Hướng dẫn ôn thi tốt nghiệp thpt môn lịch sử-trương ngọc thơi

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907 H561D chuyifl LTKIIIIIJM f&uidti kien ON THI TOT N G H I E P TRUNG HOC PHO THONG (Tai b a n , Ian thuf n h a t , theo c a u true de thi m d i ThS. TRl/dNG NGOC THdl| HUdNG DAN ON THI TOT NGHIEP THPT MON LICH • THEO CAU TRUC DE THI CUA BO GIAO DgC VA DAO TAO (Tdi ban idn thit f nhat) —. NHA XUAT BAN THANH HOA NHA X U A T B A N T H A N H HOA 248 TrSn Phii - P. Ba Dinh - TP. Thanh Hoa Di#n thoai: (037) 3852281 - 3722347 - 3853548 Fax:(037)3853548 E-mail; nxbthanhhoa@yahoo.com HUCfNG D A N O N T H I T N T H P T M O N L I C H SlT ThS. T R l / d N G NGQC THCfl Chiu trdch nhi^m xudt ban: N G U Y I N H C T U C H I J C Bien tap: LE D A N Trinh hay hia: T H A I V A N In 1.000 cuon, kho 16 x 24cm tai Cong ti TNHH MTV In Tin Loc - TP.Ho Chi Minh. S6' DKKHXB: 452 - 2012/CXB/63 - 20/ThaH. QOXB sa': 412/QD - ThaH, ngay 31/12/2012. In xong va nOp lifu chieu quy 1 nam 2013. Cung cac em hoc sinh than men! De kjp th6i giup cac em nam that vQng kien thiJc, chuan bj cho ky thi tot nghiep nam hoc 2009 - 2010 va nhieu nam hoc sau nay, chung toi bien soan cuon: "HlAirNG DAN dN THi T^TT NGHl|P THPT MdN L|CH SUl^ theo chiicfng trinh on thi mdi nhat cua Bo Giao due va Dao tao vCra ban hanh. Sach viet di/di dang vC/a cung cap kien thtirc cd ban, c6 dong, de nhd, d§ hieu de cac em c6 dieu kien hoc tap va tiep thu nhanh kien thC/c mon Ljch sCf Idp 12 trong thdi gian ngan. Ngoai phan kien thCfc cd ban, chung toi con gidi thieu mot so de thi tot nghiep trong nhOng nam 2006 den nam 2008 de cac em tham khao them ve cac dang de thi tot nghiep cua Bp Giao due va Dao tao. Nam vCifng kien thufc cd ban trong sach, cac em se vOng tin bade vao cac ki thi dang chd ddi phfa trade. Day la tai lieu can thiet va bo ich cho cac em hoc sinh Idp 12 cung nhu cac ban dong nghiep. Trong qua trinh bien soan, chac khong the tranh khoi nhQng thieu sot. Rat mong nhan dUdc sU gop y \is quy thay, c6 giao day bo mon Uch sCf cung nhu cac em hoc sinh yeu quy \ii moi mien dat nude. Chung toi xin tran trong cam dn. TACGIA 3 CAU TRUC CHUfdNG TRINH THI TOT NGHl|P THPT MON LICH S6 I. PHAN CHUNG CHO TAT CA THi SINH 2} UCH sO THE GI6I HIEN DAI TCT N A M 1945 DEN N A M 2000 - Sa hinh thanh trat (1945- 1949) tii the gidi mdi sau Chien tranh the gidri thuT II - Lien X6 va cac nirdc Dong Au (1945 - 1991). Lien bang Nga (1991 - 2000) - Cac nude Dong Bac A - Cac nirdc Dong Nam A va An Do - Cac nifdc chau Phi va M i La tinh - Nude M i - Tay Au -NhatBan - Quan he quoc te trong va sau thcfi k i Chien tranh lanh - Cach mang khoa hoc - cong nghe va xu the toan cau hoa nilfa sau the kiXX - Tong ket lich suT the gidi hien dai tU nSm 1945 den nSm 2000 2 ] UCH sCr VIET N A M Ttf 1919 DEN N A M 2000 - Phong trao dan toe dan chii or Viet Nam tii nam 1919 den nam 1925 - Phong trao dan toe dan chu d Viet Nam ttf nam 1925 den nam 1930 - Phong trao each mang 1930 - 1935 - Phong trao dan chu 1936 -1939 - Phong trao giai phong dan toe va Tong khdi nghia thang Tarn (1939 - 1945). Nirdc Viet Nam Dan chu Cong hoa ra ddi - Nude Viet Nam Dan chii Cong hoa tii sau ngay 02 - 9 - 1945 den trade ngay 19 -12 - 1946 - Nhflng nam dau cua cuoc khang chien toan quoc chong thiTc dan Phap (1946 - 1950) - Budc phat trien mdi ciia cuoc khang chien toan quoc chong thuc dan Phap (1951- 1953) - Cuoc khang chien toan quoc chong thifc dan Phap ket thuc (1953-1954) - Xay dilng chu nghia xa hoi d mien Bdc, dau tranh chong de quoc M l va chinh quyen Sai Gon d mien Nam (1954 - 1965) 5 - N h a n dan h a i mien tnrc tiep chien dau cho'ng de quoc M i xam N h a n dan m i e n B^c vifa chien dau san xuat (1965 - 1973) viia liiac. - Cuoc dau t r a n h t r e n m a t t r a n ngoai giao. Hiep dinh Pari nSm 1973 ve chain dult chien t r a n h , lap lai hoa binh d Viet Nam - K h o i phuc va phat t r i e n k i n h te- xa hoi or mien Bac, giai phong hoan toan m i e n N a m (1973 - 1975) - Viet N a m trong nSm dau sau t h i n g loi cua khang chien chong M i cufu nirdc nam 1975 - Viet N a m xay di/ng chu nghia xa hoi va dau t r a n h bao ve To quoc (1976- 1986) - Dat nvldc t r e n diTcmg doi mdi di len C N X H (1986- 2000) - Tdng k e t l i c h sur Viet N a m tif nSm 1919 den nam 2000 I I . P H A N Tli C H O N Tj UCH sCr THE Gidl TCr NAM 1945 DEN NAM 2000 a.Theo chitdng trinh cd ban - Sif h i n h t h a n h t r a t tif the gi6NG B A C A - TrtftJc Chien t r a n h the gidi thuf I I , cac nifdc Dong B&c A (trCr Nhat Ban) deu b i chu nghia thiic dan no dich. TU sau nam 1945, t i n h l i i n h khu vUc CO nhieu bie'n chuyen. - Tif nijfa sau the k i XX, k h u vvfc Dong B&c A da dat di/crc sif trudng thanh nhanh chong ve k i n h te. H a n Quoc, Hong Cong, Dai Loem t r d thanh nhorng "con rong" k i n h te d chau A. N h a t Ban trof t h a n h nen k i n h te Idn thi'f hai the gidi. TRUNG Q U O C 1. Sii thanh lap mitfc C p n g hoa N h a n d a n T r u n g H o a v a thanh tiAi 10 nam d a u xay dUng che dp mdi (1949 -1959) a. Cuoc noi chien: - Cupc noi chien keo dai hem 3 nam (1946 - 1949). - Ngay 20 - 7 - 1946, Ti/dng Gidi Thach phat dong cuoc chien t r a n h chong Dang Cong san. - Ti^ thang 7 - 1946 den thang 6 - 1947, Quan giai phong Trung Quoc thiic hien chien lilOc phong ngif tich cifc. Sau giai doan nay, Quan giai phong chuyen sang phan cong, tien quan vao cac vung do Dang Quoc dan kiem soat. 15 - Cuoi nam 1949, cupc noi chien ket thuc, toan bo luc dia Trung Quoc diipc giai phong. Tap doan Tii&ng Giori Thach that bai, phai thao chay ra Dai Loan. - Ngay 01 - 10 - 1949, nudc Cong hoa Nhan dan Trung Hoa chinh thiJc thanh lap, dumg dau la Chu t i c h Mao Trach Dong. b. Y nghia: - Cham duft hcfn 100 nSm no dich cua de quoc, xoa bo tan dil phong kien. - Dua nude Trung Hoa biTdc vao k i nguyen doc lap, t u do va tien len chu nghIa xa hoi. - A n h hifdng sau sac tori phong trao giai phong dan toe the gidri. c. Cong cuoc k h o i phuc k i