Hướng dẫn ôn luyện thi thpt quốc gia môn ngữ văn-lê quang hưng (chủ biên)

  • Số trang: 201 |
  • Loại file: PDF |
  • Lượt xem: 636 |
  • Lượt tải: 2
dangvantuan

Đã đăng 42188 tài liệu

Mô tả:

807 H561D JANG HUNG (Chu bien) - PHAM THI THU HIEN - TRjNH THI LAN fc. HUONG DflN ON LUV6N THITOUNGHOC PHO IHONG QUOC Gil) LE QUANG HUNG (Chu bi§n) PHAM THI THU HIEN -TRINH THI LAN HUONG DAN ON LUYEN THI TRUNG HOC PHO THONG QUOC GIA MONNGOVAN :— NHA XUAT BAN DAI HOC SU PHAM U N I V E R S I T Y OF E D U C A T I O N P U B L I S H I N G H O U S E H U O N G D A N O N LUYEN T H I TRUNG HOC P H 6 T H O N G Q U 6 C G I A M O N N G Q V A N Le Quang Hang (Chu bien) - Pham Thi Thu HIen - Trjnh Thj Lan Sach duoc xuat bSn phuc vu viec o n luyen t h i t r u n g hoc pho t h o n g quoc gia tCf nann 2015. Ma sach t i e u c h u ^ n quoc te: ISBN 9 7 8 - 6 0 4 - 5 4 - 2 2 4 0 - 3 ; BSn q u y e n xuat ban t h u g c ve Nha xuat ban Bai hoc Su p h a m . Mpl h l n h t h i l c sao chep t o a n bo hay m o t phan hoac cac h i n h thijfc phat h i n h ma l^hong CO sU cho phep trudc bang van bSn cCia Nha xuat bin Bai hoc SU pham deu la vi p h a m p h a p luat. - , - Chung tdi ludn mong muon nhdn dugc nhCtng y kien ddng gop cua quy vi ddc gia de sdch ngdy cdng hodn thiin han. Moi gdp y vi sdch, liin hi vi bdn thdo vd dich vu bdn quyen xin vui Idng gCri vi dia chlemail: kehoach@nxbdhip.edu.vn Ma so: 01.02.176/900 - TK 2015 MUC LUC Trang SI Ldl GIOITHIEU 5 LCn NOIDAU 6 PhSn mot. DINH HlTOfNG CHUNG KI THI TRUNG HOC PHO THONG QUOC GIA MONNGtyVAN 7 Phan hai. NOI DUNG ON LUYEN 8 A. DOC HIEU VAN BAN 8 I. Mot so van de chung 1. Quan niem ve nang lire doc hieu 2. Chuan doc hieu 3. Van ban doc hieu II. Hu-cmg dan hoc sinh on luyen doc hieu 1. Cach doc hiSu cic loai van ban 2. He thong c^u hoi on luyen doc hieu 3. Huong dan tra 16i cau hoi doc hieu B. LAM VAN 8 8 10 13 13 13 22 48 70 I. Nghi luan xa hoi 1. Nghi luan ve mot tu tvrong, dao li 2. Nghi luan ve mot hien tuong doi song 3. Nghi luan tong hop 70 70 79 87 II. Nghi luan van hoc 1. Yeu ciu chung 2. Yeu c4u, ki nang ca ban voi timg dang nghi luan van hoc 3. Van dung phuo^ig phdp so sdnh trong bhi nghi luan van hoc 4. KiSn thuc ca ban cua c^c van ban van hoc 5. Mot s6 dS bhi nghi luan van hoc goi y l^m bki 95 96 98 128 133 170 Phan ba. M O T SO D E T H I T H A M K H A O 180 • D ET H I M O N N G C V A N - G I A O D U GT R U N G H O CP H O T H O N G (Ki thi tot nghiep trung hoc ph6 thong nam 2 0 1 4 ) 180 195 • D ETHI T H A M K H A O S O 2 191 • D ET H I T H A M K H A O S O 1 187 • D E T H I T U Y E N S I N H D A I H O C K H O I C - M O N N G U ' V A N - N A M 2014 184 • D E T H I T U Y E N S I N H D A I HOC K H O I D - M O N N G L T V A N - N A M 2 0 1 4 ., ............^]fu\-'JNu:n:aVJQ .A .1? '.i/i ill ' - • iCt' - Ldl GI6I THIEU ' Thirc hien Quyet dinh s6 3538/QD-BGDDT ngay 09/9/2014 cua Bp truang Bp Giao due va Dao tao phe duyet phuong an thi tot nghiep trung hpc pho thong va tuyen sinh dai hoc, cao dang tir nam 2015 (gpi la ki thi trung hpc pho thong quoc gia), huong toi vice thuc hien doi moi chuong trinh va sach giao khoa, Nha xuat ban Dai hpc Su pham to chCtc bien soan va phat hanh bp sach Huong dan on luyen thi trung hpc pho thong quoc gia gom 8 cuon, tuong ung voi 8 mon: Toan, NgQ van, Tieng Anh, Vat li, Hoa hpc, Sinh hpc, * . si Lich sii va Dia li. Bp sach do cac tdc gia la giang vien uy tin cua Tnrong Dai hpc Su pham Ha Npi, gi^o vien gioi a tnrong trung hpc pho thong va mot s6 can bp ciia cac ca quan chuyen mon la nhiing nguoi c6 nhieu kinh nghiem tham gia cong tac tuyen sinh cua Bp Giao due v^ Dao tao bien soan, bam sat Chuong tiinh giao due trung hpc pho thong. Cau true moi cuon sich gom ba ph§n chinh: Phan mot: Dinh hirong chung ki thi trung hoc pho thong quoc gia (theo tung mon) Phan hai: Cac chu de/noi dung on luyen CAc ehii de/npi dung on luyen dugc bien soan bam sat quy dinh ciia Bp Giao due va Dao tao ve eau true de thi dugc doi mod theo huong danh gia nang lire, trong do c6 phan tom tat li thuyet, yeu cau ve bai tap/cau hoi van dung, cac bai tap/cau hoi mlu va huong dan on luyen. .. - . Phan ba: Mot so de thi tham khao CAc de thi CO d^p in hoac huong dan tra loi. Hpc sinh dupe nang cao kl nang ren luyen thuc hien trpn ven mot de thi trong thai gian quy dinh, mot mat luyen kha nang giai b ^ tap, giai quyet van de; mat khac giup he th6ng hoa cac kien thuc va ki nang ckn thi8t cho ki thi trung hpc pho thong quoc gia. Cung voi bp sach tren, Nha xuat ban Dai hpc Su pham tiep tuc gioi thieu v^ phat hanh bp sach Boi dirong, on luyen thi trung hoc pho thong quoc gia theo bo de gom 5 mon (Toan, Ngii van, Tieng Anh, Vat li, Ho^ hpc) phuc vu hpc sinh on luyen thi trung hpc pho thong qu6c gia ;iipt cdch hieu qua. Dpi ngu giao vien pho thong c6 th§ su dung sach de huong dan hpc sinh on luyen kien thiic, ki nang theo huong tiep can nang lire mot each c6 he th6ng de dat hieu qua cao nhat trong ki thi trung hpc ph6 thong quoc gia, hit d§u thuc hien tu nam 2015. Xin trdntrgng giai thieu! NHA XUAT BAN DAI HQC SU" PHAM LCJI NOI D A U Cdc thay cd gido vci cdc em hoc sinh than men! AT"! Bat dau tu nam hoc 2014 - 2 0 1 5 , Bo Giao due va D^o tao to chiic mot ki thi chung thay cho ki thi tot nghiep trung hoc pho thong va tuyen sinh dai hoc, cao dang nhu tnrdc day, goi la ki thi trung hoc