Influential factors to job stress of employees in refrigeration electrical engineering corporation (ree)

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RESEARCH PROJECT (BMBR5103) INFLUENTIAL FACTORS TO JOB STRESS OF EMPLOYEES IN REFRIGERATION ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING CORPORATION (REE) STUDENT’S FULL NAME : HO QUANG MINH STUDENT ID : CGS00018253 INTAKE : MAY 2014 ADVISOR’S NAME & TITLE : DR. NGUYEN THE KHAI (DBA) August, 2015 ADVISOR’S ASSESSMENT ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ Advisor’s signature Nguyen The Khai, DBA RESEARCH PROJECT TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................................5 CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................6 I. INTRODUCTION OF REE CORPORATION .......................................................6 Overview of the company ................................................................................................6 I.1 Products and brand name .....................................................................................7 I.2 Organization Structure .........................................................................................8 I.3 Business Objectives .............................................................................................9 I.4 REE Corporation commitments to employees and human resource manager .....9 II. RESEARCH INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................11 II.1 Problem statement..............................................................................................11 II.2 Main construct ...................................................................................................11 II.3 Research objective .............................................................................................11 II.3.1 Research questions .............................................................................................12 CHARPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW ..................................................................13 I. STRESS IN THE WORKPLACE..............................................................................13 II. DEFINING JOB STRESS.........................................................................................13 III. CAUSES OF JOB STRESS ......................................................................................14 IV. SOURCES OF JOB STRESS ....................................................................................15 CHARPTER III: RESEARCH MODEL AND HYPOTHESES .....................................18 I. RESEARCH MODEL ...........................................................................................18 I.1 Dependent Variables: .........................................................................................18 I.2 Independent Variables: ......................................................................................19 II. CONSTRUCTS .....................................................................................................19 III. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES ............................................................................19 III.1 Job Overload: .....................................................................................................19 Hypothesis 2: Job overload is positively related with job stress. .........................20 III.2 Role Overload: ...................................................................................................20 Hypothesis 2: Role overload is positively related with job stress. ........................21 III.3 Perceived Injustice: ............................................................................................21 The Elements of Fairness ........................................................................................21 Hypothesis 3: Perceived Injustice is positively related with job stress. ...............22 III.4 Work-Family conflict: .......................................................................................22 Hypothesis 4: Work-Family Conflict is positively related with job stress. .........22 CHARPTER IV: RESEARCH METHODS AND DATA ANALYSIS ......................23 I. RESEARCH DESIGN ...........................................................................................23 II. RESEARCH METHODS ......................................................................................23 II.1 Data collection method ......................................................................................23 II.2 Measures ............................................................................................................23 HO QUANG MINH 2 RESEARCH PROJECT II.2.1 Job Overload: .................................................................................................23 II.2.2 Role Overload ................................................................................................25 II.2.3 Perceived Injustice .........................................................................................26 II.2.4 Work-Family Conflict....................................................................................27 II.2.5 Job Stress Scale:.............................................................................................29 III. DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORT..................................................................30 III.1 Reliability Analysis ........................................................................................32 III.2 Descriptive Analysis .......................................................................................33 III.3 Correlation among available...........................................................................33 III.4 Hypothesis Testing .........................................................................................34 CHARPTER V: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS ..............................................36 I. SUMARY OF RESULT: ......................................................................................36 II. DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENTDATION....................................................36 III. