Improving customer satisfaction for packeged of the duc phat company in ho chi minh city

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Lecturer: Dr. TRAN UT ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 CONTENT ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...................................................................................... 3 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION.......................................................................... 3 1. Reason for choosing topic. .........................................................................................3 2. Research objectives. ..................................................................................................4 2.1. The overall goals. .............................................................................................................. 4 2.2. Specific objectives............................................................................................................. 4 3. Research questions. ...................................................................................................4 4. The research hypothesis.............................................................................................5 5. The practical significance of the subject. .................................................................6 6. Structure of topic........................................................................................................6 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................................. 7 1. Definition Business Research. ............................................................................ 7 2. Theoretical Literature. ....................................................................................... 7 2.1. Kano theory of customer satisfaction........................................................................8 2.2. Queuing theory of customer satisfaction.................................................................12 3. Empirical Literature........................................................................................ 14 3.1. What is Customer Satisfaction? ..............................................................................14 3.2. Techniques to Measure Customer Satisfaction. ......................................................17 3.3. Relation between Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality................................17 3.4. Customer Satisfaction Index Model ( CSI Model)..................................................18 4. Research Model. ................................................................................................ 19 5. Conclusion.......................................................................................................... 21 Student: LE ANH TUAN Student: HA TRIEN BANG MBAOUM0512 MBAOUM0512 Class 1C Class 1C ID: 2448512 ID: 2448444 Page 1 Lecturer: Dr. TRAN UT ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ............................................... 22 1. Research Framework ..................................................................................... 22 2. Research Process. .............................................................................................. 23 3. Study Design. ..................................................................................................... 24 3.1. Qualitative Methods. ...............................................................................................24 3.2. Quantitative Methods. .............................................................................................24 3.3. Scale construction. ..................................................................................................28 4. Methods of data analysis . ................................................................................ 30 CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ........................... 33 1. Research results................................................................................................. 33 1.1. Sample characteristics. ............................................................................................33 1.2. Scale testing.............................................................................................................33 2. Conclusion.......................................................................................................... 42 CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 43 1. Summary............................................................................................................ 43 2. Conclusion.......................................................................................................... 43 3. Recommendation............................................................................................... 44 References. ............................................................................................................. 