n h te va eai each - N h i e m vu hang dau cua nhan dan Trung Quoc la dUa da't nUdc thoat khoi ngheo nan, lac hau, phat t r i e n k i n h te, xa hoi, van hoa va giao due. - Tii nam 1953, Trung Qude thue hien ke hoach 5 nam dau tien (1953 1957). Nhcf no liic lao dong cua toan dan va sif giup dd cua Lien X6, ke hoaeh 5 nSm hoan t h a n h thSng loi. Bo mat dat nUdc Trung Quoc c6 nhieu thay doi ro ret. - Ve doi ngoai, t h i hanh chinh sach ngoai giao tich ciTc nhSm cung co hoa b i n h va thiic day sU phat trien cua phong trao each mang the giori. Ngay 18 - 01 - 1950, Trung Quoc thiet lap quan he ngoai giao v6i Viet Nam. 2. T r u n g Q u o c trong nhuTng j i a m k h o n g o n d i n h (1959 - 1978) - Ve doi npi, tii nSm 1959 den nam 1978, Trung Hoa lam vao t i n h t r a n g khong on d i n h ve k i n h te, chinh t r i , xa hoi. Vdi viee de ra va thife hien du&ng 161 "Ba ngon ecr hong" vdi mong muon nhanh chong xay difng t h a n h cong chu nghIa xa hoi. Hau qua la tif n&m 1959, trong ca nifdc nan doi dien ra t r a m trpng, dcfi song nhan dan kho khSn, san xuat ngifng t r e , dat nifdc khong on dinh. NhOng kh6 khan ve k i n h te da dan tori hien dong ve chinh t r i . Bieu hien: + Trong npi bp ban lanh dao Trung Quoc xay ra sir bat dong gay gat ve dudng lo'i, dan tori sir t r a n h gianh quyen life. + Tif nam 1969 den nam 1978, trong npi bp ban lanh dao vSn tiep tue d i i n ra cupc t r a n h gianh quyen life gay gat. - Ve doi ngoai, ung hp cupc dau t r a n h chong M l xam lifpc cua nhan dan Viet N a m cung n h u cupc dau t r a n h giai phong dan toe cua nhan dan cac ntfdc A, P h i va M l L a t i n h . Cung trong thdi k i nay, da xay ra nhOrng cupc xung dot or bien gidi giCfa Trung Quoc vdi A n Dp (1962), giuTa Trung Quoc vdi L i e n X6 (1969). Thang 2 - 1972, Tong thong M l Nichxcm sang tham Trung Quoc, md dau quan he mdi theo chieu hi/dng hoa diu gitfa hai nUde. 16 3. C o n g cuoc c a i e a c h - m d coba (to( n a m 1978) - Thang 12 - 1978, Trung tATng Bang Cong san Trung Quoc de ra dtfcrng 16'i mori, mcr dau cho cong cuoc cai each k i n h te - xa hoi. Dtfcfng loi nay dtfcfc nang len thanh dtfcmg Ira chung cua Dai hoi X I I (thang 9 - 1982), dac biet la Dai hoi X I I I (thang 10 - 1987) cua Dang: lay phat trien k i n h te lam trung tarn; tien hanh cai each va md ouCa, chuyen nen k i n h te ke hoach hoa tap trung sang k i n h te t h i tn£ing xa hoi chu n ^ i a , nhkm hien dai hoa va xay difng chu nghia xa hoi mang mau sSc Trung (^6c, vdri muc tieu bien Trung Quoic thanh quoc gia giau manh, dan chu va van m i n h . - Thifc hien dii&ng Idi cai each, dat nUdc Trung Quoc c6 nhuTng bien doi can ban. + Khoa hoc - Id thuat, van hoa va giao due dat nhieu thanh tiiU quan trong. + Nam 1964, T r u n g Quoc thijr thanh cong bom nguyen tuf. + Tif thang 11 - 1999 den thang 3 - 2003, Trung Quoc da phong 4 con tau "Than Chau" va ngay 15 - 10 - 2003, tau "Than Chau 5" cung nha du hanh Di/cfng L g i V i da bay vao vu tru. - Ve do'i