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY..........................................................................38 IV. CONCLUSIONS ...................................................................................................38 REFERENCES.................................................................................................................40 APPENDIX .......................................................................................................................46 HO QUANG MINH 3 RESEARCH PROJECT LIST OF TABLE Table 1: Reliability Statistic of Cronbach’s Alpha ...........................................................32 Table 2: Descriptive Statistics ..........................................................................................33 Table 3: The Pearson’s Correlation .................................................................................33 Table 4: Model Summary .................................................................................................35 Table 5: Coefficientsa .......................................................................................................35 HO QUANG MINH 4 RESEARCH PROJECT ABSTRACT Work stress is increasingly becoming a serious problem in the workplace. Employees in companies frequently trouble, crises and conflicts in the current working environment in offices and factories that require them to deal with. The central theme of this research is focused on finding out the underlying causes of the job stress of employees. This study used quantitative methods using questionnaire method. Some of the procedures adopted for the implementation of rigorous quantitative analysis. These organizations can help reduce the overall impact of work stress by developing and implementing preventive measures and interventions to help employees manage and cope with job stress. The research is focused on analyzing the relationship between job overload and job stress; role overload and job stress; perceived injustice and job stress; work-family conflict and job stress. The theoretical framework of this study by collecting data were tested from 300 employees of REE Corporation and to assess the factors affecting the Job stress in the organization. Key words: job stress, job overload, role overload, perceived injustice, work-family conflict. HO QUANG MINH 5 RESEARCH PROJECT CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION I would like to introduce a research about “Influential Factors to Job Stress of Employees in REE Corporation (Refrigeration Electrical Engineering Corporation)”. I. INTRODUCTION OF REE CORPORATION Overview of the company Established since 1977, REE (Refrigeration Electrical Engineering Corporation) today is a diversified business group operating in the fields of mechanical and electrical engineering services (M&E); manufacturing, assembling and sales of airconditioner systems; real estate development and management; and strategic investment in the utilities infrastructure sectors. As one of the first companies to list its shares on the Ho Chi Minh City Stock Exchange, REE is among the 30 largest companies in term of market capitalization (as of 31/12/2014, REE's market capitalization is US$ 354 million). REE is among the most actively traded shares with an average daily volume of 1,297,774 shares in 2014. History 1977-1999: Building foundation and embracing change  In 1977, the Company was established on the basis of a state entity which later changed its name into Refrigeration Electrical Engineering Company.  In 1993, REE was one of the first companies to be equitized, paving the way to enhance the Company’s competitiveness.  In 1996, the Company introduced its first Reetech products.  In 1997, REE was the first company to issue convertible bonds to foreign investors. 2000-2010: Going public and becoming a diversified business group  In 2000, REE became the first company to be listed on Vietnam’s stock market. HO QUANG MINH 6 RESEARCH PROJECT  In 2002-2003, the Company structured the manufacturing and mechanical and electrical engineering activities into REE M&E and REE Electric Appliances to grow the businesses stronger.  In 2008, REE’s E.Town campus came into full operation with a total leasable area of 80,000m2, marking the Company’s entry into real estate development.  In 2010, REE expanded investments into infrastructure sectors of electricity and water, looking to meet such basic social needs. 2011-2015: Progressing toward sustainable growth  In 2011, REE continued to expand the office lease space portfolio and increase investment ownership in infrastructure sectors.  In 2012, the Company issued a convertible bond of 557 billion dong to Platinum Victory Pte. Ltd., a 100% owned subsidiary of Jardine Cycle & Carriage Limited – a leading Singapore-listed company and a member of the Jardine Matheson group, raising capital for investments in infrastructure sectors and forging a partnership between REE and Jardines to carry out the Company’s business strategy.  