pho thong quoc gia. Nham dap ling nhu cSu cua hoc sinh vl tai lieu on tap, eiing e6 ki nang cho ki thi sSp tcri, chiing toi bien soan cuon sach Huong dan on luyen thi trung hoc pho thong quoc gia mon Ngu van. Noi dung cuon sach gom ba phan: Phan mot: Dinh huong chung ki thi trung hoc pho thong quoc gia mon Ngu van Phan nay nham cung cap nhung thong tin ehinh ve dinh huong ciia ki thi trung hoc pho thong quoc gia noi chung va de thi mon Ngu van noi rieng. Phan hai: Noi dung on luyen • Day la phan trong tam ciia cuon sach, noi dung b^m sat vao dinh huong de thi mon Ngu van trong ki thi trung hoc pho thong quoc gia de huong dan hoc sinh on luyen. Phan nay khong chi cung cap nhung kien thuc, ki nang ca ban ve doc hieu va lam van theo mot he thong cu the, ro rang ma con dua ra nhung vi du, de bM kem theo ggi y tuong ung vai tung dang de de hoc sinh tham khao, van dung va kiem tra, danh gid trong qua trinh on luyen. Phan ba: Mot so de thi tham khao Phan nay tap hop nhung de thi tot nghiep, tuyen sinh dai hoc mon Ngu van nam 2014 va mot so de tham khao ciia ki thi trung hoc pho thong quoc gia nam 2015. Nhimg god y, huong dan tra Idi cau hoi trong cdc de thi se giup hoc sinh nang cao dugc nang lire hoc tap d§ chuan bi t6t ki nang l^m bM thi. • t ^- its nfeO : Chiing toi hi vong cuon sdch khong chi giiip cdc em hoc sinh hokn thien ki nang lam bai ma con la tai lieu tham khao huu ich cho cac thay eo giao trong qua trinh huong dan hoc sinh on tap, cung c6 kien thuc, chuan bi cho ki thi trung hoc pho thong quoc gia dat ket qua cao. Chiing toi rat mong nhan dugc y kien dong gop cua cac thay c6 giao, cac em hoe sinh va doc gia gan xa de chat lugng cuon sach ngdy cang hoan thien hon trong nhung Ian tai ban. Cdc gop y cho cu6n sach xin gui ve dia chi: Phong Bien tap, Nha xuat ban Dai hoc Su pham, Trudng Dai hoc Su pham Ha Noi S6 136, Duong Xuan Thuy, Quan Cau Giay, Thanh ph6 Ha Noi. Cac tac gia 6 Phan mot D!NH HUdNG CHUNG ' Kl THI TRUNG HOC PHO THONG QUOC GIA MON NGQVAN Tu nam 2015, Bo Giao due va Dao tao to chiic mot ki thi quoc gia (goi la ki thi trung hoc pho thong quoc gia) lay ket qua de xet cong nhan tot nghiep trung hoc pho thong lam can cu tuyen sinh dai hoc, cao dang. Quyet dinh s6 3538/QD-BGDDT ngay 09/9/2014 ciia Bp tnrdng Bp Giao due va Dho tao v^ phe duyet phuang An thi tot nghiep trung hpc pho thong vk tuyen sinh dai hpc, cao dang tir nam 2015 da chi ro: - De dupe xet cong nhan tot nghiep trung hpc pho thong v^ xet tuyen sinh v^o cic truong dai hpc, cao dang, thi sinh phai thi 4 mon (gpi 1^ 4 mon thi toi thieu) gom 3 mon bat bupc 1^ Toin, Ngir van, Ngoai ngu 1 mon tu ehpn trong so cac mon: Vat li. Hod hpc, Sinh hpc, Lich sii vh Dia If. NgoM 4 mon thi toi thieu, thi sinh eo the dang ki thi them cic mon khdc trong s6 cdc mon tu chpn de c6 them ca hpi xet tuyen v^o dai hpc, cao dang. - Thi sinh da t6t nghiep trung hpc pho thong cdc nam tniac chi dang ki cac mon thi phuc vu cho tuyen sinh dai hpc, cao dang. Mon Ngu van thi theo hinh thuc tu luan, thoi gian thi 1^ 180 phut. De thi ddnh gid thi sinh a 4 miic dp: nhan biet, thong hieu, van dung v^ van dung cao, dam bao phan hod trinh dp thi sinh. De thi mon Ngir van trong ki thi trung hpc pho thong quoc gia se c6 dinh dang tuong tir de thi t6t nghiep trung hpc pho thong v^ tuyen sinh dai hpc, cao dang nam 2014 nhung se tang cac cau hoi d muc dp van dvmg, cdc cau hoi mo theo dinh huong danh gid nang luc ciia thi sinh. Npi dung de thi nkm trong chuong tiinh trung hpc pho thong hien hanh, chu yeu la chuomg trinh lop 12. Phan hai Npl DUNG ON LUYEN r ur' A. DOC HIEU VAN BAN I. MOT SO VAN DE CHUNG 1. Quan niem ve nang lye doc hieu Nang lire doe hieu dugc hku het eae quoe gia tren the giai hien nay coi 1^ nang lire ehung cot loi can trang bi cho hoc sinh pho thong. Do cung 1^ mot trong nhung nang lire can CO cua mot ngudi cong dan de ton tai va phat trien trong xa hoi. Vi th6, doc hiSu da tro thanh mot noi dung trong tam cua chuong trinh mon Ngon ngu va Van hoe a trudng pho thong cua hku het cAc qu6c gia tren the gidi tu tM ki XX den nay. Cung vdi sir tiSn bo ciia khoa hoc giao due noi ehung va khoa hoe ve day hoc mon hoc n^y noi rieng, noi dung doc hieu da dugc doi mdi, phat trien theo thdi gian. Khi chucmg tnnh giao due pho thong dugc bien soan theo hudng tap trung vao noi dung, doc hieu dugc coi la mot ki nang then chot trong noi dung chucmg trinh mon hoc tieng vdi tu each la mon hoc ngon ngu me de hoac vdi tu each la mon hoc ngoai ngu. Gan day, tu nhung thap nien 80 v^ 90 cua the ki XX, vdi xu hudng bien soan chuong trinh giao due dira tren nang lire dSu ra, doc hieu dugc coi la mot nang lire ehung cot loi thuge nang lire sir dung ngon ngii trong chuong trinh giao due pho thong cua nhieu nude tren the gidi. Trong khoang g§n hai chue nam trd lai day, doe hieu da trd thanh mot noi dung ciia nhieu chuong trinh danh gia kk qua giao due mang tinh toan e§u nhu TIMSS, PIRLS, PISA... Da CO nhieu quan niem khae nhau ve nang lire doe hieu. Tren the gidi, theo PISA', "nang lire doe hieu dugc hilu 1^ kha nang bilt doc, c6 trinh dp doc hieu", "la sir hieu Met, su dung v^ phdn hoi lai trudc mot b^i doc viet, nham dat dugc muc dieh, ph^t trien tri thuc vk tiem nang ciing nhu viec tham gia hoat dpng ciia mot ai do trong xa hoi"'. Theo do, dinh nghia ve dge va doe hieu eo