45 Student: LE ANH TUAN Student: HA TRIEN BANG MBAOUM0512 MBAOUM0512 Class 1C Class 1C ID: 2448512 ID: 2448444 Page 2 Lecturer: Dr. TRAN UT ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First and foremost, we would like to thank us lecture Tran Ut, her continued support and mentorship throughout program. Her encouragement has been invaluable throughout this entire process. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1. Reason for choosing topic. Today, the competitive environment is becoming increasingly fierce, the wisdom of the enterprise is to bring higher customer satisfaction than the competitors in the same industry, because the satisfaction of customer proportional to the profits of the business which brings the success of business with customer loyalty to their brand. In the business strategy of the company always toward to customer and considered the most important strategy, this has made international brands such as Samsung, Nike, etc. So how to understand and responded to customer needs satisfied, that is the difficult question, and is the secret of each company, and tool in the competitive environment. And DUC PHAT is the same, since its establishment and development constantly trying to give the best customer satisfaction with all abilities. Accordingly, DUC PHAT has always in the customer loyalty. Be researching and improving for customer satisfaction has always been maintained and developed by DUC PHAT. With the above reason I chose topic ” IMPROVING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION FOR PACKAGED OF THE DUC PHAT COMPANY IN HO CHI MINH CITY “ to research on the subject Business Research Method. Student: LE ANH TUAN Student: HA TRIEN BANG MBAOUM0512 MBAOUM0512 Class 1C Class 1C ID: 2448512 ID: 2448444 Page 3 Lecturer: Dr. TRAN UT ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 2. Research objectives. 2.1. The overall goals. This study was conducted with the purpose of evaluating customer satisfaction of Birthday Cake packaged of DUC PHAT company in HCM city; based on which give out a number of solutions to help companies and managers can summarize the experiences to further enhance product quality in order to improve customer satisfaction to the demands and competitive environment of the society. 2.2. Specific objectives. To achieve the overall objective mentioned above, research should focus on the following specific objectives:  Identify factors about product affecting customer satisfaction.  Measure the impact of these factors about product to customer satisfaction.  Find out the differences may have on the level of customer satisfaction for product between customer groups by characteristics such as: gender, age, educational level, etc…  Proposed some solutions to improve customer satisfaction for Birthday Cake packed of DUC PHAT’s company. 3. Research questions. To achieve the research objectives, questions to gather information that will focus on the following main contents: Student: LE ANH TUAN Student: HA TRIEN BANG MBAOUM0512 MBAOUM0512 Class 1C Class 1C ID: 2448512 ID: 2448444 Page 4 Lecturer: Dr. TRAN UT ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103  What are quality factors to affect customer satisfaction for DUCPHAT’s packaged?  How does the impact of product quality factors to the satisfaction of the customers?  Is there a difference in the level of customer satisfaction for product between customer groups by characteristics?  From this study, work out how to improve our product to meet our customer needs? 4. The research hypothesis. As product quality, price, packaging and label play an important role and affect customer satisfaction in their purchase process. A hypothesis about the relationship between the quality of training and the satisfaction of participants is set out as follows:  H1: Product quality includes factors that create good quality products. The higher product quality as satisfied customer with consumer products, Hypothesis is: there is a relationship same way between product quality and customer satisfaction.  H2: The price is important, indispensable in commodity trading. The price is a tool to increase competitive advantage, low price will make customers happy, and the hypothesis is the assumption that the same way between price and customer satisfaction.  H3: Packaging is a very important factor in the purchasing activities. Customers will not be happy or accept poor quality packaging, not in accordance with the requirements of the product. Hypothesis would be: is there a relationship in the same direction packaging and customer satisfaction.  H4: Brands play an equally important role in creating quality products for the organization. Brand has long years…, which will create customer confidence. So, the higher the brand, customer more satisfied with the purchase of that product. Since then, the hypothesis is set: there is the same relationship between the brand and customer satisfaction. Student: LE ANH TUAN Student: HA TRIEN BANG MBAOUM0512 MBAOUM0512 Class 1C Class 1C ID: 2448512 ID: 2448444 Page 5 Lecturer: Dr. TRAN UT ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 5. The practical significance of the subject. The practical significance of the subject will be the core base to give benefits for the following subjects:  Company can improve, further improve product quality to customer satisfaction;  Research results can help managers have a holistic view of product quality, as a basis to help build orientation, policies and improve product quality better, satisfy customer requirements and society. 