In 2012-2015, REE is focused on achieving a return on equity (ROE) of at least 15% per annum for this period I.1 Products and brand name The Group businesses include:  REE M&E, a leading mechanical and electrical engineering contractor in Vietnam;  REE Electrical Appliances which manufactures, assembles, and markets air conditioners under the Reetech brand;  REE Real Estate, a management services company for lease office properties of REE;  REE Land, a real estate developer; and HO QUANG MINH 7 RESEARCH PROJECT  Power and Water Utility Infrastructures with ownership stakes in power utilities and clean water treatment plants. I.2 Organization Structure HO QUANG MINH 8 RESEARCH PROJECT I.3 Business Objectives Vision: To become a holding company that invests in and develops leading businesses in the fields of refrigeration electrical engineering, real estate and utilities infrastructures in Vietnam. Mission: For our Shareholders and Investors: Create the highest values for our shareholders, commit to transparency in the appropriate disclosures of the Company’s operations to our shareholders and investors and actively engage in promoting dialogues with our investors. For our Customers: Provide our customers with products of high quality, reliability, and durability; listen and strengthen our technical expertise to serve our customers’ demands in the best way possible. For our Business Partners: Maintain and develop long-lasting relationships with our business partners on the basis of mutual benefits and the creation of quality products for our society. For our Community and Society: REE considers as its corporate social responsibility to have compassion and provide financial supports to our community and society, particularly in the education, well-being and development of our children. For our Employees: Recognize the contribution of our employees and create a friendly working environment, encourage and respect independent and creative ideas contributed by our employees for the development of the Company. I.4 REE Corporation commitments to employees and human resource manager REE is focused on developing and retaining people across all the businesses they operate in. Developing People HO QUANG MINH 9 RESEARCH PROJECT REE recognizes people as the greatest asset of any business and provides our people with training and development programs for further growth of their capability and contribution to the Group. Regular development workshops were conducted for mid-level managers in various areas such as finance, operation and marketing to introduce a complete knowledge base for a thorough understanding of different aspects of each Group business. The Group also has a program to identify and develop talents through the rotation of their assignments with various corporate functions and to build up their potential for leadership roles across Group businesses. HO QUANG MINH 10 RESEARCH PROJECT II. RESEARCH INTRODUCTION II.1 Problem statement REE are always interested and well implemented on Human resource strategy, the managers of REE Corporation always want their employees are in good condition to ensure the highest performance, they think the environment good working, good treatment from the company, a stable income, the staff are always comfortable and contribute their best to the company. Reality does not happen like that, people are always under pressure from other factors such as family, peers relationships, the role of the present work, fairness in work, the pressure more from work, etc. Their staff led to the situation that Job stress, which negatively affects the work efficiency of the individual happens stress and affect the stages involved in the process. To ensure that the proper implementing incentive measures aimed at improving employee job performance, REE Corporation have a better understanding of factors affecting the Job Stress and how to reduce these effects. Concerning this issue, the study was conducted to examine the factors that affect the employee's Job stress. II.2 Main construct According to the HR department and production, in recent times many of REE Corporation personnel were reduced job performance and unusually large impact on the manufacturing process and the related processes, reduces efficiency overall performance of the company. II.3 Research objective This study mainly seeks to achieve the following objectives: 1. To find out the factors that may impacts on Job stress. 2. To identify the factors that may impact on Job Stress. 3. To suggest some solutions based on research findings to reduce the Job Stress. HO QUANG MINH 11 RESEARCH PROJECT II.3.1 Research questions Based on the discussion above, and to accomplish the objective of this study, these research questions have been formulated: 1. How is the impact Job Overload on Job Stress? 2. How is the impact Role overload on Job Stress? 3. How is the impact Perceived injustice on Job Stress? 