sir thay d6i theo thdi gian va dieu kien kinh te, van hoa, xa hpi. Day la quan niem ma horn 70 nude tham gia PISA - trong do c6 Viet Nam - dong tinh va lam theo yeu cau cua Chucmg trinh danh gia hge sinh quoe te nay. Mae du quan niem cua PISA ve dgc hiSu khong dua vao cac yeu cau cua chuong trinh mon Ngii van trong nha trudng pho thong cua mot nude eu the nao m^ xuat phat tir yeu cau ciia xa hpi doi vdi he thong giao due, nhirng ki nang eSn thiet cho cupe song tuong lai ciia hpc sinh... nhung nhirng yeu c2u cua PISA c6 hen quan mat thiet vdi viec day hoc Ngu van trong nha trudng pho thong ciia nhieu nude tren the gidi. ' Chuong trinh danh gid hoc sinh quoe ti do T6 chuc Hop tac Phat triSn Kinh tg (OECD) de xuat nam 1997. Tinh den nam nay da c6 han 70 quoe gia tham gia PISA. - Bp Giao due vk Dko tao, s6 toy PISA, 2011. Dieu nay dugc the Men a ch6 ngay ckng c6 nhieu nuac tham gia PISA trong do c6 Viet Nam. Tir ket qua danh gia ciia PISA ve trinh do doc hieu ciia hoc sinh nuac minh, Viet Nam cung nhu cac nuac deu c6 sir dieu chinh nhat djnh de viec day hoc doc hieu trong nha tnrang pho thong phii hop vai thirc tiln va bat kip xu the quoc te. Theo GS.TS. Nguyin Thanh Hiing: "Doc - hieu la khai niem bao trum c6 noi dung quan trong trong qua trinh day hoc van"; "Doc - hieu la mot khai niem khoa hoc chi ra miic do cao nhdt cua hoat dong doc; doc - hieu dong thai cung chi ra nang lire van cua nguai doc"'. "Doc hieu la pham tru khoa hoc trong nghien cuu va giang day van hoe. Ban than no la khai niem c6 quan he vai nang lire doc, hoat dong doc, k i nang doe de nam vung y nghia cua van ban nghe thuat ngon tir. Doc chinh xae thi hieu diing. Doc k i , doc phan tich thi hieu sau. Doe trai nghiem tham mi thi hieu dugc ve dep nhan tinh. Doc sau, dgc sang tao thi hieu dugc cai mod"". Tac gia da di vao l i giai ngi ham cua "hieu": "Hieu la phat hien va nam vung moi lien he cua cac sir vat, hien tugng, doi tugng nao do va y nghla ciia cac moi quan he do. Hieu la bao quat het ngi dung v^ c6 the van dung \ko doi song. Hieu tue la phai tra loi dugc cac cau hoi: gi?, Nhu the nao?, V i sao?. Lam nhu the nao?. Do la biet va lam trong dgc hieu... Hieu la qua tiinh nhan thue van ban toan ven"^. Tir do, tac gia neu len nhung ngi dung can "hieu" trong tac pham van hge vai cac tieu chi cu the: " 1 . Kham pha y nghia ngi dung ehiia dung trong van ban. Y nghia n^y do tac gia bay to, bieu 16 trong van ban. 2. Hieu moi quan he y nghia cua van ban do tdc gia xay dung v^ to chuc nen. 3. Khang dinh muc dich, y do, ngi dung thuc hien, tien gia dinh. 4. Danh gia tu tuang ciia tac gia. 5. Sap nhap, hoa dong thong tin va tu tuang ciia tac gia vai tri thuc va kinh nghiem phu hgp cua nguai dgc""*. GS.TS. T r i n Dinh Su da chi ra mot s6 ngi dung quan trgng ve dgc hieu: "Mot, dgc Ik qui trinh tiep nhan y nghia tir van ban, t§t phai hieu ngon ngu ciia van ban (ngon ngii dan toe, ngon ngii nghe thuat, ngon ngii t h i loai ciia van ban"; phai dua vao tinh tich cue cua ehu t h i (hung thii, nhu eSu, nang lue) va tac dong qua lai giua chii the va van ban. Hai, dgc la qua trinh giao tiep va doi thoai vai nguai tao ra van ban (tac gia, xa hgi, van hoa). Ba, dgc la qua trinh tieu dung van hoa van ban (huong thu, giai tri, hgc tap). Bon, dgc la qua trinh tao ra cac nang lire nguai (nang lue hieu minh, hieu van hoa va hieu the giai). Nhu the dgc la mot hoat dong van hoa co tam nhan loai va y nghia giao due sau sac"^. Tac gia eon neu len suy nghi cua minh ve "hieu" trong "dgc hieu". Theo ong, "hieu" co '• '"Nguyen Thanh Hung, Kinang doc hiiu Van, NXB Dai hoc Su pham, 2014, tr. 34 - 35. " Nguyin Thanh Hung, Nuoi duomg va xa Idnh y nghia cua tam ngir hoc trong doc hieu van chuang. Tap chi Khoa hoc Giao due, s6 80, 2012, tr. 26. ' Tran Dinh Su, Van ban van hoc va doc hieu van ban, in trong Tai lieu tap hudn giao vien truang c/iuy^n - A/on A'gi? van. Bo Giio dye D^o tao, 2011. noi hkm rat rong: "1) Cam thu (ti^p nhan) ki hieu vat ch§t (m^u sSc, con chu,...)2) Nhan ra ki hieu quen hay la, hieu y nghia cua no dugc lap lai trong ngon ngir. 3) Hieu y nghia ciia no trong ngir canh. 4) D6i thoai v6i y nghia do (tan th^nh, phan doi), trong nhan thirc bao gom ca sir danh gid ve chieu sau va chieu rong. Ban chit tam li cua sir hieu la bien cai cua ngudi khac thanh c ^ vira cua minh, vira ciia nguoi khac. Hieu bao gid ciing la tir hieu, nghia la bien cii dugc hieu th^nh kien thiic, quan dikm, niem tin cua minh."' PGS.TS. Nguyen Thi Hanh, dira tren co so ngon ngir hoc, khang dinh doc hi6u "la mot boat dpng giao tiep d do nguoi doc linh hoi loi noi da dugc viet thanh van ban nham lam thay doi nhirng hieu biet, tinh cam hoac hanh vi ciia chinh minh, doc hilu Ik boat dpng doc cho minh (nguoi doc)."' Nhu vay, trong moi quan niem tren day, dii dung 6 goc dp nho cQng thSy "dpc" dugc coi mot qu^ trinh long hgp, doi hoi sir dung nhi^u ki nang; "hi6u" la muc di'ch cua "dpc"; de dpc hieu, nguoi dpc phai ti'ch cue, chu dpng kham pha van ban. Trong nhirng nam qua, o nha tnrong pho thong cua Viet Nam, dpc hieu tro Xhhnh npi dung chinh, quan trpng vao bac nhat trong Chuang trinh gido due pho thong mon Ngu vdn^ (gpi tat la chuang trinh Ngu van). S6 lugng bai dpc hieu chi6m ti le Ion hon cdc bai hpc ve Tieng Viet va Lam van, nhat la 6 nhirng lop/cSp hpc cao hon. Day hpc va kiem