6. Structure of topic. Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Literature Review Chapter 3: Research Methodology Chapter 4: Research Result and Discussion Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation Student: LE ANH TUAN Student: HA TRIEN BANG MBAOUM0512 MBAOUM0512 Class 1C Class 1C ID: 2448512 ID: 2448444 Page 6 Lecturer: Dr. TRAN UT ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 1. Definition Business Research. A systematic inquiry aimed at providing information to solve problem [Cooper and Emory (1995) defined research] Research is the process of systematically gathering and analyzing information in order to gain knowledge and understanding [Kevin (1992) in his book entitled “Methods for Business Research” stated] An organized, systematic, databases, critical, objective, scientific inquiry or investigation into a specific problem [Sekaran (2003) defined] A systematic and objective process of gathering, recording and analyzing data for aid in making decision [Zikmund (2003) defined Business Research] In a business context, research is defined as an organized and systematic process of investigation to address a specific business problem or issue To research for this literature review, we have 2 part included theories and empirical researches that are relevant for understanding the customer satisfaction: 2. Theoretical Literature. The research of theories about customer satisfaction will have three theories in the time sequence. It will be indicated clearly by Kano theory and Queuing theory that will be introduced in this section. Every theory has different outlook and the following’s detail of each theory: Student: LE ANH TUAN Student: HA TRIEN BANG MBAOUM0512 MBAOUM0512 Class 1C Class 1C ID: 2448512 ID: 2448444 Page 7 Lecturer: Dr. TRAN UT ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 2.1. Kano theory of customer satisfaction. The Kano model is a theory of product development and customer satisfaction developed in the 80s by Professor Kano . The author indicated that customer needs are never changing, this means with following example: As a customer who purchased a lot of music, their needs were simple. The customer only wanted clearer sound and something smaller to store. The music industry responded and introduced the cassette. The cassette was indeed smaller. It did not fade out and then back in with that annoying “click” that my 6-track tapes used to have. The customer was pleased with their cassette collection. And then with no long time, the music industry introduced something called a CD – a compact disc. The CD offered better clarity, more storage capacity and the ability to jump to specific songs, or shuffle the order of their play. Best of all, one never had to rewind! Through that as a customer, their needs changed. In the move to CDs, they did not realize their needs had changed but the music industry, through research, keeping up with the competition and advances in technology, delighted me with new product offerings. Even today as my CDs are dust covered because I only utilize my iPod, new advances in music technology are being made to further address music customer needs. According to Kano is that customer satisfaction is proportional to the extent to which the product or service is fully functional. Based on that he give the model with three types of requirements the following:  Satisfying basic needs: Allows a company to get into the market.  Satisfying performance needs: Allows a company to remain in the market.  Satisfying excitement needs: Allows a company to excel, to world class. Student: LE ANH TUAN Student: HA TRIEN BANG MBAOUM0512 MBAOUM0512 Class 1C Class 1C ID: 2448512 ID: 2448444 Page 8 Lecturer: Dr. TRAN UT ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 Figure 2.1: Kano Model.  For satisfying basic needs: This model is the same Maslow’s needs theory to obtain high satisfaction is first to have to obtain basic satisfaction with needs. One of the main points of assessment in the Kano model is the threshold attributes. These are basically the features that the product must have in order to meet customer demands. If this attribute is overlooked, the product is completely incomplete. If a new product is not examined using the threshold aspects, it may not be possible to enter the market. This is the first and most important characteristic of the Kano model. The product is being manufactured for some type of consumer base, and therefore this must be a crucial part of product innovation. Threshold attributes are simple components to a product. However, if they are not available, the product will soon leave the market due to dissatisfaction. The attribute is either there or not. An example of a threshold attribute would be a steering wheel in a vehicle. The vehicle is no good if it is not able to