + H2O 4CrO + O2 — ^ 2Cr203 b. - Di^uchfi': 2Cr(Hg) + 02(kk) > 2CrO + Hg (1) Cr(OH)2, crom(ll) hidroxit Cr(OH)2 la cha't ran, mau vang, kh6ng tan trong nude. La m6t bazo va c6 tinh khCr: 1^ Cr(OH)3 + 3Ha Cra3 + SHjO Cr(0H)3 + NaOH(dd) > Na[0(OH)4] Kern ben nhiet: Jii^uche': 2a(OH)3 — ^ C r A + 3H2O Cr'* + 30H- > Cr(OH)3i ""^
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