ngoai, T r u n g Quoc c6 nhieu thay doi. + Da binh thi/cmg hoa quan he v6i L i e n X6, Viet N a m , Mong Co, khoi phuc quan he ngoai giao v d i Inddnexia.. + M d rong quan he hiiki ngfai, hop tac vdi cac nifdrc t r e n the gidi; c6 nhieu dong gop trong viec giai quyet cac t r a n h chap quoc te. BAI 4 CAC Nl/6C DONG NAM A VA AN DO Tj CAC Nl/dC DONG NAM A 1. Sif t h a n h l a p c a c quoc g i a dpc l a p d D o n g N a m A a. Vdi net chung vi qua trinh dau tranh gidnh doc lap - Trade Chien t r a n h t h e gidi thiJ 11, hau het cac midc trong khu vifc (tnr Thai Ljm) deu l a thuoc dia cua de quoc Au - M l . - Trong Chien t r a n h the gidi thiJ 11, Dong N a m A t r d t h ^ n h thuoc dia cua Nhat Ban. - Giufa thang 8 - 1945, nhan dan Dong N a m A ddng len dau t r a n h , nhieu niidc gianh duoc doc lap. + Ngay 17 - 8 - 1945, n h a n dan Inddnexia tuyen bo doc lap va thanh lap nifdc Cong hoa Indonexia. + Thdng 8 - 1945, nhan dan Viet N a m tiein hanh Tong khdi nghia; ngay 02 - 9 - 1945, ntfdrc Viet N a m Dan chu Cong hoa ra ddi. + Thang 8 - 1945, nhan dan cac bo tgc Lao noi day, den ngay 12 - 10, ruidc Lao tuyen bo' doc lap. - Sau do, thifc dan Au - M l quay trdr l a i t a i chiem Dong Nam A. Nhan dan c^c niTcJc Dong N a m A lai t i e n hanh khang chien chong xam Itfcfc. + V d i thang l a i cua chien dich Dien Bien Phu V i e t Nam (1954) buoc Phap phai k i ket Hiep d i n h Gicmevo cong n h a n cac quyen dan toe ca ban cua Viet N a m , Lao, Campuchia. + Thang 5 - 1949, H a Lan phiii cong nhan Cong hoa Lien bang Indonexia va ngay 15 - 8 - 1950, ni/6c Cong hoa Indonesia thong nhat dutfc thanh lap. + Cdc nLfdrc Au - M i l a n Itfcft cong nhan doc lap cua cac niidc Philippin (1946), M i e n D i e n (1948), M a L a i (1957), Xingapo (1959), Viet Nam, Lao, Campuchia (1975), Brunay (1984), Dong Timo (2002). b. Lao (1945 - 1975) * Cugc khang chien chong Phap (1945 - 1954) - GiCra thang 8 - 1945, Nhat Ban dau hang E)6ng m i n h v6 dieu kien. Nam thod ca thuan Im, ngay 23 - 8 - 1945, nhan dan Lao noi day gianh chinh quyen. Ngay 12 - 10, chinh phu Lao ra mat quoc dan va tuyen bo doc lap. - Thang 3 - 1946, thiTc dan Phap t r d l a i t a i chiem Lao. Nhan dan Lao mot lan nOfa phai cam sung khang chien bao ve nen doc lap cua minh. - Dtfofi sir l a n h dao cua Dang Cong san Dong Diiong va sii giup da cua quan t i n h nguyen Viet N a m , cuoc khang chien chong thiTc dan Phap d Lao ngay cang phat t r i e n . - Sau chien thang Dien Bien Phii, Hiep dinh Gionevo (1954), Phap phai cong nhan doc lap chu quyen va toan ven lanh tho cua Lao, thifa nhan dia v i hgp phap cua cac l u t Itftfng khang chien Lao. * Cugc khang chien chong Ml (1954 - 1975) - Ngay sau k h i Hiep d i n h Gioneva ve Dong Di/ong vCra k i ket. M l da lap tuTc hat cang Phap, am miAi bien Lao t h a n h thuoc dia kieu mdi. TCr day, nhan dan Lao l a i phai cam sung chong ke t h u mdi la de quoc M l . - Dtrdri sii l a n h dao cua Dang N h a n dan Cach mang Lao (thanh lap