be steered. Student: LE ANH TUAN Student: HA TRIEN BANG MBAOUM0512 MBAOUM0512 Class 1C Class 1C ID: 2448512 ID: 2448444 Page 9 Lecturer: Dr. TRAN UT ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 These needs are typically “unspoken.” If these needs are not fulfilled, the customer will be extremely dissatisfied. This includes a clean bathroom, clean linens and a pleasant in the air. When we book a reservation at a hotel, we do not request a clean room but this implies our expected about it. If this basic need is not met, we will be extremely dissatisfied. The same Maslow's needs theory to achieve safe needs must first achieve physiological needs and this is too. When achieving this satisfaction is to continue Satisfying performance needs to remain in the market for a company. Kano’s theory for this problem is that if a product or service wants into market is first thing which have to satisfy customer’s basic needs.  For Satisfying performance needs: These needs are different from the basic needs, performance needs are typically “spoken”, and this means that customer needs are expressed. Kano confirmed for this problem that if a company has a high-performance attributes will have a competitive advantage which compare to competitors because performance attributes are those for which more is generally better, and will improve customer satisfaction. Using the hotel example again, “spoken” needs could be Internet access, a room away from the elevators, a non-smoking room, etc. Conversely, an absent or weak performance attribute reduces customer satisfaction. The price a customer is willing to pay for a product is closely tied to performance attributes. So the higher the performance attribute, the higher the customers will be willing to pay for the product. Performance needs are slogan of each firm which also their business strategy for product or service toward. For example computer needs, although laptop is more expensive than other normal computer but with its characteristics can bring everywhere so, customer is willing to buy with it this. And with Coop- Student: LE ANH TUAN Student: HA TRIEN BANG MBAOUM0512 MBAOUM0512 Class 1C Class 1C ID: 2448512 ID: 2448444 Page 10 Lecturer: Dr. TRAN UT ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 Mart slogan is friends of all family and with Satisfying performance needs are right price. So, companies must always find out customer’s performance needs. This is only condition to a firm remain in the market and to allows a company to excel, to be world class are that company must satisfy excitement needs of customer that showed the finally type of requirement of Kano.  For satisfying excitement needs of customer: This excitement needs are also typically “unspoken” and unexpected by customers but it bring result in high levels of customer satisfaction, however their absence does not lead to dissatisfaction. Excitement attributes often satisfy latent needs – real needs of which customers are currently unaware. Using the hotel example again, “unspoken and unexpected” are that we stay a hotel who delighted by a freshly baked, chocolate chip cookie delivered to their room during turn-down service, all aren’t expected and required by customer. In a competitive marketplace where manufacturers’ products provide similar performance, providing excitement attributes that address “unknown needs” can provide a competitive advantage. Although they have followed the typical evolution to a performance then a threshold attribute, cup holders were initially excitement attributes. Finally, we can see that out of all the attributes introduced in the Kano Model, the excitement ones are the most powerful and have the potential to lead to the highest gross profit margins. Innovation is undisputedly the catalyst in delivering these attributes to customers; we need to be able to distinguish what is an excitement today, because tomorrow it becomes a known feature and the day after it is used throughout the whole world. Student: LE ANH TUAN Student: HA TRIEN BANG MBAOUM0512 MBAOUM0512 Class 1C Class 1C ID: 2448512 ID: 2448444 Page 11 Lecturer: Dr. TRAN UT ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 2.2. Queuing theory of customer satisfaction. In customer satisfaction, each theory will have a different opinion of each author. Similarly with Kano’s customer satisfaction theory is to have Queuing theory which discusses also the effecting factors to satisfaction. The Queuing theory indicates that Speed (waiting) of service has been shown to provide businesses a competitive advantage in the marketplace, it means clearly that the primary issue in queuing management and customer satisfaction is not the actual amount of time a customer waits for service, but the customer’s perception about that wait and the associated level of satisfaction. A highly satisfied customer will be very likely to provide repeat business and spread the positive experience by word of mouth (advertising), resulting in increased revenues and profitability. Example: I just arrived at my local pharmacy to get a new prescription filled and to pick up a few other things. There is a