4. How is the impact Work-Family conflict on Job Stress? HO QUANG MINH 12 RESEARCH PROJECT CHARPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW I. STRESS IN THE WORKPLACE Over the past decade many parts of society have been in economic upheaval. Layoffs, downsizing, and bankruptcies have cost millions of people their jobs. Millions more live in constant fear of the same fate. Many people have accepted pay cuts, and one employee may be assigned the tasks formerly performed by two or three. People are working longer and harder just to maintain their economic status. The result of all these changes? Many research studies have now confirmed that workplace stress is, and it has been escalating during the last several decades. (Wolever, RQ, Bobinet, KG. J Occup Health Psychol 2012, The American Institute of Stress) In a 2007, nationwide poll by the American Psychological Association, more than half of those surveyed indicated that their work productivity suffered due to stress; almost half stated that they did not use their allotted vacation time and even considered looking for a new job because of stress. Job stress is a concern for employers, costing increase through absenteeism, diminished productivity, employee turnover, medical, legal, and insurance fees. Health care expenditures are nearly 50 percent greater for workers who report high levels of stress, according to the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. More than half of respondents said that job demands interfered with family and home. (Wolever, RQ, Bobinet, KG. J Occup Health Psychol 2012) II. DEFINING JOB STRESS The NIOSH defines job stress as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. It can lead to illness and injury. (American Psychology Association) The concept of job stress is often confused with challenge, but the concepts are not the same. Challenge is energizing, physically and psychologically. It motivates people to learn new skills and master their jobs. When the challenge is met, there is a feeling of satisfaction that is HO QUANG MINH 13 RESEARCH PROJECT important to healthy and productive work. Often people are referring to challenge when they say, “a little bit of stress is good for you.” (The American Institute of Stress) III. CAUSES OF JOB STRESS There is general agreement that job stress results from the interaction of the worker and the conditions of work. There are differing opinions about the importance of worker characteristics versus working conditions as the primary cause of job stress. The distinction is important because they will respond to different methods to lessen and prevent stress at work. Some believe that differences in individuals, such as personality and coping skills, are most important in predicting whether certain job conditions will result in stress. What is stressful for one person may not be bothersome to someone else. This belief suggests that prevention methods should focus on workers and ways to help them cope with demanding job conditions. (Wolever, RQ, Bobinet, KG. J Occup Health Psychol, 2012) Individual differences are important, but scientific evidence also suggests that certain working conditions are stressful to most people. The most stressful work conditions are those in which workers have a sense of powerlessness, in a situation of extreme demands. (Gadinger, MC, Schilling, O, Litaker, D, Fisher, JE, 2012) Based on experience and research, NIOSH’s view is that exposure to stressful working conditions (job stressors) have a direct influence on worker safety and health, but individual and other situational factors can intervene to strengthen or weaken this influence. Some individual and situational factors that can reduce the effects of stressful working conditions include: balance between work and family or personal life, a support network of friends and coworkers, and a relaxed and positive outlook. (The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Job conditions that may lead to stress include:  Design of tasks – Heavy workload, infrequent breaks, long work hours and shiftwork, hectic and routine tasks with little inherent meaning, lack of skills needed, and little sense of control  Management style – Lack of participation by workers in decision-making, poor communication in the organization, lack of family-friendly policies HO QUANG MINH 14 RESEARCH PROJECT  Interpersonal relationships – Poor social environment and lack of support or help from coworkers and supervisors  Work roles – Conflicting or uncertain job expectations, too much responsibility, too many “hats to wear”  Career concerns – Job insecurity and lack of opportunity for growth, advancement, or promotion; rapid changes for which workers are unprepared  Environmental concerns – Unpleasant or dangerous physical conditions such as crowding, noise, air pollution, or ergonomic conditions IV. SOURCES OF JOB STRESS Rollinson (2005: 270) defines workplace stress as the conditions arising from the interaction of people and their jobs, which are characterized by changes within people that force them to deviate from their normal functioning. Stressors in the workplace are those conditions that have the potential to result in a person’s experiencing a situation as stressful. The degree of stress experienced and the ways in which a person reacts to it can be influenced by a number of other factors such as personal characteristics, lifestyle, social support, appraisal of the stressor(s), life events and socio-demographic and occupational variables (Rollinson 2005). Research has indicated the following as the most common sources of job stress that could be expected to have a measure of impact on organizational activity and employees’ sense of wellbeing and engagement in the workplace (Cartwright & Cooper 2002; Coetzer & Rothmann 2007; De Bruin & Taylor 2006; Labuschagne et al. 2005; Martin 2005; Rollinson 2005):  Role ambiguity: This aspect relates to the amount of stress experienced by an individual due to vague specifications or constant change regarding the performance expectations, duties, responsibility and constraints that define the individual’s job.  