ngay 22 - 3 - 1955), cuoc dau t r a n h cua nhan dan Lao d i i n ra ca tren ba mat t r a n : quan sif - chinh t r i - ngoai giao va gianh dUOc nhieu t h i n g lai. - Nhan dan Lao l a n laat danh bai cac ke hoach chien t r a n h ciia M i , den dau nhufng nam 70 vung giai phong diigc m d rong vdri 4/5 dat dai. - Thang 2 - 1973, Hiep dinh Vieng Chan duWc ki ket ve lap lai hoa binh va thiic hien hoa hap dan tpc a Lao. 18 - Mua xuan nam 1975, cuoc Tong t i e n cong va noi day cua quan dan Viet Nam t h i n g lai da c6 vu va tao dieu kien cho each mang Lao t i e n len gianh thdng lai hoan toan. TiT thang 5 den t h a n g 12 - 1975, quan dan Lao da noi day gianh chinh quyen trong ca ntfdrc. - Ngay 02 - 12 - 1975, ni/dc Cong hoa Dan chu N h a n dan Lao chinh thiJc thanh lap. Tii do, nildc Lao hiidc sang thcfi k i mdi - xay di/ng dat midc va phat t r i e n k i n h te - xa hoi. c. Campuchia - Dau thang 10 - 1945, thtfc dan Phap quay t r d l a i xam li/gc va thong t r i Campuchia. Nhan dan Campuchia tien hanh cuoc khang chien chong thifc dan Phap. - Sau chien thang Dien Bien Phu, Chinh phii Phap phai k i Hiep d i n h Gicfnevo ve Dong DiJcfng, cong nhan doc lap, chu quyen, thong nhat va toan ven lanh tho ciaa Campuchia. - Tii nSm 1954 den dau nSm 1970, chinh phia Xihaniic thifc hien di/cfng lo'i hoa binh trung lap. - Sau cuoc dao chinh lat do Xihaniic ngay 18 - 3 - 1970 cua the life tay sai M i , Campuchia bi keo vac quy dao ciia cuoc chien t r a n h thiic dan kieu mdi cua M l tren ban dao Dong Di/cfng. - Ngay 17 - 4 - 1975, thu do Phnom Penh difcfc giai phong, cuoc khang chien chong M l cua nhan dan Campuchia ket thuc thang Igi. - Ngay sau do, nhan dan Campuchia lai phai tiep tuc cuoc dau t r a n h chong tap doan Khcfme do do Pon Pot cam dau phan bpi each mang t h i hanh chinh sach diet chung, tan sat hang trieu ngtfM dan v6 t o i . - Ngay 7 - 01 - 1979, thu do Phnom Penh difcfe giai phong khoi che do Khcfme do diet chung, Campuchia bildre vao thcfi k i hoi s i n h , xay difng lai dat nifdc. - TCr nam 1979 d Campuchia da di§n ra cuoc noi chien giOa life li/gng cua Dang N h a n dan Cach mang vdfi cac phe phai doi lap, chu yeu la life liicrng Khome do. Cuoc noi chien keo dai hem mot thap k i , gay nhieu ton that cho dat nifdc. - Ngay 23 - 10 - 1991, Hiep dinh hoa binh ve Campuchia di/ac k i ket tai Pari. Sau cuoc tong tuyen cijf thang 9 - 1993, Quoe hoi mdi da thong qua Hien phap, tuyen bo' thanh lap Vucfng quo'c Campuchia do N.Xihanuc lam Quo'c vifcfng. Tii do, Campuchia bi/dc sang mot thcfi k i mdi. 2. Q u a t r i n h x a y di^ng v a p h a t t r i e n c u a c a c nrfdfc D o n g N a m A a. Nhom 5 niidc sang lap ASEAN - Sau k h i gianh dtfcfc doc lap, nhom 5 niJdc sang lap A S E A N deu t i e n hanh cong nghiep hoa, xay difng nen k i n h te tif chu. Tap t r u n g day manh phat t r i e n cac nganh cong nghiep san xuat hang tieu diing noi dia thay the hang nhap khau. 19
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