line of five people at the register and another six people sitting in the waiting area. By the time I get to the counter to hand the cashier my prescription, 10 minutes have passed. I ask how long the wait will be and I am told 35 to 40 minutes. I go about my shopping and return to the pharmacy 30 minutes later. Again, there are people in line at the register and it takes me another 8 minutes to find out that my prescription is not ready. Feeling weary and somewhat frustrated, I have a seat in the waiting area. As I sit there, I watch people come and people go. At last my name is called! I pay the cashier and my pharmacy encounter is complete. However, I don’t feel good about it, and from that times, I did not come there any more, “a customer has left”. Conversely, an unsatisfied customer will most likely not provide repeat business and will be more than willing to share his or her bad experience with whoever will listen. This will have an obvious negative impact on profits and revenues. We feel weary, un-pleasure as waiting a long time for product or service (delivery…). Student: LE ANH TUAN Student: HA TRIEN BANG MBAOUM0512 MBAOUM0512 Class 1C Class 1C ID: 2448512 ID: 2448444 Page 12 Lecturer: Dr. TRAN UT ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 We can see that the measurement of customer satisfaction as it relates to waiting time is highly qualitative and subjective, and the relationship is generally inversed in nature (in general, as waiting time decreases, satisfaction increases). This relationship was further expanded by Master who, in 1985, postulated that satisfaction is dependent on customer perception and customer expectation. For example, one study examined customer attitudes toward waiting times in the hotel and restaurant industry and found that over 70% of all respondents were clearly concerned about waiting times. In fact, those most concerned about waiting times were generally more willing to pay more to avoid waiting in line and believed that quality is worth waiting for. The results of this survey indicate that queues do affect the satisfaction level of customers and their willingness to spend. In addition, this study also suggests that there is a point where a lengthy wait begins to affect the customer’s perception of quality. The main goal of queuing management is to maximize the level of customer satisfaction with the service provided In fact today, this theory is increasingly widespread application, especially for the company business about services (bank...). At this point, we can conclude with this theory is that in order to increase customer satisfaction, the company not only meets the demand for the products they need, but also in the quality of service for the wait. Any company brings to high customer satisfaction which customer loyalty will also be high. Satisfaction and customer loyalty is proportional to each other. All are illustrated with specific examples. Through the two showed theory above, we can understand that there are factors effected customer satisfaction which each firm should find out to satisfy their. Student: LE ANH TUAN Student: HA TRIEN BANG MBAOUM0512 MBAOUM0512 Class 1C Class 1C ID: 2448512 ID: 2448444 Page 13 Lecturer: Dr. TRAN UT ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 3. Empirical Literature. In this section will give us an overview of what the customer satisfaction is, Techniques to Measure Customer Satisfaction, relation between customer satisfaction and service quality, Customer Satisfaction Index Mode. 3.1. What is Customer Satisfaction? The customer satisfaction becomes an important asset for businesses and organizations in an effort to improve the quality of the service, to maintain loyalty, enhance the competitiveness of enterprises. In 1989, the index of measuring the level of satisfaction was first launched in Sweden (Swedish Customer Satisfaction barometer - SCSB) was established customer satisfaction index for the purchase and consumption of products and services domestic service. And in the following years, this index was developed and widely applied in developed countries like America - ACSI, Norway - NCSI, Denmark - DCSI and EU countries - ECSI (1998). This index can be done on the national level (enterprise, how the industry will meet for their customers) or internal angle sector (compare the satisfaction of the business in within a sector) and a comparison between the different times (to see the change). Since then, the business can know its position, the customer reviews for businesses to plan the business goals and strategies. So to understand what customer satisfaction is, we will have many various outlook to the concept of satisfaction by everyone, the following is detailed outlook: There are two principal interpretations of satisfaction as a process and satisfaction as an outcome (Parker and Mathews, 2001). Early concepts of satisfaction research have typically defined satisfaction as a post choice evaluative judgment concerning a specific purchase decision [Oliver, 1980; Churchill and Suprenant (1992). Bearden, William O. and Teel (1983); Oliver and DeSarbo Student: LE ANH TUAN