tra, danh gid ve dpc hieu cung chiem nhieu thoi gian hon trong phan ph6i chuang trinh Ngir van. 2. Chuan doc hieu Chuong trinh cua moi quoc gia deu neu len nhiing chuan kien thuc, ki nang/ket qua dau ra ma hpc sinh phai dat dugc khi dpc hi^u van ban. Chang han, Chuang trinh Tieng Anh nam 2010"* cua Singapore neu 5 ket qua d§u ra (LO) - dugc coi Ik nhiing chu§n chung, khdi qudt nhu sau: - LOJ: Sir dung cdc kindng nhan biet de nhan dien tir ngir. - L02: Doc hieu cdc van ban c6 noi dung phii hap v&i trinh do, lira tuoi. - L03: Ap dung viec doc vd quan sdt co tinh phe phdn bang cdch tap trung vdo nhirng nghia ham an, nhiing cdu triic tuduy, susuy nghivd ddnh gid cao hem. - L04: Van dung cdc cdch doc vd quan sdt phii hap, co tinh phe phdn doi v&i mot loat cdc tuyen chon van ban van hoc hoac van ban thong tin khdc nhau, tir van ban in den ' Tran Dinh Sur, Van ban van hoc va doc hieu van ban, Sdd. - Nguyen Thi Hanh, Day hoc doc hiiu a Tiiu hoc, NXB Dai hoc Qu6c gia H^ Noi, 2002, tr. 26. ^ NXB Giao due, 2006. " Curriculum Planning and Development Division, Ministry of Education, Singapore (2010), English language syllabus 2010, Primary & Secondary {Express/ Normal [Academic]) (nguon: http://www.moe.gov.sg). 10 nhung ngudn khong in an, phuc vu cho viec hoc tap cdc linh vuc not dung vd hieu xem tir vimg vd cdc van de ngir phdp dd duac su dung trong cdc van cdnh nhu the nao. - L05a: Doc quan sat ma rong de gidi tri, phdt trien cd nhdn vd the hien khd nang doc doc lap Cling nhu phuc vu cho viec hoc van hoc/hay cdc linh vuc not dung khdc (cho Tieu hoc). L05b: Duy tri viec doc vd quan sat rong rdi de gidi tri, phdt trien cd nhdn ciing nhu hoc van hoc hay cdc noi dung khdc (cho Trung hoc). , ; v; Tucmg ling vai L O l la nhung ki nang, chien luge, thai do va hanh vi bat dau doc; voi L02 la nhung ki nang, chien luge, thai do va hanh vi doc dung; vai L 0 3 la nhung k l nang, chien luge, thai do va hanh vi doc c6 su danh gia, phe binh; vai L 0 4 la nhung ki nang, chien luge, t h ^ do va hanh vi doe van ban van hoc v^ van ban thong tin; vai L05 la nhung ki nang, chien luge, thai do va hhnh vi doe rong rai. Cac chuan nhy mang tinh chat ciia chuan the hien, dugc sap xep thanh cac ket qua dau ra, theo su tang dan ciia do kho, phiic tap ciia ki nang, chien luge, thai do va h^nh vi ciia nguoi dgc'. Trong Cdc chuan chung cot loi cua bang doi v&i mon Tieng Anh, trinh do doc viet trong cdc mon Lich sir/Nghien cicu xd hoi, Khoa hoc vd Ki thudt ddnh cho cdc tru&ng cong lap ciia bang California tir lap mdu gido lati den lap 12, cac nha gido due ciia MT yeu cau hoc sinh can dat duge 10 chuan cu the, cac chuan nay dugc xep vao bon nhom nhu sau: Cdc y turnig quan trong vd chi tiet 1. Doc mot cdch ki ludng de xdc dinh xem van ban noi mot each ro rang ve cdi gi vd dua ra cdc suy lugn phu hap tir no, trich dan cdc dan chung nguyen van, cu the khi viet hogc noi de ho tra cho cdc ket lugn riit ra tir van bdn. 2. Xdc dinh cdc y tuang hogc cdc chit de chinh cua mot van bdn vd phdn tich su phdt trien cua chung, tong ket cdc chi tiet vd cdc y tuang minh hog chinh. 3. Phdn tich cdch vd li do tgi sao cdc nhdn vat, cdc su kien vd cdc y tucmg phdt trien vd tuang tdc vai nhau thong qua dien bien cua mot van bdn. Tha phdp nghe thuat vd bo cue 4. Dien gidi cdc tir vd cdc cum tir duac sic dung trong mot van bdn, bao gom viec xdc dinh ro tinh hinh tuang, nghia den vd nghia bong, phdn tich cdch lira chon tic ngic cu the (ve nghia hogc van phong). 5. Phdn tich cau true cua cdc van bdn, bao gom cdch cdc mdu edu cu the, cdc dogn van vd nhicng phdn Ian hem cua van bdn (vi du: mot chuong, mot cdnh hogc mot dogn tha) CO lien quan den nhau vd den todn bo van bdn. . , 6. Ddnh gid cdch md mot quan diem hogc mot muc tieu lam nen noi dung vd phong cdch cua mot van bdn. ' California State Board of Education (2013), Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts, Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects for California Public Schools Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve (nguon: http://www.cde.ca.gov, thang 8/2010). m Tich hap cdc kien thitc va chu de rf' v ; ^ ;5 7. Tich hap va ddnh gid noi dung duac the hien theo nhieu hinh thicc vd phuong tien truyen thong khdc nhau bang hinh dnh, bang lai noi vd bhng so lieu. 8. Mo td vd ddnh gid sir tranh luan vd cdc lai tuyen bo cu the trong mot van ban bao gom chung cic vQng chdc cua cdc suy luan cung nhu suphu hop, su day du cua cdc dan chung. 9. Phan tich each md hai hay nhieu van ban de cap den cUng mot chu de hodc de tdi nhdm de xdy dung kien thuc hoac de so sdnh cdc phuang phdp tiep can md cdc tdc gid sir dung. Pham vi ve kinang doc vd mire dpphuc tap ciia van ban 10. Doc vd hieu thdu ddo cdc van ban van hoc vd cdc van ban thong tin c6 do phirc tap cao mot cdch doc lap vd thdnh thao. 6 Viet Nam, chircmg trinh Ngu van khong c6 phSn neu rieng chuan kien thuc, k l nang doc hieu chung/khai quat ma chi neu chuan kien thiic, k i nang doc hieu cua timg khoi lop, vai tung van ban cu the, chii yeu la van ban van hoc. Ke thua nhung yeu cau ciia chuong trinh hien hanh, ket hop voi xu th^ qu6c te v8 chuSn doc hi^u, chiing toi cho rang, nang lire doc hieu ciia hoc sinh, nhin chung duac th^ hien o ba khi'a canh vdi nhung chuan kien thiic, ki nang ca ban sau day: a) Co tri thuc ve van ban - Hieu y nghia ciia cac tir ngu trong van ban. - Hieu cau true cua timg loai van ban. - Hieu the loai cua van ban. • - Hieu phuang thuc bieu dat ciia van ban. - Hieu de tai ciia van ban. b) Co kl nang thuc hien cdc hanh dong, thao tdc doc hieu noi chung vd vai timg loai vdnbdncuthe i Jn v - Doc luat d l tim chii de hoac cdc y chi'nh. . yu 1 - Doc kl de tim chi tiet/thong tin. - Nhan biet va ghi nha thong tin/chi tiet/hinh anh... - Giai ttuch, cat nghia, phan tich, phan loai, ket n6i, so sanh... thong tin/chi tiet/ hinh anh de nam dugc noi dung chinh ciia van ban, hieu m6i quan he giixa cac thong tin/ chi tiet/hinh anh trong van ban. - Riit ra dugc y nghia ham an cua van ban tu cac chi tiet/hinh anh/thong tin tu van ban; dung thong tin trong van ban de thuc hanh giai quyet v§n de dan gian tuang tu nhu van de neu trong van ban. - Phan hoi van ban bang each lien kSt thong tin trong van ban vai kinh nghiem, vdi nhiing dieu ca nhan quan tam; danh gia \k noi dung, hinh thiic, y nghia cua van ban va phong each ciia tac gia mot each khach quan. 12 c) Van dung nhiing tri thirc, kinang c6 lien quan hodc can den doc hieu de thyrc Men cdc nhiem vu hoc tap va cdc hoat dong dai song - Doc cac van ban mai dira tren nhiing kinh nghiem da tich luy dirge tu vice doc hiiu cac van ban dugc day hoc trong nha trirong. - Noi, vi§t ve mot v§n &k van hoc hoac dai song dira tren nhiing ket qua doc hieu van ban. - Trinh bay giai phap de giai quygt mot vin d^ cu th§ (la mot nhiem vu trong hoc tap, trong doi song) tir sir van dung ngi dung cua van ban da doc. 3. Van ban doc hieu Chuong trinh Ngu van ciia Viet Nam neu hai loai van ban de day hoc doc hieu, do 1^: van ban van hoc v^ van ban nhqt dung. Trong do, cic van ban van hoc dugc xep theo cum the loai va tien trinh lich su, chiera da so cac van ban dugc day hoc; cac van ban nhat dung chiem ti le rat nho va khong da dang ve hinh thuc nhu van ban van hoc. Theo PISA, doi tugng ciia doc hieu khong chi la kieu van ban "truyen thong" m^ con la nhung van ban ma "ngon ngu" cua no dugc su dung a dang do hoa, in ki thuat so, bao gom ca van ban thong tin va van ban van hoc, la nhung hien thi hinh anh nhu so do, ban do, bang bieu, do thi va truyen tranh... voi nhung chii thich bang ngon ngu. Nhung van ban nay c6 the ton tai hoac la doc lap hoac c6 the dugc nam trong cac van ban Ion hon. Nhu vay, xu the quoe te hien nay cho thay su ma rong ve van ban dgc hieu noi chung, van ban doc hieu trong nha truong pho thong noi rieng. Co bao nhieu loai van ban trong cuoc song thi c6 bay nhieu loai dugc day dgc hieu trong nha truong pho thong. Viec day hoc doe hieu a nha truong pho thong phai dam bao giiip hoc sinh hinh thanh va phat trien nang lire dgc, van dung dugc vao thuc te dm song cua ban than. Tren thuc te, tu nam hgc 2013 - 2014, Bg Giio due v^ Dho tao da thuc hien d6i mai kiem tra, d ^ h gi^ nang lire ciia hgc sinh trong mon Ngu van, trong do c6 doi mod kiem tra, danh gid dgc hieu van ban, dua van ban thong tin vko dh thi mon Ngir van a ki thi t6t nghiep trung hgc pho thong cua nam hgc nay va se tiep tuc doi mod sau hon d nhirng nam hgc tiep theo. Viec lam nay c6 tac dong r4t u'ch cue den qua trinh day hgc va kiSm tra, danh gia ket qua dgc hieu van ban d nha truong trung hgc pho thong. II. HUONG DAN HOC SINH ON LUYEN DOC HIEU 1. Cach doc hieu cac loai van ban 1.1. Van ban van hoc a) Dgc diem cua van ban van hoc Co nhieu quan niem ve van ban van hoc (con ggi 1^ van ban nghe thuat, van ban van chuong). Song, c6 thk hiku mot each chung nhSt, van ban van hgc la "san pham ciia tien Uinh lich su... Theo nghia rgng, van ban van hgc la tat ca cae van ban sir dung ngon tu mot each nghe thuat. Theo nghia nay, khong ehi van ban tha, truyen, kich, ma ca cae m van ban hich, c^o, chieu, bieu, sur ki ciia thai trung dai hoac ki, tap van ciia thai hien dai,... deu CO the coi la van ban van hoc. Theo nghia hep, van ban van hoc chi bao gom cac sang tac CO hinh tugng nghe thuat dirge xay dimg bang hu ciu (tuc la tao ra nhiing hinh tugng bang tuong tugng) nhu su thi, truyen thuyet, truyen c6 tich, truyen ngin, tieu thuy^t, kich, tha, phii..."'. Theo do, van ban van hoc c6 nhOng dac dikm rieng sau day: - Dgc diem ve ngon tit: Ngon tu van hoc c6 tinh nghe thuat vh. tham mi; diing de s^g tao hinh tugng, tuc la noi tai mot the gioi tuong tugng; c6 tinh bieu tugng va da nghia. - Dac diem ve hinh tuong: Hinh tugng van hoe la the gidi ddi song do ngon tu ggi len trong tam tri nguai dgc, la mot phuong tien giao tiep dac biet vi no vua bieu hien mot hien tugng doi song, vua ham chua cac y nghia khai qu^t do t^c gia gui gam m^ nguai dgc can phai "dgc" ra. - Dac diem ve y nghia: Y nghia cua van ban chinh la y nghia ciia hien tugng ddi song dugc nha van nam bat v^ ggi len qua hinh tugng. Tat ca nhung gi hinh tugng van hoc ggi len cho ngudi dgc deu 1^ y nghia cua no. Y nghia ciia van ban van hoc con the hien qua nhan vat, su kien, chi tiet, qua su sap xep, ket cau cua c^c bg phan van ban v^ qua each sii dung ngon tii. Y nghia ciia van ban van hoc dugc chia thanh eSc lap: de iHi, chu de, cam hung, tinh ch§t tham mi, trilt li nhan sinh. - Dac diem ve cd tinh sang tao cua nha van: Van ban van hoc n^o cung do tac gia viet ra vk it nhieu deu de lai dSu §n cua ngudi sang tao. Dac d i l m do I k n cho cdc van ban van hoc phong phii, mdi me, khong lap lai.