Work relationships: Poor or unsupportive relationships with colleagues and/or line managers, isolation (a perceived lack of adequate relationships) and unfair treatment can all be a potential source of stress.  Tools and equipment: To perform their job effectively, individuals need to feel they have the appropriate training, resources and equipment. HO QUANG MINH 15 RESEARCH PROJECT  Career advancement: This aspect refers to the stress experienced by individuals as a result of a perceived lack of opportunity to further their career prospects within the organization for which they work.  Job security: Job insecurity is an overall concern of losing one’s job or the discontinuation of one’s job. Job insecurity also implies uncertainty about the future.  Lack of job autonomy: The experience of stress is strongly linked to perceptions of decision-making authority and control. This may be due to either job constraints or workplace constraints. When there is great interdependence between the person’s tasks and the tasks of others, the person is likely to experience stress.  Work–home interface: The demands of work have the potential to spill over and interfere with individuals’ personal and home lives. This can put a strain on relationships outside work and impact upon the level of stress, especially when the individual experiences a perceived lack of social support at home or from friends.  Workload: This aspect refers to the amount of stress experienced by individuals due to the perception that they are unable to cope or be productive with the amount of work allocated to them. When people are expected to do more than the time and resources available permit them to do, they are likely to experience strain.  Compensation and benefits: The financial rewards that work brings are obviously important because they determine the type of lifestyle that an individual can lead. In addition, they often influence individuals’ feelings of self-worth and perceptions of their value to the organization.  Lack of leader/manager support: A supportive work setting is necessary to alleviate the effects of stress in the workplace. Employees need both tangible and emotional support, including trust and confidence, guidance, recognition, feedback and active interest from the immediate manager.  Aspects of the job: The fundamental nature of the job could cause stress. This includes factors such as physical working conditions, lack of challenging and meaningful assignments, type of tasks, and amount of satisfaction derived from the job itself. HO QUANG MINH 16 RESEARCH PROJECT Nelson (2003) reports a survey which indicates that 41% of people cite workload issues as the biggest source of stress, with another 31% reporting people or relationship issues and 28% juggling work and personal life. Research has also indicated that experiencing high levels of stress may lead to feelings of anger, anxiety, depression, nervousness, irritability, tension, hypersensitivity to criticism and mental blocks (Cartwright & Cooper 2002; Martin 2005). This may lead to lower job performance, resentment of supervision, boredom, low selfesteem, inability to concentrate and make decisions, apathy, short attention span, burnout and job dissatisfaction. Research has also indicated a relationship between stress and absenteeism and between stress and labor turnover (Coetzer & Rothmann 2007; Mostert, Rothmann, Mostert & Nell 2008). HO QUANG MINH 17 RESEARCH PROJECT CHARPTER III: RESEARCH MODEL AND HYPOTHESES The primary goal of this study is to investigate the effects of job overload, role overload, perceived injustice, and work-family conflict to employee job stress in REE Corporation. The methodology specifically described the research model, the research instrument, the research hypothesis, data collection process, and the procedure for the data analysis. I. RESEARCH MODEL From theories and previous research results, we propose Hypothesized Research Model as below: Job Overload Role Overload H1+ H2+ H3+ Job Stress Perceived Injustice H4+ Work-Family Conflict Figure 1: Proposed Research Model of Employee Job Stress in REE Corporation I.1 Dependent Variables: - Job Stress HO QUANG MINH 18 RESEARCH PROJECT I.2 Independent Variables: - Job Overload - Role Overload - Perceived Injustice - Work-Family conflict II. CONSTRUCTS - Key construct: Job Stress (JS) - Other constructs:  Job Overload (JO)  Role Overload (RO)  Perceived Injustice (PI)  Work-Family Conflict (WFC) III. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES III.1 Job Overload: Job overload has been researched and found in relation with work-family conflict (Bolino & Turnley, 2005; Coverman, 1989; Razak, Yunus, & Nasurdin, 2011). Similarly, job overload also results in role conflit (Coverman, 1989; Home, 1998). Most of the research on JO has been conducted by psychologists and social scientests has linked JO with job stress. According to published studies JO increases level of stress in an employee and results in turnover (Bakker, Demerouti, & Verbeke, 2004; Coverman, 1989; Madu, Okoro, & Onuibe, 2014; Maslach, 2003). Furthermore, some studies also associated JO with justice (Andrews, Wilmington, & Kacmar, 2014; Lambert, Hogan, & Griffin, 2007). Moreover, it has also been negatively associated with employees’ performance and ultimately with organization performance (Choi, Cheong, & Feinberg, 2012; Jamal, 2011; Karatepe., 2013). Job overload has been positively related with working hours, absenteeism and competitiveness, size of the firm, turnover etc. and has been negatively associated HO QUANG MINH 19
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