Student: HA TRIEN BANG MBAOUM0512 MBAOUM0512 Class 1C Class 1C ID: 2448512 ID: 2448444 Page 14 Lecturer: Dr. TRAN UT ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 (1988). But Swan and Combs (1976) were among the first to argue that satisfaction is associated with performance that fulfils expectations, while dissatisfaction occurs when performance falls below expectations. In addition, Poisz and Von Grumbkow (1988) view satisfaction as a discrepancy between the observed and the desired. This is consistent with value - percept disparity theory (Westbrook and Reilly,1983) which was developed in response to the problem that consumers could be satisfied by aspects for which expectations never existed (Yi,1990). The value - percept theory views satisfaction as an emotional response trigged by a cognitive - evaluative process (Parker and Mathews, 2001). In other words, it is the comparison of the "Object" to one's values rather than an expectation. Besides that, we can understand customer satisfaction with other opinion: Customers want a meeting between their values (needs and wants) and the object of their evaluations (Paker and Mathews, 2001). More recently, renewed attention has been focused on the nature of satisfaction: emotion, fulfillment and state (Parker and Mathews, 2001). Consequently, recent literature adds to this perspective in two ways. First, although traditional models implicitly assume that customer satisfaction is essentially the result of cognitive processes, new conceptual developments suggest that affective processes may also contribute substantially to the explanation and prediction of consumer satisfaction [Fornell and Wernerfelt (1988), Westbrook (1987), Wesbrook and Oliver (1991)]. Second, satisfaction should be viewed as a judgment based on the cumulative experience made with a certain product or service rather than a transaction - specific phenomenon (Wilton and Nicisia, 1986). There is general agreement that: Satisfaction is a person’s feelings of pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing a product’s perceived performance (or outcome) in relation to his or her expectations ( Kotler,2003. p.36). Based on this review, customer satisfaction is defined as the Student: LE ANH TUAN Student: HA TRIEN BANG MBAOUM0512 MBAOUM0512 Class 1C Class 1C ID: 2448512 ID: 2448444 Page 15 Lecturer: Dr. TRAN UT ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 result of a cognitive and affective evaluation, where some comparison standard is compared to the actually perceived performance. If the perceived performance exceeds expectation, customers will be satisfied. Otherwise, if the perceived expectations are met with performance, customers are in an indifferent or neutral stage. Customer satisfaction is defined as a customer’s overall evaluation of the performance of an offering to date. This overall satisfaction has a strong positive effect on customer loyalty intentions across a wide range of product and service categories (Gustafsson, 2005). The satisfaction judgment is related to all the experiences made with a certain business concerning its given products, the sale process, and the after-sale service. Whether the customer is satisfied after purchase also depends on the offer’s performance in relation to the customer’s expectation. Customers form their expectation from past buying experience, friends’ and associates’ advice, and marketers’ and competitors’ information and promises (Kotler, 2000). Factors which determine the extent of expectations are: customer needs, total customer value and total customer cost. It is mentioned by researchers who study customer choice that choosing a product or service is only one of the stages customers go through. A purchase decision is influenced by the buyer’s characteristics. These include cultural, social, personal and psychological factors. In addition to the buyer’s characteristics, a purchase decision is influenced by the buyer’s decision process. The typical buying process develops through five stages: 1 new recognition; 2 information search; 3 information evaluation; 4 purchase decision and 5 post-purchase evaluation (Chaston, 2001). Searching for information is a key stage of a customer’s decision-making process and may include a search for both internal and external information. As the perceived risk of a purchase decision Student: LE ANH TUAN Student: HA TRIEN BANG MBAOUM0512 MBAOUM0512 Class 1C Class 1C ID: 2448512 ID: 2448444 Page 16 Lecturer: Dr. TRAN UT ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 increases, consumers search for more information in order to cope with uncertainties about the potential positive or negative consequences (Jihye Park, 2005). 