^ b) Yeu cau ciia doc hieu van ban van hoc GS.TS. Tran Dinh Su cho rang: "Khdi diem ciia mon Ngu van Yk day hoc sinh dgc hieu true tiep van ban van hgc cua nha van, nha tha, nhk chinh luan; tu dgc hieu ede van ban ay mk hgc sinh se dugc rung dgng ve nghe thuat, thudng thuc gi^ tri tham ml, tiep nhan tu tudng, tinh cam, trudng th^nh ve nhan cdch, hinh th^nh c^c ki nang van hgc nhu dgc, viet, quan s^t, tu duy, tudng tugng sdng tao vk ca sdng t^e ngon tu nua"^. V i the, trong dgc hieu van ban van hgc, yeu to "van ban" c6 vai tro rat quan trgng. "Van ban Ik ton tai duy nhat cua tac pham ciia nha van, la yeu to mang chd toan bg ngi dung, y nghia, tinh cam, m l cam ma nha van gui gam; ngudi dgc chi c6 the tu minh dgc de kham pha vk thudng thuc, khong c6 con dudng nao khac. Khong ai c6 the thudng thiic thay ngudi dgc""*; hoac "neu hgc sinh khong true tiep dgc cac van ban ay, khong hieu dugc van ban, thi coi nhu mgi yeu cau, muc tieu cao dep ciia mon Van deu chi la noi suong."^ ' SGKNgif van 10 Nang cao. Tap mot, NXB Gido dye Viet Nam, 2012, tr. 45. ^ Luge trich theo SGK Ngir van 10 Nang cao, Tap mot, NXB Giao due Viet Nam, 2012, tr. 45 - 48, 58-60. ^'' Tran Dinh Su, Van ban van hoc va doc hieu van ban, Sdd, tr. 10 - 22. " Tran Dinh Su, Con ducmg doi mai ca ban phicomg phdp day hoc Van, Bao Van nghe, s6 10, 2009. 14 De on tap cho ki thi trung hoc pho thong quoc gia, hoc sinh can nam vung kien thuc vk ki nang doc hieu cac van ban van hoc cua chuong trinh va sach gi^o khoa lop 12. Tuy nhien, can mo rong pham vi on tap doi voi cac van ban van hoc dirge hgc d nhiing khoi lap dudd va nhung van ban mdi, c6 cung de tai va the loai voi cac van ban da hgc theo chucmg trinh v^ sach giao khoa lop 12. Sau day la mot so luu y khi dgc hieu cac van ban van hgc thuong gap: ' * Ve doc hieu van ban van hoc trung dai Viet Nam: - Dgc hieu van ban van hgc trung dai Viet Nam truoc het phai chu y den ngon ngil cua van ban. Ngon ngir ciia van ban van hgc trung dai dugc vi6t bang chu Hdn v^ chu Nom. Voi van ban chu Han, khi dgc, can b ^ sat vao ban phien am (de nam dugc dac diem the loai, bo cue, van, nhip, bien phap tu tir...) va dich nghia (de hieu nghia ciia tir ngu, hinh anh, chi tiet...), phSn dich tho chi nen dgc de tham khao. Van ban Han, Nom lai thuong dung nhieu dien tich, dien c6, tir c6. Khi dgc, can phai hieu v^ khai th^c dugc y nghia ciia clc dien tich, dien c6 v^ sac th^i bieu cam ciia cac tir ngii. - Dgc hieu van ban van hgc trung dai Viet Nam phai th§y dugc cdc iic gia it de cap den cdc hien tugng doi song ma chu yeu thien ve bieu hien tdm, chi ciia ngucri viet. Vi vay, hinh tugng nghe thuat trong van ban thuong mang tinh tugng trung, uoc le. Do do, can thay dugc y nghia tugng trung, uoc le ciia hinh tugng nghe thuat cung nhu tdm, chi ciia nhk van, nhk tho gui gim trong tdc phSm. - Dgc hieu van ban van hgc trung dai Viet Nam phai chii y den tmh quy pham chat che cua van ban: thien v6 xay dung nhiing kien tnic ngon tu vung chai, doi xung, h^i ho^ nhu tho luat, van bien ngau; su dung dien c6, dien tich, lod it y nhieu... Do do, can khai thac dugc nhung phuong dien nay de thay dugc ve dep ciia cac tac pham. * Ve doc hieu tieu thuyet vd truyen ngdn Viet Nam hien dai: - Dgc hieu ti§u thuyet wk truyen ngSn Viet Nam hien dai chu yeu 1^ dgc hieu nhan vat. Nhan vat Ih. yeu to quan trong h^g dau cua c^c the loai n^y. Nh^ van s^ng tao nhan vat de giii gam tu tuong, tinh cam va quan niem ciia minh ve cugc doi. Vi the, khi dgc hieu tieu thuyet va truyen ngan, dau tien, can phai chii y den nhan vat voi nhung bieu hien ngoai hinh, ngi tam, hanh dgng, cii chi, ngon ngu... ; cac moi quan he cua cac nhan vat v^ giua nhan vat voi h o ^ canh xung quanh d^ th§y dugc dia vi, tinh each v^ so phan ciia nhan vat. - Dgc hieu tieu thuyet va truyen ng§n Viet Nam hien dai phai tim v& phan tich cot truyen v^ chi tiet. Cot truyen la he thdng sir kien^i^n c6 xay ra trong doi song cua nhan vat, giiip bgc 16 U'nh cdch, s6 phan nhan vat. Chi tiet la nhiing bieu hien cu the cho thay a'nh c^ch nhan vat va dien bien quan he cua chiing, dong thoi the hien sir quan sat va nghe thuat ke chuyen ciia nh^ van. Do do, c§n chii y phSn tich, cat nghia, binh luan chi tiet de thay dugc sue hap dan, thii vi cua chiing. - Dgc hieu tieu thuyet va truyen ngan Viet Nam hien dai phai thay dugc su mieu ta dac diem, hoan canh ciia nhan vat. Hoan canh la toan bg cac quan he xa hoi, dieu kien song 15 tao thanh "moi trucmg" song ciia nhan vat. Phan tich, h' giai hoan canh s6ng ciia nhan vat giiip nguoi doc hieu dugc dia vi, tam tinh cua nhan vat. - Doc hieu tieu thuyet va truyen ngan Viet Nam hien dai can chu y cat nghia, If giai ket cau ciia tac pham. Do la each nha van to chuc tac pham. Thong thuong, phan ma dau va ket thuc ciia truyen thuong c6 sir phoi hgp vai nhau de tao ra y nghia ciia tac pham; sir lira chon va sap xep cac chi tiet theo mot trinh tu nao do c6 tac dung lam noi bat y nghia ciia tac pham; sir sap xep thii tu cac chuomg, phan, doan c6 hieu qua tao sir to mo, gay hung thii cho nguod doc. Do do, can khai thac each to chiic t^c pham de thay dugc dung y nghe thuat cua nha van. - Doe hieu tieu thuyet v^ truyen ngSn Viet Nam hien dai khong thS khong ehii y lai ke chuyen. Lai ke chuyen trong tieu thuyet, truyen ngSn cho thay