3.2. Techniques to Measure Customer Satisfaction. To measure customer satisfaction in market research will have 4 different techniques, it is the following: Customer satisfaction survey methodologies; Focus group to study customer satisfaction issues; Standardized packages for monitoring customer satisfaction and Various computer software But there are some problems with typical customer satisfaction measurement techniques such as focus groups, survey methodologies and customer satisfaction software. These include: Analytical- concerned with techniques, formal procedures, systems, and so on; Behavioral – concerned with the attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, motivation, commitment and resulting behavior of the people involved in the process ; and; Organizational – concerned with the Organizational structure, information flows, management style and corporate culture, i.e. the context in which the process is conducted (Piercy, 1996). 3.3. Relation between Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality. The business is often said that the service quality is customer satisfaction. However, many studies show that customer satisfaction and service quality are two distinct concepts but have close relationship with each other. Quality of service is the concept of objectivity, the nature of price and Student: LE ANH TUAN Student: HA TRIEN BANG MBAOUM0512 MBAOUM0512 Class 1C Class 1C ID: 2448512 ID: 2448444 Page 17 Lecturer: Dr. TRAN UT ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 perception, while satisfaction is a combination of the subjective component, based on feelings and emotions (Shemwell & CTG, 1998, Thongsamak, 2001). 3.4. Customer Satisfaction Index Model ( CSI Model). For this customer satisfaction model will have 2 models which are completely different for satisfaction, but every model has the various advantages and disadvantage, the following is detail: Firstly, American Satisfaction Index (ACSI), perceived value is influenced by the perceived quality and customer expectations. Meanwhile, customer expectations have a direct impact on perceived quality. In fact, when the expectation is higher can feel the quality standards of the customers for the product or vice versa. Therefore, the requirements for product quality and service provided to customers must ensure and be satisfied on the basis of their satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is formed on the basis of perceived quality, expectations and perceived value, if the quality and perceived value higher expectations will create customer loyalty, otherwise, there is a complaint or complaints about consumer products that they (as Figure 2.1). Complaint Expectations Perceived value Customer Satisfaction Loyalty Perceived quality Figure 2.1: The Model of American Customer Satisfaction Index – ACSI. Student: LE ANH TUAN Student: HA TRIEN BANG MBAOUM0512 MBAOUM0512 Class 1C Class 1C ID: 2448512 ID: 2448444 Page 18 Lecturer: Dr. TRAN UT ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 Following that, Model of European Satisfaction Index (ECSI) is a certain difference. Compared with ACSI, photos of the product, the brand has a direct impact on the expectations of our customers. Meanwhile, customer satisfaction is the impact Synchronization of 4 factors photos, perceived value, and perceived quality of both tangible and intangible products. Typically, only of ACSI is often applied to the field of application also ECSI indicators usually measure products, the industry (Figure 2.2). Image Expectations Perceived value Customer Satisfaction Loyalty Perceved quality-Prod Perceved quality–Service Figure 2.2: The Model of European Satisfaction Index – ECSI. 4. Research Model. On the basis of the theory and the results of previous studies are concerned, the author inherited the SERVQUAL scale by Parasuraman (2005), and edited five elements: means tangible, reliable, responsive, make security and empathy into 4 elements: product quality, price, packaging and Student: LE ANH TUAN Student: HA TRIEN BANG MBAOUM0512 MBAOUM0512 Class 1C Class 1C ID: 2448512 ID: 2448444 Page 19 Lecturer: Dr. TRAN UT ASSIGNMENT – BMBR5103 brand to measure and evaluate customer satisfaction of products in inner HCM city. Specifically, the elements of the quality scale were modified from the SERVQUAL scale as followings: (1) The product quality can be adjusted from the elements inside to ensure food safety, raw material for making cakes, soft cake... (2) Prices are shown a willingness to pay of customer to purchase, the comparison between what the product is worth to pay. The lower the price the higher the competitive advantage. (3) Packaging is shown impressive product image in the minds of consumer. (4) Packaging is one of the elements that make up customer confidence with the product. Good brand is also to affect the purchase decision. Research on the relationship between product and customer satisfaction, thought to rotate around the 4 main axis (component / or subject area) reflect the new/full resolution target that the subject has posed. These four elements have a close and intimate relationship to measure quantify the satisfaction of the customer to buy their packed. The proposed research model to assess, measure customer satisfaction of packaged Birthday Cake on HCM city area through 4 elements: product quality, price, packaging and brand as follows: Student: LE ANH TUAN Student: HA TRIEN BANG MBAOUM0512 MBAOUM0512 Class 1C Class 1C ID: 2448512 ID: 2448444 Page 20
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