diem nhin, c^ tinh, giong dieu ciia nguai ke chuyen. Can phan tich lai ke chuyen de thSy quan diSm nghe thuat, khuynh huang tham mi va phong each doe dao cua nha van. * Ve doc hieu kick ban van hoc: - Doc kich ban van hoe chu yeu la doc lod thoai cua e^c nhan vat. Do la nhirng lai noi huang den nguai nghe, nguai xem, mang tinh h^nh dong. Can cSt nghia, If giai, binh luan... cac lai thoai de nhan ra tam tu, tinh cam, sac thai, dpng ca ben trong va bieu hien ben ngoai ciia cac nhan vat, nhk la nhan vat ehfnh. Tu do, nhan ra tfnh cdch ciia tung nhan vat. - Doe kich ban van hoe phai nhan ra v^ phan tfeh dugc cac hanh dong kich va xung dot kich. Hanh dong kich the hien tfnh each va y chi ciia nhan vat chinh, gay xung dot vai hoan canh xung quanh. Xung dot kich la xung dot ve tu tuang, nhan each dugc nay sinh, phat trien va giai quyet trong pham vi kich ban. Can nam bat dugc xu the phat trien ciia xung dot, phat hien xung dot chu yeu dang dan nhan vat den cho ket thiic dau buon hoac vui ve. * Ve doc hieu tha Viet Nam hien dai: - Doc hieu tha noi chung, tha Viet Nam hien dai noi rieng, d§u tien c§n nkm dugc hinh thiic to chiic cua bai tha (su sap xep ede dong/cau tha; sir hiep van, ph6i xen tieng bang tieng trae, tieng bong tieng tram; each ngat nhip...). - Doc hieu tha Viet Nam hien dai chii yiu la cam nhan dugc tam trang ciia nhan vat trii tinh. Nhan vat trir tinh (con ggi la chu the trir tinh, cai toi trir tinh) la nguai true tiep cam nhan va bay to cam xiic truac mot sir kien, doi tugng nao do dugc noi den trong bai tha. - Doe hieu tha Viet Nam hien dai c§n chii y dSn lai tha. Lai tha thuong dimg cac bien phap tu tu nhu an du, so sanh, nhan hoa,... de bieu hien true tiep sir rung dong trong tam hon cua nhan vat trii tinh; tu nhung cam xiic, tam su rieng tu, lai tha eo y nghTa khai quat ve con nguai, xa hoi, mang tfnh tham mi va gia tri nhan van sau sic. Tuy nhien, do ngon tir tha thuong mang tfnh ham siie, y nghTa cua van ban tha thuong khong dugc thong bao true tiep qua lai tha nen nguai doe phai biet cam nhan, suy doan, phan tfch de tim dugc y a ngoai lai. m - Doc hieu tho Viet Nam hien dai can biet van dung ngu canh (hoan canh s^ng tac) de hieu bai tho. Ngu canh lich su, xa hoi, y d6 va tam thi ciia nha tho khi sdng tac la mot can cu de giai thich y tho. 1.2. Van ban nhat dung va van ban thong tin ' a) Dgc diem ciia van ban nhgt dung va van ban thong tin * Van ban nhat dung Trong chuong trinh Ngu van hien hanh cua Viet Nam, van ban nhat dung "khong phai la mot the loai van hoc hay mot kieu van ban. So di goi van ban nhat dung la xuat phat tu noi dung de tai... va vi the nhung van ban nay c6 the thuoc bat k i the loai nao cua van hoc hoae khong phai van ban van hoc"'. Cac van ban nay c6 npi dung de cap den nhung van de c6 tinh thai su, quan trong, buc thiet doi vai cupc song hang ngay cua con nguai va xa hoi hien dai nhu: thien nhien, moi truang, dan so, doi moi tu duy, ling dung cong nghe thong tin... Cac van ban nhat dung, do do, rat da dang ve de tai va the loai. Mot so van ban con c6 nhieu net dac sac ve nghe thuat (bo cue, ngon tu, hinh anh, cac phep tu tir,...) vi dugc viet theo cac the loai cua van hoc. Muc dich cua viec doc hieu cac van ban nay la de nang cao y thuc trdch nhiem cua moi ca nhan d6i vai cdc van de ciia dai song xa hoi. * Van ban thong tin Trong chuang trinh giao due pho thong, mon Ngon ngu vk Van hoc ciia nhieu nuac tren the gidi hien nay xuat hien khai niem "van ban thong tin". Khai niem n^y cung da dugc nhieu nh^ khoa hoc giao due Ngu van trong nude quan tam va de cap den trong mot so cong trinh nghien ciiu. Van ban thong tin khac vdi van ban van hoc, chii yeu dugc viet de truyen dat thong tin hoae kien thiic. "Ve ca ban, chiing ta doc loai van ban nay de chuyen hoa cac thong tin hoae kien thiic trong van ban thanh tri thuc ciia minh vdi muc dich su dung luon trong hgc tap vk ddi song hoae l^m tu heu cho mai sau", "ngudi doc se CO hai tu tudng khi doc van ban thong tin, mot 1^ de trai nghiem; hai de dinh vi v^ ghi nhd thong tin. Do do, vdi hau het c^c van ban thong tin, su chii y cua ngudi doc se tap trung chu yeu vao nhirng dieu hp se thu dugc tu viec doc - tuc la thong tin chiia dung trong van ban."' Co the thay, van ban thong tin bao gid cung trinh bay thong tin mot each khdeh quan, cung cap thong tin ve doi tugng mot each chi tiet, giiip ngudi doc, ngudi nghe hieu nhilng gi dugc mo ta bang each to chuc hoae phan loai thong tin. Trong van ban, tdc gia su dung nhung each thuc hoae phuang tien/tinh nang de ho trg ngudi dgc trong viec tim kiem thong tin mot each nhanh chong va c6 hieu qua. Do c6 the la mot bang ngi dung, mot chi so, chu in dam hoae in nghieng, chu giai cho von tu vung chuyen nganh, dinh nghia tu vung ' B 6 Giao due D a c tac, S G V Ngit van 6, Tap mot, N X B Giao due, 2005, tr. 16. " Michael R. Graves, Teaching Reading in the 21" century: Motivating AULearmii. (5* Edition), 17 chuyen nganh, minh hoa cho hinh anh, ghi chii, chu thich d6 thi v& bieu d6... Nhimg tinh nang nay ciia van ban thong tin giiip nguai doc de dang hon trong viec dieu huong thong tin de hieu noi dung ciia no. Van ban thong tin thuang xuat hien trong sach gido khoa c^c mon hoc, cdc tM heu quang cao, c^c bao hoac trang web..., dugc viet theo cac phong each ngon ngu nhu sinh boat, bao chi, chinh luan, khoa hoc, hanh chinh. Chung c6 th8 la van ban duac in tren giay theo kieu truyen thong hoac la nhimg van ban ki thuat s6. Day la loai van ban rk pho bien v^ hSu dung trong hoc tap va doi song sinh boat ciia moi ca nhan. Vi vay, hoc sinh rat can duoc day hoc doc hieu loai van ban nay trong nh^ trucmg de ung dung vao thirc tiln. Sau day Ik dac diem cua mot so phong cich ngon ngu mk van ban thong tin thuang su dung: - Phong each ngon ngii sinh boat: Ik kieu dien dat duac su dung trong giao tiep hkng ngay, mang tinh chat tu nhien, thoai mai va sinh dong, giau cam xiic, it trau chu6t. Phong each ngon ngu sinh boat ton tai a ca dang noi va vilt. 6 dang noi, do \k nhitng Ion trd chuyen tdm tinh, tham hoi nhau, trao doi y kien ve nhimg cong viec va sic kien hang ngay,... O dang viet, do la cac hire thu tic ca. nhan, nhimg dong nhan tin, lini niem, nhat ki,... Dac trung ciia phong each ngon ngu: sinh boat: tinh ca thk; tinh sinh dong, cu thk; tinh cam xilc. - Phong each ngon ngu bdo ehi: la kieu dien dat duac su dung trong ckc van ban thuoc linh vuc truyen thong dai chiing, nhu van ban dung trong bdo in, d^ ph^t thanh, dM truyen hinh, bao tien tii,... Phong each ngon ngu bao chi dugc sii dung trong nhung loai van ban chinh nhu tin ticc, phong su, quang cao. Dac trung ciia phong ckch. ngon ngu b^o chi: tinh thong tin sir kien; tinh ngan gon; tinh hSp dan. - Phong cdeh ngon ngii chinh luan: \k kieu dien dat dugc sii dung trong c^c van ban true tiep b^y to tu tuang, lap truang, thdi do d6i vai nhung v§n de thiet thuc, nong bong cua doi song, dac biet trong cdc linh vuc chinh tri, xa hoi. C^e van ban n^y t6n tai a ca hai dang: viet v^ noi. d dang vilt la cac van ban tuyen ngon, bao cao chinh tri, xd hoi, binh luan chinh tri... (3 dang noi la cac hk\ thuyet, phdt bieu trong mit tinh, phdt bieu trong nghi thuc ngogi giao... Chiic nang ca ban cua van ban chinh luan \k tuyen truyen, c6 dong, giao due, thuyet phuc nguai doc, nguai nghe d^ ho eo nhan thiic va hanh dong diing. Dac trung cua phong edeh ngon ngu chinh luan: tinh cong khai ve quan diem, tu tuang, lap trucmg chinh tri, xa hoi; tinh chat che trong lap luan; tinh truyen cam manh me. - Phong each ngon ngu khoa hoe: la kieu dien dat dugc sii dvmg trong ckc van ban thuge linh vuc khoa hoc - cong nghe. Cac van ban nay t6n tai a ca hai dang: vik vk noi. Ci dang viet, do la cac van ban khoa hoe dang tai trong s^ch, hko. 6 dang noi, do 1^ ckc lai giang bai trong nha truang, lai thuyet tiinh, b^o cdo trong hoi thao khoa hoc... Dii a dang nao, van ban khoa hoc cQng thuang eo ba loai: van ban khoa hoc chuyen sau (cong trinh nghien cim, chuyen lugn, ludn an,...), van ban khoa hoc giao khoa {sdch gido khoa, gido trinh,...) va van ban khoa hoc pho cap {pho Men kien thuc khoa hoc pho thong,...). Dac trimg ciia phong each ngon ngu khoa hoc: tinh khai quat, trim tirgng; tinh li tri, logic; tinh khach quan, phi ca the. - Phong each ngon ngii hanh chinh: la kieu dien dat dugc sii dung trong cac van ban thuoc linh vuc giao dep dieu hanh va quan If xa hoi. Van ban hanh chinh chii yeu ton tai dudd dang viet, bao gom: van ban quy pham phap luat {hien phdp, cdc van ban luat, cdc van ban duai luat,...); van ban hoi nghi (bien ban, bdo cdo, de dn, nghi quy it,...); van ban thii tuc hanh chfnh {cong van, don tit, hap dong, van bang, hod don,...). Dac trung cua phong each ngon ngu hanh chinh: tinh khuon mau; tinh minh xac; tinh cong vu. b) Yeu cdu cua doc hieu van ban nhdt dung vd vdn bdn thong tin De on tap cho ki thi trung'hoc pho thong quoc gia, hoc sinh ckn huy dong nhung hieu biet ciia minh ve cac van de c6 tinh thai sir, quan trong, biic thiet doi vdi cuoc song hang ngay ciia con nguai v^ xa hoi hien dai nhu: thien nhien, moi trudng, dan so, doi moi tu duy, ung dung cong nghe thong tin...; nam vung cac phong each ngon ngir sinh boat, bao chi, chinh luan, khoa hoc, hanh chinh de doc hieu nhiing van ban nhat dung, van ban thong tin c6 npi dung va hinh thuc phu hop vdi trinh do ciia hoc sinh Idp 12. Khi doc hieu cac van ban nhat dung va van ban thong tin, ngudi doc can phai quan tam den viee nam duac vin de/thong tin chinh v^ y nghla xa hoi, giao due, thdi su, tu tudng... cua hai loai van ban nay. Tir do, ung dung nhung dieu da doc dugc v^o hoc tap V2i cuoc song. Vdi hai loai van ban nay, nhSt la van ban nhat dimg, thudng han chi dat ra van de tim hieu hinh thuc nghe thuat trong quA trinh doe. Co the tham khao quan niem ciia PISA trong viee d§ ra cac nhiem vu/noi dung doc hieu bdi c^c nhiem vu/noi dung doc hieu m^ PISA dua ra rat phii hop vdi loai van ban n^y. PISA 2012 cho rang khi doc hieu, ngudi doc phai h o ^ t h ^ nam nhiem vu doc, cung 1^ nam budc trong qud trinh doc hieu nhu sau: - Lay thong tin tir van ban. - Tao nen su hieu biet chung vg van ban. - Giai thieh v6 van ban. - Phan anh va danh gia ve npi dung cua van ban. - Phan anh va danh gia ve hinh thuc ciia van ban. ,x ^ Nam nhiem vu tren dugc to chuc thanh ba khia canh chinh: truy cap vd lay thong tin; tich hap vd gidi thich; phdn dnh vd ddnh gid. PISA 2012 con dua ra so do the hien moi quan he giua khung doc va cac khia canh cua doc' nhu sau: PISA 2012 Assessment and Analytical Framework Mathematics, Reading. Science, solving and Financial literacy (nguon: http://www.oecd.org). Problem 19
- Xem thêm -